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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Deriving generalizable methodological recommendations for machine learning methods that incorporate [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Suitability Evaluation of Urban Construction Land Based on an Approach of Vertical-Horizontal Processes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050198
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 20 May 2018
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Abstract
Suitability evaluation of urban construction land is critical for both urban master planning and the proper utilization of land resources. Using the Beihu New District of Jining City, China, as a case study, this paper introduces a novel research approach for comprehensive suitability
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Suitability evaluation of urban construction land is critical for both urban master planning and the proper utilization of land resources. Using the Beihu New District of Jining City, China, as a case study, this paper introduces a novel research approach for comprehensive suitability evaluation based on vertical-horizontal processes. First, by considering both the land development potential and ecological constraint resistance, the potential-resistance (PR) model was developed and used to analyze the suitability for urban construction of vertical processes. Then, given the results of the vertical suitability analysis, the current urban built-up areas were selected as the sources of urban expansion, and the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model was applied to evaluate the suitability for urban development in terms of horizontal processes. The study area was regionalized into four categories—priority, suitable, restricted, and prohibited areas—which were defined based on the development threshold. The results showed that restricted and prohibited areas for urban construction occupied most of the study area. Totally, 648.51 km2 was categorized as restricted or prohibited, accounting for 12.89% and 54.75% of the total area, respectively. Priority and suitable areas for urban construction covered a total area of 310.37 km2, accounting for 16.55% and 15.81% of the total area, respectively. These areas were mainly distributed around urban centers and urban built-up areas. These findings reflect the substantial potential for future urban development and construction in the study area. The newly developed principles and methods of suitability evaluation for urban construction land presented in this paper provide more appropriate scales and spatial location for urban development and an ecological baseline for future urban growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Open AccessArticle 2D Cartography Training: Has the Time Come for a Paradigm Shift?
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050197
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
2D maps with contour lines can be difficult for students to visualize in three-dimensions to interpret relief. Despite this challenge, teaching based on 2D contour lines is still used, which could generate frustration/motivation problems among students. Recently, strategies based on 3D technologies such
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2D maps with contour lines can be difficult for students to visualize in three-dimensions to interpret relief. Despite this challenge, teaching based on 2D contour lines is still used, which could generate frustration/motivation problems among students. Recently, strategies based on 3D technologies such as Augmented Reality (AR) have proven to be motivating for students. Has the time come for a paradigm shift in the teaching of land interpretation/representation? The present paper shows the results of an experiment in which 41 engineering students of the subject Cartography performed an activity with 2D contour lines. The impact on students’ motivation was compared with AR. In addition, data about efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction were assessed. Results showed that traditional 2D contour line activities were less motivating for students, compared to AR. However, students perceived that doing 2D exercises made them more competent than with AR, although they reported that the 2D exercises required more effort. In terms of participant’s spatial reasoning acquisition, 2D strategies offered results similar to AR. Overall, these results suggest that 2D teaching methodologies are still effective and can be complemented by the use of innovative 3D visualization technologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Location-Based Social Media Data to Observe Check-In Behavior and Gender Difference: Bringing Weibo Data into Play
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050196
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Population density and distribution of services represents the growth and demographic shift of the cities. For urban planners, population density and check-in behavior in space and time are vital factors for planning and development of sustainable cities. Location-based social network (LBSN) data seems
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Population density and distribution of services represents the growth and demographic shift of the cities. For urban planners, population density and check-in behavior in space and time are vital factors for planning and development of sustainable cities. Location-based social network (LBSN) data seems to be a complement to many traditional methods (i.e., survey, census) and is used to study check-in behavior, human mobility, activity analysis, and social issues within a city. This check-in phenomenon of sharing location, activities, and time by users has encouraged this research on gender difference and frequency of using LBSN. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the check-in behavior of Chinese microblog Sina Weibo (referred as “Weibo”) in 10 districts of Shanghai, China, for which we observe the gender difference and their frequency of use over a period. The mentioned districts were spatially analyzed for check-in spots by kernel density estimation (KDE) using ArcGIS. Furthermore, our results reveal that female users have a high rate of social media use, and significant difference is observed in check-in behavior during weekdays and weekends in the studied districts of Shanghai. Increase in check-ins is observed during the night as compared to the morning. From the results, it can be assumed that LBSN data can be helpful to observe gender difference. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Endmember Initialization Scheme for Nonnegative Matrix Factorization and Its Application in Hyperspectral Unmixing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050195
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a blind source separation (BSS) method often used in hyperspectral unmixing. However, it tends to converge to a local optimum. To overcome this limitation, we present a simple, but effective endmember initialization scheme for NMF, which is realized
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Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a blind source separation (BSS) method often used in hyperspectral unmixing. However, it tends to converge to a local optimum. To overcome this limitation, we present a simple, but effective endmember initialization scheme for NMF, which is realized by improving initial values through the application of the automatic target generation process (ATGP) algorithm. The initial spectra and abundances of target endmembers are first obtained using the ATGP algorithm and nonnegative least squares (NNLS) method, respectively. The preliminary results are then optimized through iterative application of NMF. To validate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method, we analyzed the improvement of NMF by the ATGP algorithm, using the synthetic hyperspectral data and real hyperspectral images. The results from the proposed method are compared with those of the vertex component analysis (VCA)-NMF algorithm, which uses the VCA algorithm to perform initialization for NMF, the minimum volume constrained NMF (MVC-NMF) algorithm, the traditional two-step VCA-fully-constrained least squares (FCLS) algorithm, which uses the VCA to extract the endmember matrix, and the FCLS algorithm to estimate the abundance matrix. The comparison results prove that proper endmember initialization can help the NMF algorithm yield better estimation results. Through the optimization of target endmembers’ initial values, the proposed ATGP-NMF algorithm can consistently produce good results at a lower computational cost, especially in the case of a real hyperspectral image for which pure pixels do not exist and there is little prior knowledge. With its high applicability and effectiveness, the ATGP-NMF algorithm has a great potential to solve hyperspectral unmixing problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Formalized 3D Geovisualization Illustrated to Selectivity Purpose of Virtual 3D City Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050194
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Virtual 3D city models act as valuable central information hubs supporting many aspects of cities, from management to planning and simulation. However, we noted that 3D city models are still underexploited and believe that this is partly due to inefficient visual communication channels
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Virtual 3D city models act as valuable central information hubs supporting many aspects of cities, from management to planning and simulation. However, we noted that 3D city models are still underexploited and believe that this is partly due to inefficient visual communication channels across 3D model producers and the end-user. With the development of a formalized 3D geovisualization approach, this paper aims to support and make the visual identification and recognition of specific objects in the 3D models more efficient and useful. The foundation of the proposed solution is a knowledge network of the visualization of 3D geospatial data that gathers and links mapping and rendering techniques. To formalize this knowledge base and make it usable as a decision-making system for the selection of styles, second-order logic is used. It provides a first set of efficient graphic design guidelines, avoiding the creation of graphical conflicts and thus improving visual communication. An interactive tool is implemented and lays the foundation for a suitable solution for assisting the visualization process of 3D geospatial models within CAD and GIS-oriented software. Ultimately, we propose an extension to OGC Symbology Encoding in order to provide suitable graphic design guidelines to web mapping services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Implementation of a Parallel GPU-Based Space-Time Kriging Framework
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050193
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
In the study of spatiotemporal geographical phenomena, the space–time interpolation method is widely applied, and the demands for computing speed and accuracy are increasing. For nonprofessional modelers, utilizing the space–time interpolation method quickly is a challenge. To solve this problem, the classical ordinary
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In the study of spatiotemporal geographical phenomena, the space–time interpolation method is widely applied, and the demands for computing speed and accuracy are increasing. For nonprofessional modelers, utilizing the space–time interpolation method quickly is a challenge. To solve this problem, the classical ordinary kriging algorithm was selected and expanded to a spatiotemporal kriging algorithm. Using the OpenCL framework to integrate central processing unit (CPU) and graphic processing unit (GPU) computing resources, a parallel spatiotemporal kriging algorithm was implemented, and three experiments were conducted in this work to verify the results. The results indicated the following: (1) when the size of the prediction point dataset is consistent, the performance of the method is robust with the increasing size of the observation point dataset; (2) the acceleration effect of the parallel method increases with an increased number of predicted points. Compared with the original sequential program, the implementation of the improved parallel framework showed a 3.23 speedup, which obviously shortens the interpolation time; (3) when cross-validating the temperature data in the Beijing Tianjin Hebei region, the space–time acceleration model provides a better fit than traditional pure space interpolation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Cartographical Quality of Urban Plans by Eye-Tracking
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050192
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes a study of the evaluation of cartographic quality of urban plans in the Czech Republic using eye-tracking. Although map visualization is a crucial part of the urban planning process, only a few studies have focused on the evaluation of these
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This paper describes a study of the evaluation of cartographic quality of urban plans in the Czech Republic using eye-tracking. Although map visualization is a crucial part of the urban planning process, only a few studies have focused on the evaluation of these maps. The plans of four Czech cities with different styles of visualization and legends were used in this eye-tracking experiment. Respondents were required to solve spatial tasks consisting of finding and marking a certain symbol on a map. Statistical analyses of various eye-tracking metrics were used, and the differences between experts and students and between the map and legend sections of the stimuli were explored. The study results showed that the quality of map symbols and the map legend significantly influence the legibility and understandability of urban plans. For correct decision-making, it is essential to produce maps according to certain standards, to make them as clear as possible, and to perform usability testing on them. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Supporting Facility Management Processes through End-Users’ Integration and Coordinated BIM-GIS Technologies
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050191
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
The integration of facility management and building information modelling (BIM) is an innovative and critical undertaking process to support facility maintenance and management. Even though recent research has proposed various methods and performed an increasing number of case studies, there are still issues
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The integration of facility management and building information modelling (BIM) is an innovative and critical undertaking process to support facility maintenance and management. Even though recent research has proposed various methods and performed an increasing number of case studies, there are still issues of communication processes to be addressed. This paper presents a theoretical framework for digital systems integration of virtual models and smart technologies. Based on the comprehensive analysis of existing technologies for indoor localization, a new workflow is defined and designed, and it is utilized in a practical case study to test the model performance. In the new workflow, a facility management supporting platform is proposed and characterized, featuring indoor positioning systems to allow end users to send geo-referenced reports to central virtual models. In addition, system requirements, information technology (IT) architecture and application procedures are presented. Results show that the integration of end users in the maintenance processes through smart and easy tools can overcome the existing limits of barcode systems and building management systems for failure localization. The proposed framework offers several advantages. First, it allows the identification of every element of an asset including wide physical building elements (walls, floors, etc.) without requiring a prior mapping. Second, the entire cycle of maintenance activities is managed through a unique integrated system including the territorial dimension. Third, data are collected in a standard structure for future uses. Furthermore, the integration of the process in a centralized BIM-GIS (geographical information system) information management system admit a scalable representation of the information supporting facility management processes in terms of assets and supply chain management and monitoring from a spatial perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Smartphone-Based System for Outdoor Data Gathering Using a Wireless Beacon Network and GPS Data: From Cyber Spaces to Senseable Spaces
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050190
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and mobile devices are deeply influencing all facets of life, directly affecting the way people experience space and time. ICTs are also tools for supporting urban development, and they have also been adopted as equipment for furnishing public
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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and mobile devices are deeply influencing all facets of life, directly affecting the way people experience space and time. ICTs are also tools for supporting urban development, and they have also been adopted as equipment for furnishing public spaces. Hence, ICTs have created a new paradigm of hybrid space that can be defined as Senseable Spaces. Even if there are relevant cases where the adoption of ICT has made the use of public open spaces more “smart”, the interrelation and the recognition of added value need to be further developed. This is one of the motivations for the research presented in this paper. The main goal of the work reported here is the deployment of a system composed of three different connected elements (a real-world infrastructure, a data gathering system, and a data processing and analysis platform) for analysis of human behavior in the open space of Cardeto Park, in Ancona, Italy. For this purpose, and because of the complexity of this task, several actions have been carried out: the deployment of a complete real-world infrastructure in Cardeto Park, the implementation of an ad-hoc smartphone application for the gathering of participants’ data, and the development of a data pre-processing and analysis system for dealing with all the gathered data. A detailed description of these three aspects and the way in which they are connected to create a unique system is the main focus of this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Geographic Factors on Information Dissemination in Mobile Social Networks in China: Evidence from WeChat
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050189
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
Mobile social networking services provide efficient and easy communication, enabling users to create, retrieve and disseminate messages on the go while making their messages widely available. Despite growing evidence suggesting that geographic location and distance restrict online communication and interaction patterns, the role
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Mobile social networking services provide efficient and easy communication, enabling users to create, retrieve and disseminate messages on the go while making their messages widely available. Despite growing evidence suggesting that geographic location and distance restrict online communication and interaction patterns, the role of geographic factors on the information dissemination in mobile social networks is often overlooked. We conducted a large-scale analysis on how the geographic factors influence the information dissemination in mobile social networks, by using two different datasets which recorded billions of users’ viewing and forwarding activities corresponding as well as the temporal and geographic information. The effects of two geographic factors, namely location and distance, on the probability and velocity of information dissemination were explored by measuring the geographic distribution of the four key indicators, namely viewing probability, forwarding probability, response time, and decision-making time. The results verify the distance decay effect of the information dissemination probability, and demonstrate that the velocity of information dissemination is not dependent on geographic distance. Furthermore, both the probability and velocity of information dissemination show heterogeneity and diversity of geographic location. Our research makes up for the gap in the relationship between geographic factors and information dissemination in mobile social networks. Our findings can provide suggestions for mobile social services, public opinion regulation and precision marketing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Analysis of System Calibration between Optical Camera and Range Finder
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050188
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes the comprehensive analysis of system calibration between an optical camera and a range finder. The results suggest guidelines for accurate and efficient system calibration enabling high-quality data fusion. First, self-calibration procedures were carried out using a testbed designed for both
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This paper describes the comprehensive analysis of system calibration between an optical camera and a range finder. The results suggest guidelines for accurate and efficient system calibration enabling high-quality data fusion. First, self-calibration procedures were carried out using a testbed designed for both the optical camera and range finder. The interior orientation parameters of the utilized sensors were precisely computed. Afterwards, 92 system calibration experiments were carried out according to different approaches and data configurations. For comparison of the various experimental results, two measures, namely the matching rate of fusion data and the standard deviation of relative orientation parameters derived after system calibration procedures, were considered. Among the 92 experimental cases, the best result (the matching rate of 99.08%) was shown for the use of the one-step system calibration method and six datasets from multiple columns. Also, the root mean square values of the residuals after the self- and system calibrations were less than 0.8 and 0.6 pixels, respectively. In an overall evaluation, it was confirmed that the one-step system calibration method using four or more datasets provided more stable and accurate relative orientation parameters and data fusion results than the other cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle hackAIR: Towards Raising Awareness about Air Quality in Europe by Developing a Collective Online Platform
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050187
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
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Abstract
Although air pollution is one of the most significant environmental factors posing a threat to human health worldwide, air quality data are scarce or not easily accessible in most European countries. The current work aims to develop a centralized air quality data hub
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Although air pollution is one of the most significant environmental factors posing a threat to human health worldwide, air quality data are scarce or not easily accessible in most European countries. The current work aims to develop a centralized air quality data hub that enables citizens to contribute to air quality monitoring. In this work, data from official air quality monitoring stations are combined with air pollution estimates from sky-depicting photos and from low-cost sensing devices that citizens build on their own so that citizens receive improved information about the quality of the air they breathe. Additionally, a data fusion algorithm merges air quality information from various sources to provide information in areas where no air quality measurements exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformatics in Citizen Science)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of QZSS Augmenting GPS and BDS Single-Frequency Single-Epoch Positioning with Actual Data in Asia-Pacific Region
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050186
Received: 25 March 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) service area covers the Asia-Pacific region and there are four quasi-zenith satellites (QZS) in orbit with three QZS in operation until March 2018. The QZSS is not required to work in a stand-alone mode, but the system can
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The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) service area covers the Asia-Pacific region and there are four quasi-zenith satellites (QZS) in orbit with three QZS in operation until March 2018. The QZSS is not required to work in a stand-alone mode, but the system can be used to enhance the Global Positioning System (GPS) or Beidou Satellite Navigation System (BDS). The availability, position dilution of precision (PDOP), ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP), and success rate of GPS/QZSS and BDS/QZSS under different cut-off elevation angles were compared based on a simulation. Two sets of actual QZSS data were processed and analyzed for single-frequency single-epoch (SFSE) positioning together with GPS/BDS data in this paper. Different combination forms were executed to evaluate the positioning performance of GPS/QZSS and BDS/QZSS for two baseline cases. The results indicate that QZSS is able to increase the SFSE PDOP, ADOP, and success rate of the baseline resolution and decrease the position error for GPS or BDS, especially for longer GPS baseline data. The more QZS are used, the better the enhancement effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Allocation of Tutors and Study Centers in Distance Learning Using Geospatial Technologies
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050185
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is Pakistan’s largest distance learning institute, providing education to 1.4 million students. This is a fairly large setup across a country where students are highly geographically distributed. Currently, the system works using a manual approach, which is not
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Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is Pakistan’s largest distance learning institute, providing education to 1.4 million students. This is a fairly large setup across a country where students are highly geographically distributed. Currently, the system works using a manual approach, which is not efficient. Allocation of tutors and study centers to students plays a key role in creating a better learning environment for distance learning. Assigning tutors and study centers to distance learning students is a challenging task when there is a huge geographic spread. Using geospatial technologies in open and distance learning can fix allocation problems. This research analyzes real data from the twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The results show that geospatial technologies can be used for efficient and proper resource utilization and allocation, which in turn can save time and money. The overall idea fits into an improved distance learning framework and related analytics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrating Risk Assessment into Spatial Planning: RiskOTe Decision Support System
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050184
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
The way in which risk maps are used in decision support processes for spatial planning at local scale is critical to helping decision makers in the definition of a prevention strategy to minimize risks. This paper presents a spatial decision support system that
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The way in which risk maps are used in decision support processes for spatial planning at local scale is critical to helping decision makers in the definition of a prevention strategy to minimize risks. This paper presents a spatial decision support system that is developed to assist spatial planning by integrating the risk management component at municipal level. For the development of the RiskOTe tool, a semi-quantitative risk assessment model was used that assumes risk management to be comprehensive with respect to the type of hazard, vulnerability and risk minimization measures. In this paper, the components for the development of the spatial decision support system are identified, described and implemented using the municipality of Oeiras, in Portugal, as case study. The use of the system allowed the generation of multiple scenarios and outcomes. The results demonstrate that decision-making on the transformation of land uses by integrating risk analysis can be supported on a solid basis of information obtained from a spatial decision support system. Full article
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