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J. Dev. Biol., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 72-157

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Retinoic Acid, under Cerebrospinal Fluid Control, Induces Neurogenesis during Early Brain Development
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(2), 72-83; doi:10.3390/jdb2020072
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the more intriguing subjects in neuroscience is how a precursor or stem cell is induced to differentiate into a neuron. Neurogenesis begins early in brain development and suddenly becomes a very intense process, which is related with the influence of [...] Read more.
One of the more intriguing subjects in neuroscience is how a precursor or stem cell is induced to differentiate into a neuron. Neurogenesis begins early in brain development and suddenly becomes a very intense process, which is related with the influence of Retinoic Acid. Here, using a biological test (F9-1.8 cells) in chick embryos, we show that “in vivo” embryonic cerebrospinal fluid regulates mesencephalic-rombencephalic Isthmic Retinoic Acid synthesis and this effect has a direct influence on mesencephalic neuroepithelial precursors, inducing a significant increase in neurogenesis. This effect is mediated by the Retinol Binding Protein present in the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid. The knowledge of embryonic neurogenetic stimulus could be useful in the control of adult brain neurogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Epicardium in the Embryonic and Adult Zebrafish
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(2), 101-116; doi:10.3390/jdb2020101
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 11 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The epicardium is the mesothelial outer layer of the vertebrate heart. It plays an important role during cardiac development by, among other functions, nourishing the underlying myocardium, contributing to cardiac fibroblasts and giving rise to the coronary vasculature. The epicardium also exerts [...] Read more.
The epicardium is the mesothelial outer layer of the vertebrate heart. It plays an important role during cardiac development by, among other functions, nourishing the underlying myocardium, contributing to cardiac fibroblasts and giving rise to the coronary vasculature. The epicardium also exerts key functions during injury responses in the adult and contributes to cardiac repair. In this article, we review current knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying epicardium formation in the zebrafish, a teleost fish, which is rapidly gaining status as an animal model in cardiovascular research, and compare it with the mechanisms described in other vertebrate models. We moreover describe the expression patterns of a subset of available zebrafish Wilms’ tumor 1 transgenic reporter lines and discuss their specificity, applicability and limitations in the study of epicardium formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epicardial Development and Cardiovascular Disease)

Review

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Open AccessReview Epicardium-Derived Heart Repair
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(2), 84-100; doi:10.3390/jdb2020084
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 April 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decade, cell replacement therapy has emerged as a potential approach to treat patients suffering from myocardial infarction (MI). The transplantation or local stimulation of progenitor cells with the ability to form new cardiac tissue provides a novel strategy to [...] Read more.
In the last decade, cell replacement therapy has emerged as a potential approach to treat patients suffering from myocardial infarction (MI). The transplantation or local stimulation of progenitor cells with the ability to form new cardiac tissue provides a novel strategy to overcome the massive loss of myocardium after MI. In this regard the epicardium, the outer layer of the heart, is a tractable local progenitor cell population for therapeutic pursuit. The epicardium has a crucial role in formation of the embryonic heart. After activation and migration into the developing myocardium, epicardial cells differentiate into several cardiac cells types. Additionally, the epicardium provides instructive signals for the growth of the myocardium and coronary angiogenesis. In the adult heart, the epicardium is quiescent, but recent evidence suggests that it becomes reactivated upon damage and recapitulates at least part of its embryonic functions. In this review we provide an update on the current knowledge regarding the contribution of epicardial cells to the adult mammalian heart during the injury response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epicardial Development and Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessReview Epicardial Origin of Resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Heart
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(2), 117-137; doi:10.3390/jdb2020117
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The discovery of stem and progenitor cells in the adult mammalian heart has added a vital dimension to the field of cardiac regeneration. Cardiac-resident stem cells are likely sequestered as reserve cells within myocardial niches during the course of embryonic cardiogenesis, although [...] Read more.
The discovery of stem and progenitor cells in the adult mammalian heart has added a vital dimension to the field of cardiac regeneration. Cardiac-resident stem cells are likely sequestered as reserve cells within myocardial niches during the course of embryonic cardiogenesis, although they may also be recruited from external sources, such as bone marrow. As we begin to understand the nature of cardiac-resident stem and progenitor cells using a variety of approaches, it is evident that they possess an identity embedded within their gene regulatory networks that favours cardiovascular lineage potential. In addition to contributing lineage descendants, cardiac stem cells may also be stress sensors, offering trophic cues to other cell types, including cardiomyocytes and vasculature cells, and likely other stem cells and immune cells, during adaptation and repair. This presents numerous possibilities for endogenous cardiac stem and progenitor cells to be used in cell therapies or as targets in heart rejuvenation. In this review, we focus on the epicardium as an endogenous source of multi-potential mesenchymal progenitor cells in development and as a latent source of such progenitors in the adult. We track the origin and plasticity of the epicardium in embryos and adults in both homeostasis and disease. In this context, we ask whether directed activation of epicardium-derived progenitor cells might have therapeutic application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epicardial Development and Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessReview Molecular Control of Interdigital Cell Death and Cell Differentiation by Retinoic Acid during Digit Development
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(2), 138-157; doi:10.3390/jdb2020138
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The precise coordination of cell death and cell differentiation during the formation of developing digits is essential for generating properly shaped limbs. Retinoic acid (RA) has a fundamental role in digit development; it promotes or inhibits the molecular expression of several critical [...] Read more.
The precise coordination of cell death and cell differentiation during the formation of developing digits is essential for generating properly shaped limbs. Retinoic acid (RA) has a fundamental role in digit development; it promotes or inhibits the molecular expression of several critical genes. This control of gene expression establishes molecular cascades that enable both the commencement of cell death and the inhibition of cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on the antagonistic functions between RA and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in the control of cell death and between RA and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling in the control of cell differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)

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