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J. Dev. Biol., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Developmental Biology in 2016
J. Dev. Biol. 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jdb5010001
Received: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Review

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Open AccessReview Sonic Hedgehog—‘Jack-of-All-Trades’ in Neural Circuit Formation
J. Dev. Biol. 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jdb5010002
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 1 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
As reflected by the term morphogen, molecules such as Shh and Wnts were identified based on their role in early development when they instruct precursor cells to adopt a specific cell fate. Only much later were they implicated in neural circuit formation. Both
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As reflected by the term morphogen, molecules such as Shh and Wnts were identified based on their role in early development when they instruct precursor cells to adopt a specific cell fate. Only much later were they implicated in neural circuit formation. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that morphogens direct axons during their navigation through the developing nervous system. Today, the best understood role of Shh and Wnt in axon guidance is their effect on commissural axons in the spinal cord. Shh was shown to affect commissural axons both directly and indirectly via its effect on Wnt signaling. In fact, throughout neural circuit formation there is cross-talk and collaboration of Shh and Wnt signaling. Thus, although the focus of this review is on the role of Shh in neural circuit formation, a separation from Wnt signaling is not possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hedgehog Signaling in Embryogenesis)
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Open AccessReview Canonical Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Early Lung Development
J. Dev. Biol. 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jdb5010003
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
The canonical hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is of major importance during embryonic development. HH is a key regulatory morphogen of numerous cellular processes, namely, cell growth and survival, differentiation, migration, and tissue polarity. Overall, it is able to trigger tissue-specific responses that, ultimately,
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The canonical hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is of major importance during embryonic development. HH is a key regulatory morphogen of numerous cellular processes, namely, cell growth and survival, differentiation, migration, and tissue polarity. Overall, it is able to trigger tissue-specific responses that, ultimately, contribute to the formation of a fully functional organism. Of all three HH proteins, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) plays an essential role during lung development. In fact, abnormal levels of this secreted protein lead to severe foregut defects and lung hypoplasia. Canonical SHH signal transduction relies on the presence of transmembrane receptors, such as Patched1 and Smoothened, accessory proteins, as Hedgehog-interacting protein 1, and intracellular effector proteins, like GLI transcription factors. Altogether, this complex signaling machinery contributes to conveying SHH response. Pulmonary morphogenesis is deeply dependent on SHH and on its molecular interactions with other signaling pathways. In this review, the role of SHH in early stages of lung development, specifically in lung specification, primary bud formation, and branching morphogenesis is thoroughly reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hedgehog Signaling in Embryogenesis)
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