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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Distributed Routing and Channel Selection for Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 10; doi:10.3390/jsan6030010
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
We propose a joint channel selection and quality aware routing scheme for multi-channel wireless sensor networks that apply asynchronous duty cycling to conserve energy, which is common in many environmental monitoring applications. Energy resources may vary from node to node due to differential
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We propose a joint channel selection and quality aware routing scheme for multi-channel wireless sensor networks that apply asynchronous duty cycling to conserve energy, which is common in many environmental monitoring applications. Energy resources may vary from node to node due to differential consumption as well as availability, as observed in rechargeable sensor networks. A data collection traffic pattern is assumed, where all sensor nodes periodically forward sensor data to a centralized base station (sink). Under these assumptions, the effect of overhearing dominates the energy consumption of the nodes. The proposed scheme achieves lifetime improvement by reducing the energy consumed in overhearing and also by dynamically balancing the lifetimes of nodes. Performance evaluations are presented from experimental tests as well as from extensive simulation studies, which show that the proposed scheme reduces overhearing by ∼60% with just 2 channels without significantly affecting the network performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rechargeable Sensor Networks: Technology, Protocols, and Algorithms)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Ultrasound-Based Localization System Using Sine Wave Detector and CAN Network
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 12; doi:10.3390/jsan6030012
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents an improved indoor localization system based on radio frequency (RF) and ultrasonic signals, which we named the SNSH system. This system is composed of a transmitter mounted in a mobile target and a series of receiver nodes that are managed
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This paper presents an improved indoor localization system based on radio frequency (RF) and ultrasonic signals, which we named the SNSH system. This system is composed of a transmitter mounted in a mobile target and a series of receiver nodes that are managed by a coordinator. By measuring the Time Delay of Arrival (TDoA) of RF and ultrasonic signals from the transmitter, the distance from the target to each receiver node is calculated and sent to the coordinator through the CAN network, then all the information is gathered in a PC to estimate the 3D position of the target. A sine wave detector and dynamic threshold filter are applied to provide excellent accuracy in measuring the range from the TDoA results before multilateration algorithms are realized to optimize the accuracy of coordinate determination. Specifically, Linear Least Square (LLS) and Nonlinear Least Square (NLS) techniques are implemented to contrast their performances in target coordinate estimation. RF signal encoding/decoding time, time delay in CAN network and math calculation time are carefully considered to ensure optimal system performance and prepare for field application. Experiments show that the sine wave detector algorithm has greatly improved the accuracy of range measurement, with a mean error of 2.2 mm and maximum error of 6.7 mm for distances below 5 m. In addition, 3D position accuracy is greatly enhanced by multilateration methods, with the mean error in position remaining under 15 mm. Furthermore, there are 90% confidence error values of 23 mm for LLS and 20 mm for NLS. The update in the overall system has been verified in real system operations, with a maximum rate of 25 ms, which is a better result than many other existing studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Homes: Current Status and Future Possibilities)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Analyzing the Relationship between Human Behavior and Indoor Air Quality
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 13; doi:10.3390/jsan6030013
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
In the coming decades, as we experience global population growth and global aging issues, there will be corresponding concerns about the quality of the air we experience inside and outside buildings. Because we can anticipate that there will be behavioral changes that accompany
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In the coming decades, as we experience global population growth and global aging issues, there will be corresponding concerns about the quality of the air we experience inside and outside buildings. Because we can anticipate that there will be behavioral changes that accompany population growth and aging, we examine the relationship between home occupant behavior and indoor air quality. To do this, we collect both sensor-based behavior data and chemical indoor air quality measurements in smart home environments. We introduce a novel machine learning-based approach to quantify the correlation between smart home features and chemical measurements of air quality, and evaluate the approach using two smart homes. The findings may help us understand the types of behavior that measurably impact indoor air quality. This information could help us plan for the future by developing an automated building system that would be used as part of a smart city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Homes: Current Status and Future Possibilities)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Cooperative MAC Protocol for Navigation Carrier Ad Hoc Networks: A DiffServ-Based Approach
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 14; doi:10.3390/jsan6030014
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a dynamic cooperative MAC protocol (DDC-MAC) based on cluster network topology is proposed, which has the capability of differentiated service mechanisms and long-range communication. In DDC-MAC, heterogeneous communications are classified according to service types and quality of service (QoS) requirements,
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In this paper, a dynamic cooperative MAC protocol (DDC-MAC) based on cluster network topology is proposed, which has the capability of differentiated service mechanisms and long-range communication. In DDC-MAC, heterogeneous communications are classified according to service types and quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., periodic communication mode (PC mode) is extracted with a QoS guarantee for high-frequency periodic information exchange based on adapt-TDMA mechanisms, while other services are classified as being in on-demand communication mode (OC mode), which includes channel contention and access mechanisms based on a multiple priority algorithm. OC mode is embedded into the adapt-TDMA process adaptively, and the two communication modes can work in parallel. Furthermore, adaptive array hybrid antenna systems and cooperative communication with optimal relay are presented, to exploit the opportunity for long-range transmission, while an adaptive channel back-off sequence is deduced, to mitigate packet collision and network congestion. Moreover, we developed an analytical framework to quantify the performance of the DDC-MAC protocol and conducted extensive simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed DDC-MAC protocol enhances network performance in diverse scenarios, and significantly improves network throughput and reduces average delay compared with other MAC protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle On-Line RSSI-Range Model Learning for Target Localization and Tracking
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 15; doi:10.3390/jsan6030015
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
The interactions of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) with the environment are very difficult to be modeled, inducing significant errors in RSSI-range models and highly disturbing target localization and tracking methods. Some techniques adopt a training-based approach in which they off-line learn the
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The interactions of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) with the environment are very difficult to be modeled, inducing significant errors in RSSI-range models and highly disturbing target localization and tracking methods. Some techniques adopt a training-based approach in which they off-line learn the RSSI-range characteristics of the environment in a prior training phase. However, the training phase is a time-consuming process and must be repeated in case of changes in the environment, constraining flexibility and adaptability. This paper presents schemes in which each anchor node on-line learns its RSSI-range models adapted to the particularities of its environment and then uses its trained model for target localization and tracking. Two methods are presented. The first uses the information of the location of anchor nodes to dynamically adapt the RSSI-range model. In the second one, each anchor node uses estimates of the target location –anchor nodes are assumed equipped with cameras—to on-line adapt its RSSI-range model. The paper presents both methods, describes their operation integrated in localization and tracking schemes and experimentally evaluates their performance in the UBILOC testbed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks and Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Can a Network Attack Be Simulated in an Emulated Environment for Network Security Training?
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 16; doi:10.3390/jsan6030016
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper outlines a tool developed with the purpose of creating a simple configurable emulated network environment that can be used in cyber defence exercises. Research has been conducted into the various related subject areas: cyber defence exercises, network threats, network emulation, network
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This paper outlines a tool developed with the purpose of creating a simple configurable emulated network environment that can be used in cyber defence exercises. Research has been conducted into the various related subject areas: cyber defence exercises, network threats, network emulation, network traffic replay, network topologies, and common network services. From this research a requirements specification was produced to encapsulate the features required to create this tool. A network, containing many of the aspects researched, was designed and implemented using Netkit-NG to act as a blueprint for the tool and to further knowledge in the construction of an emulated network. Following this the tool was developed and tested to ensure requirements were met. Full article
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Open AccessArticle RedEdge: A Novel Architecture for Big Data Processing in Mobile Edge Computing Environments
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 17; doi:10.3390/jsan6030017
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
We are witnessing the emergence of new big data processing architectures due to the convergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs), edge computing and cloud computing. Existing big data processing architectures are underpinned by the transfer of raw data streams to the cloud
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We are witnessing the emergence of new big data processing architectures due to the convergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs), edge computing and cloud computing. Existing big data processing architectures are underpinned by the transfer of raw data streams to the cloud computing environment for processing and analysis. This operation is expensive and fails to meet the real-time processing needs of IoT applications. In this article, we present and evaluate a novel big data processing architecture named RedEdge (i.e., data reduction on the edge) that incorporates mechanism to facilitate the processing of big data streams near the source of the data. The RedEdge model leverages mobile IoT-termed mobile edge devices as primary data processing platforms. However, in the case of the unavailability of computational and battery power resources, it offloads data streams in nearer mobile edge devices or to the cloud. We evaluate the RedEdge architecture and the related mechanism within a real-world experiment setting involving 12 mobile users. The experimental evaluation reveals that the RedEdge model has the capability to reduce big data stream by up to 92.86% without compromising energy and memory consumption on mobile edge devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Approach to Estimating the Path Loss in Underground Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 18; doi:10.3390/jsan6030018
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Unlike terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication between buried nodes in WUSNs happens through the ground. Due to the complexity of soil, accurate estimation of the underground signal attenuation is challenging. Existing path loss models mainly rely on semi-empirical and empirical mixing models
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Unlike terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication between buried nodes in WUSNs happens through the ground. Due to the complexity of soil, accurate estimation of the underground signal attenuation is challenging. Existing path loss models mainly rely on semi-empirical and empirical mixing models for calculating the dielectric properties of the soil. In this paper, two existing models for estimating the path loss in soil (i.e., the CRIM-Fresnel and Modified-Friis models) are compared with measurements obtained at three locations. In addition, an improved method is proposed for estimating the path loss based on a new approach for calculating the dielectric properties of soil from Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements. The proposed approach calculates the complex permittivity values from TDR waveform based on a new modified method and subsequently use them as inputs into the Modified-Friis model. The results from the field trials were compared with the proposed method and the existing models. The results of this comparison showed that the proposed estimation technique provides a better estimation of Radio Frequency (RF) attenuation than the existing models. It also eliminates the need to take samples back to the laboratory by providing in situ calculation of attenuation based on TDR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced IoT-Based End-To-End Emergency and Disaster Relief System
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 19; doi:10.3390/jsan6030019
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we present a new enhancement for an emergency and disaster relief system called Critical and Rescue Operations using Wearable Wireless sensors networks (CROW2). We address the reliability challenges in setting up a wireless autonomous communication system in order
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In this paper, we present a new enhancement for an emergency and disaster relief system called Critical and Rescue Operations using Wearable Wireless sensors networks (CROW 2 ). We address the reliability challenges in setting up a wireless autonomous communication system in order to offload data from the disaster area (rescuers, trapped victims, civilians, media, etc.) back to a command center. The proposed system connects deployed rescuers to extended networks and the Internet. CROW 2 is an end-to-end system that runs the recently-proposed Optimized Routing Approach for Critical and Emergency Networks (ORACE-Net) routing protocol. The system integrates heterogeneous wireless devices (Raspberry Pi, smart phones, sensors) and various communicating technologies (WiFi IEEE 802.11n, Bluetooth IEEE 802.15.1) to enable end-to-end network connectivity, which is monitored by a cloud Internet-of-Things platform. First, we present the CROW 2 generic system architecture, which is adaptable to various technologies integration at different levels (i.e., on-body, body-to-body, off-body). Second, we implement the ORACE-Net protocol on heterogeneous devices including Android-based smart phones and Linux-based Raspberry Pi devices. These devices act as on-body coordinators to collect information from on-body sensors. The collected data is then pushed to the command center thanks to multi-hop device-to-device communication. Third, the overall CROW 2 system performance is evaluated according to relevant metrics including end-to-end link quality estimation, throughput and end-to-end delay. As a proof-of-concept, we validate the system architecture through deployment and extracted experimental results. Finally, we highlight motion detection and links’ unavailability prevention based on the recorded data where the main factors (i.e., interference and noise) that affect the performance are analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Actuators in Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle User-Generated Services Composition in Smart Multi-User Environments
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 20; doi:10.3390/jsan6030020
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
The increasing complexity shown in Smart Environments, together with the spread of social networks, is increasingly moving the role of users from simple information and services consumers to actual producers. In this work, we focus on security issues raised by a particular kind
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The increasing complexity shown in Smart Environments, together with the spread of social networks, is increasingly moving the role of users from simple information and services consumers to actual producers. In this work, we focus on security issues raised by a particular kind of services: those generated by users. User-Generated Services (UGSs) are characterized by a set of features that distinguish them from conventional services. To cope with UGS security problems, we introduce three different policy management models, analyzing benefits and drawbacks of each approach. Finally, we propose a cloud-based solution that enables the composition of multiple UGSs and policy models, allowing users’ devices to share features and services in Internet of Things (IoT) based scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Actuators in Smart Cities)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Sensor Network Calculus as Key to the Design of Wireless Sensor Networks with Predictable Performance
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 21; doi:10.3390/jsan6030021
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
In this article, we survey the sensor network calculus (SensorNC), a framework continuously developed since 2005 to support the predictable design, control and management of large-scale wireless sensor networks with timing constraints. It is rooted in the deterministic network calculus, which it instantiates
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In this article, we survey the sensor network calculus (SensorNC), a framework continuously developed since 2005 to support the predictable design, control and management of large-scale wireless sensor networks with timing constraints. It is rooted in the deterministic network calculus, which it instantiates for WSNs, as well as it generalizes it in some crucial aspects, as for instance in-network processing. Besides presenting these core concepts of the SensorNC, we also discuss the advanced concept of self-modeling of WSNs and efficient tool support for the SensorNC. Furthermore, several applications of the SensorNC methodology, like sink and node placement, as well as TDMA design, are displayed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks and Systems)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Review of Smart House Analysis Methods for Assisting Older People Living Alone
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 11; doi:10.3390/jsan6030011
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Smart Houses are a prominent field of research referring to environments adapted to assist people in their everyday life. Older people and people with disabilities would benefit the most from the use of Smart Houses because they provide the opportunity for them to
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Smart Houses are a prominent field of research referring to environments adapted to assist people in their everyday life. Older people and people with disabilities would benefit the most from the use of Smart Houses because they provide the opportunity for them to stay in their home for as long as possible. In this review, the developments achieved in the field of Smart Houses for the last 16 years are described. The concept of Smart Houses, the most used analysis methods, and current challenges in Smart Houses are presented. A brief introduction of the analysis methods is given, and their implementation is also reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Homes: Current Status and Future Possibilities)
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