Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Designing and Managing a Smart Parking System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020024
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
PDF Full-text (3481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For several years, the population of cities has continued to multiply at a rapid pace. The main cause of this phenomenon in developing countries like Morocco is the rural exodus. In fact, rural youth are increasingly attracted by the modern way of life
[...] Read more.
For several years, the population of cities has continued to multiply at a rapid pace. The main cause of this phenomenon in developing countries like Morocco is the rural exodus. In fact, rural youth are increasingly attracted by the modern way of life and the opportunities of employment offered by cities. This increase in population density has a large number of negative effects on the quality of life in the city. The most obvious is the intensity of the traffic, which has become an almost insurmountable problem and which causes a great deal of damage, such as the increase in the number of accidents that cause serious bodily harm to the road users, the pollution caused by the large amount of CO2 released by the vehicles, and the continuous stress of drivers who must drive in often narrow and very busy roads and who must look for a long time to find a space to park. Thus, to solve the parking problem, several modern technologies have been created to equip car parks with smart devices that help road users identify the nearest car park that has a free space. These technologies most often use wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things (IoT) technology. In this paper, we present the design and development of a smart parking system using the latest technologies based on wireless sensor networks (WSN). Our system uses an adaptable and hybrid self-organization algorithm for wireless sensor networks that adapts to all types of car parks existing in the city (linear and mass parking), and offers a better management of the energy consumption during the wireless communication to increase the lifetime of the sensor nodes and the longevity of the WSN. This system also offers innovative services which facilitate the task to the drivers when looking for an available parking space in the city near their destination, in a fast and efficient manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Integration of Sensor and Actuator Networks and the SCADA System to Promote the Migration of the Legacy Flexible Manufacturing System towards the Industry 4.0 Concept
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020023
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (7770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Networks of sensors and actuators in automated manufacturing processes are implemented using industrial fieldbuses, where automation units and supervisory systems are also connected to exchange operational information. In the context of the incoming fourth industrial revolution, called Industry 4.0, the management of legacy
[...] Read more.
Networks of sensors and actuators in automated manufacturing processes are implemented using industrial fieldbuses, where automation units and supervisory systems are also connected to exchange operational information. In the context of the incoming fourth industrial revolution, called Industry 4.0, the management of legacy facilities is a paramount issue to deal with. This paper presents a solution to enhance the connectivity of a legacy Flexible Manufacturing System, which constitutes the first step in the adoption of the Industry 4.0 concept. Such a system includes the fieldbus PROcess FIeld BUS (PROFIBUS) around which sensors, actuators, and controllers are interconnected. In order to establish effective communication between the sensors and actuators network and a supervisory system, a hardware and software approach including Ethernet connectivity is implemented. This work is envisioned to contribute to the migration of legacy systems towards the challenging Industry 4.0 framework. The experimental results prove the proper operation of the FMS and the feasibility of the proposal. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Hardware Efficient Architecture for Element-Based Lattice Reduction Aided K-Best Detector for MIMO Systems
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020022
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems are characterised by increased capacity and improved performance compared to the single-input single-output (SISO) systems. One of the main challenge in the design of MIMO systems is the detection of the transmitted signals due to the interference caused by
[...] Read more.
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems are characterised by increased capacity and improved performance compared to the single-input single-output (SISO) systems. One of the main challenge in the design of MIMO systems is the detection of the transmitted signals due to the interference caused by the multiple simultaneously transmitted symbols from the multiple transmit antennas. Several detection techniques have been proposed in the literature in order to reduce the detection complexity, while maintaining the required quality of service. Among these low-complexity techniques is the Lattice Reduction (LR), which can provide good performance and significantly lower complexity compared to Maximum Likelihood (ML) detector. In this paper we propose to use the so-called Element-based Lattice Reduction (ELR) combined with K-Best detector for the sake of attaining a better Bit Error Ratio (BER) performance and lower complexity than the conventional Lenstra, Lanstra, and Lovasz (LLL) LR-aided detection. Additionally, we propose a hardware implementation for the ELR-aided K-Best detector for a MIMO system equipped with four transmit and four receive antennas. The ELR-aided K-Best detector requires an extra 18% increase in power consumption and an extra 20% in area overhead compared to a regular K-Best detector dispensing with ELR, where this increase in the hardware requirements is needed in order to achieve a 2 dB performance improvement at a bit error rate of 10−5. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Symmetric Encryption Relying on Chaotic Henon System for Secure Hardware-Friendly Wireless Communication of Implantable Medical Systems
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020021
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
PDF Full-text (7852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Healthcare remote devices are recognized as a promising technology for treating health related issues. Among them are the wireless Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs): These electronic devices are manufactured to treat, monitor, support or replace defected vital organs while being implanted in the human
[...] Read more.
Healthcare remote devices are recognized as a promising technology for treating health related issues. Among them are the wireless Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs): These electronic devices are manufactured to treat, monitor, support or replace defected vital organs while being implanted in the human body. Thus, they play a critical role in healing and even saving lives. Current IMDs research trends concentrate on their medical reliability. However, deploying wireless technology in such applications without considering security measures may offer adversaries an easy way to compromise them. With the aim to secure these devices, we explore a new scheme that creates symmetric encryption keys to encrypt the wireless communication portion. We will rely on chaotic systems to obtain a synchronized Pseudo-Random key. The latter will be generated separately in the system in such a way that avoids a wireless key exchange, thus protecting patients from the key theft. Once the key is defined, a simple encryption system that we propose in this paper will be used. We analyze the performance of this system from a cryptographic point of view to ensure that it offers a better safety and protection for patients. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Optimization of Wireless Sensor Networks Deployment Based on Probabilistic Sensing Models in a Complex Environment
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020020
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
PDF Full-text (6890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been studied in numerous cases. One of the important problems studied in these networks is the optimal deployment of sensors to obtain the maximum of coverage. Hence, in most studies, optimization algorithms have been used to
[...] Read more.
In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been studied in numerous cases. One of the important problems studied in these networks is the optimal deployment of sensors to obtain the maximum of coverage. Hence, in most studies, optimization algorithms have been used to achieve the maximum coverage. Optimization algorithms are divided into two groups of local and global optimization algorithms. Global algorithms generally use a random method based on an evolutionary process. In most of the conducted research, the environment model and, sometimes, the layout of sensors in the network have been considered in a very simplified form. In this research, by raster and vector modeling of the environment in two- and three-dimensional spaces, the function of global optimization algorithms was compared and assessed for optimal deployment of sensors and a vector environment model was used as a more accurate model. Since the purpose of this paper is to compare the performance and results of global algorithms, the studied region and the implementation conditions considered are the same for all applied algorithms. In this article, some optimization methods are considered for sensor deployment including genetic algorithms, L-BFGS, VFCPSO and CMA-ES, and the implementation and assessment criteria of algorithms for deployment of wireless sensor network are considered some factors such as the optimal coverage amount, their coverage accuracy towards the environment model and convergence speed of the algorithms. On the other hand, in this paper, the probability coverage model is implemented for each of the global optimization algorithms. The results of these implementations show that the presence of more complex parameters in environment model and coverage produce accurate results that are more consistent with reality. Nonetheless, it may reduce the time efficiency of algorithms. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Low-Cost IoT: A Holistic Approach
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020019
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The key factors for a successful smart-city project are its initial cost and its scalability. The initial cost depends on several inter-related aspects that cannot be designed and optimized separately. After the pilot deployment, scaling-up takes place only if the cost remains affordable:
[...] Read more.
The key factors for a successful smart-city project are its initial cost and its scalability. The initial cost depends on several inter-related aspects that cannot be designed and optimized separately. After the pilot deployment, scaling-up takes place only if the cost remains affordable: an initial financial support may induce dependencies from technologies that become unsustainable in the long period. In addition, the initial adoption of an emerging technology that fails to affirm may jeopardize investment return. This paper investigates a smart-village use case, the success of which strongly depends on the initial cost and scalability, exploring a low-cost way for Internet of Things (IoT). We propose a simple conceptual framework for cost evaluation, and we verify its effectiveness with an exhaustive use case: a prototype sensor designed and tested with its surrounding eco-system. Using experimental results, we can estimate both performance and cost for a pilot system made of fifty sensors deployed in an urban area. We show that such cost grows linearly with system size, taking advantage of widely adopted technologies. The code and the design of the prototype are available, so that all steps are reproducible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of a 3D Wireless Massively Parallel Computer
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020018
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
PDF Full-text (4001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In previous work, the authors presented a 3D hexagonal wireless direct-interconnect network for a massively parallel computer, with a focus on analysing processor utilisation. In this study, we consider the characteristics of such an architecture in terms of link utilisation and power consumption.
[...] Read more.
In previous work, the authors presented a 3D hexagonal wireless direct-interconnect network for a massively parallel computer, with a focus on analysing processor utilisation. In this study, we consider the characteristics of such an architecture in terms of link utilisation and power consumption. We have applied a store-and-forward packet-switching algorithm to both our proposed architecture and a traditional wired 5D direct network (the same as IBM’s Blue Gene). Simulations show that for small and medium-size networks the link utility of the proposed architecture is comparable with (and in some cases even better than) traditional 5D networks. This work demonstrates that there is a potential for wireless processing array concepts to address High-Performance Computing (HPC) challenges whilst alleviating some significant physical construction drawbacks of traditional systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Networking)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Reduced Complexity Detection in MIMO Systems with SC-FDE Modulations and Iterative DFE Receivers
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020017
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
PDF Full-text (374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper considers a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system with P transmitting and R receiving antennas and different overall noise characteristics on the different receiver antennas (e.g., due to nonlinear effects at the receiver side). Each communication link employs a Single-Carrier with Frequency-Domain Equalization
[...] Read more.
This paper considers a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system with P transmitting and R receiving antennas and different overall noise characteristics on the different receiver antennas (e.g., due to nonlinear effects at the receiver side). Each communication link employs a Single-Carrier with Frequency-Domain Equalization (SC-FDE) modulation scheme, and the receiver is based on robust iterative frequency-domain multi-user detectors based on the Iterative Block Decision Feedback Equalization (IB-DFE) concept. We present low complexity efficient receivers that can employ low resolution Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and require the inversion of matrices with reduced dimension when the number of receive antennas is larger than the number of independent data streams. The advantages of the proposed techniques are particularly high for highly unbalanced MIMO systems, such as in the uplink of Base Station (BS) cooperation systems that aim for Single-Frequency Network (SFN) operation or massive MIMO systems with much more antennas at the receiver side. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Virtual Replication of IoT Hubs in the Cloud: A Flexible Approach to Smart Object Management
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020016
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
PDF Full-text (14406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In future years, the Internet of Things is expected to interconnect billions of highly heterogeneous devices, denoted as “smart objects”, enabling the development of innovative distributed applications. Smart objects are constrained sensor/actuator-equipped devices, in terms of computational power and available memory. In order
[...] Read more.
In future years, the Internet of Things is expected to interconnect billions of highly heterogeneous devices, denoted as “smart objects”, enabling the development of innovative distributed applications. Smart objects are constrained sensor/actuator-equipped devices, in terms of computational power and available memory. In order to cope with the diverse physical connectivity technologies of smart objects, the Internet Protocol is foreseen as the common “language” for full interoperability and as a unifying factor for integration with the Internet. Large-scale platforms for interconnected devices are required to effectively manage resources provided by smart objects. In this work, we present a novel architecture for the management of large numbers of resources in a scalable, seamless, and secure way. The proposed architecture is based on a network element, denoted as IoT Hub, placed at the border of the constrained network, which implements the following functions: service discovery; border router; HTTP/Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and CoAP/CoAP proxy; cache; and resource directory. In order to protect smart objects (which cannot, because of their constrained nature, serve a large number of concurrent requests) and the IoT Hub (which serves as a gateway to the constrained network), we introduce the concept of virtual IoT Hub replica: a Cloud-based “entity” replicating all the functions of a physical IoT Hub, which external clients will query to access resources. IoT Hub replicas are constantly synchronized with the physical IoT Hub through a low-overhead protocol based on Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT). An experimental evaluation, proving the feasibility and advantages of the proposed architecture, is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Homes: Current Status and Future Possibilities)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top