Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Transcriptional Control of Cell Lineage Development in Epicardium-Derived Cells
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1(2), 112-125; doi:10.3390/jdb1020112

Epicardium Formation as a Sensor in Toxicology

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, 777 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53705, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epicardial Development and Cardiovascular Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [184 KB, uploaded 24 July 2013]   |  


Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an excellent vertebrate model for studying heart development, regeneration and cardiotoxicity. Zebrafish embryos exposed during the temporal window of epicardium development to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exhibit severe heart malformations. TCDD exposure prevents both proepicardial organ (PE) and epicardium development. Exposure later in development, after the epicardium has formed, does not produce cardiac toxicity. It is not until the adult zebrafish heart is stimulated to regenerate does TCDD again cause detrimental effects. TCDD exposure prior to ventricular resection prevents cardiac regeneration. It is likely that TCDD-induced inhibition of epicardium development and cardiac regeneration occur via a common mechanism. Here, we describe experiments that focus on the epicardium as a target and sensor of zebrafish heart toxicity.
Keywords: epicardium; proepicardium; TCDD; AHR; heart regeneration epicardium; proepicardium; TCDD; AHR; heart regeneration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hofsteen, P.; Plavicki, J.; Peterson, R.E.; Heideman, W. Epicardium Formation as a Sensor in Toxicology. J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1, 112-125.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top