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Chemosensors, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Molecularly Imprinted Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor (QCM) for Bilirubin Detection
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 21; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040021
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
This study aims the preparation of a QCM sensor for the detection of bilirubin in human plasma. Bilirubin-imprinted poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester) (PHEMATrp) nanofilm (MIP) on the gold surface of a QCM chip was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique. Meanwhile,
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This study aims the preparation of a QCM sensor for the detection of bilirubin in human plasma. Bilirubin-imprinted poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester) (PHEMATrp) nanofilm (MIP) on the gold surface of a QCM chip was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique. Meanwhile, the non-imprinted PHEMATrp (NIP) nanofilm was synthesized by the same experimental technique to examine the imprinting effect. Characterization of MIP and NIP nanofilms on the QCM chip surface was achieved by atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and contact angle measurements (CA). The observations indicated that the nanofilm was almost in a monolayer. Thereinafter, the imprinted and the non-imprinted QCM chips were connected to the QCM system to investigate kinetic and affinity properties. In order to examine the selectivity of the MIP-PHEMATrp nanofilm, competitive adsorption of bilirubin with cholesterol and estradiol was performed. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) values were calculated as 0.45 μg/mL and 0.9 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Application of Electrochemical Sensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer and Carbon Nanotubes for the Determination of Carvedilol
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 22; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040022
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 27 November 2016
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Abstract
This work describes the preparation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for determination of carvedilol (CAR). Electrochemical behavior of CAR on the modified electrode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The best composition
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This work describes the preparation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for determination of carvedilol (CAR). Electrochemical behavior of CAR on the modified electrode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The best composition was found to be 65% (m/m) of MIP. Under optimized conditions (pH 8.5 in 0.25 mol L−1 Britton–Robinson buffer and 0.1 mol L−1 KCl) the voltammetric method showed a linear response for CAR in the range of 50–325 µmol L−1 (R = 0.9755), with detection and quantification limits of 16.14 µmol L−1 and 53.8 µmol L−1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of CAR in real samples of pharmaceuticals. The sensor presented good sensitivity, rapid detection of CAR, and quick and easy preparation. Furthermore, the material used as modifier has a simple synthesis and its amount utilized is very small, thus illustrating the economic feasibility of this sensor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design of an Affibody-Based Recognition Strategy for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Detection by Electrochemical Biosensors
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 23; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040023
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
In this study, we have designed and realized three simple electrochemical bioassays for the detection of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) cancer biomarker using magnetic beads coupling screen-printed arrays. The different approaches were based on a sandwich format in which
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In this study, we have designed and realized three simple electrochemical bioassays for the detection of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) cancer biomarker using magnetic beads coupling screen-printed arrays. The different approaches were based on a sandwich format in which affibody (Af) or antibody (Ab) molecules were coupled respectively to streptavidin or protein A-modified magnetic beads. The bioreceptor-modified beads were used to capture the HER2 protein from the sample and sandwich assay was performed by adding the labeled secondary affibody or the antibody. An enzyme-amplified detection scheme based on the coupling of secondary biotinylated bioreceptor with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase enzyme conjugate was then applied. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of the electro-inactive 1-naphthyl-phosphate to the electro-active 1-naphthol, which was detected by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Each developed assay has been studied and optimized. Furthermore, a thorough comparison of the analytical performances of developed assays was performed. Finally, preliminary experiments using serum samples spiked with HER2 protein were also carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensors and Aptasensors)
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Open AccessArticle The Smart Ring Experience in l’Aquila (Italy): Integrating Smart Mobility Public Services with Air Quality Indexes
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 24; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040024
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
This work presents the “City Dynamics and Smart Environment” activities of the Smart Ring project, a model for the smart city, based on the integration of sustainable urban transport services and environmental monitoring over a 4–5-km circular path, the “Smart Ring”, around the
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This work presents the “City Dynamics and Smart Environment” activities of the Smart Ring project, a model for the smart city, based on the integration of sustainable urban transport services and environmental monitoring over a 4–5-km circular path, the “Smart Ring”, around the historical center of l’Aquila (Italy). We describe our pilot experience performed during an experimental on-demand public service electric bus, “SmartBus”, which was equipped with a multi-parametric air quality low-cost gas electrochemical sensor platform, “NASUS IV”. For five days (28–29 August 2014 and 1–3 September 2014), the sensor platform was installed inside the SmartBus and measured air quality gas compounds (nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide) during the service. Data were collected and analyzed on the bases of an air quality index, which provided qualitative insights on the air status potentially experienced by the users. The results obtained are in agreement with the synoptic meteorological conditions, the urban background air quality reference measurements and the potential traffic flow variations. Furthermore, they indicated that the air quality status was influenced by the gas component NO 2 , followed by H 2 S, SO 2 and CO. We discuss the features of our campaign, and we highlight the potential, limitations and key factors to consider for future project designs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Voltammetric Sensor Based on Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Analysis of Uric Acid, Ascorbic Acid and Dopamine
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 25; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040025
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
A disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (rGO-SPCE) is described. The rGO-SPCE was characterized by UV-Vis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA) and
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A disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (rGO-SPCE) is described. The rGO-SPCE was characterized by UV-Vis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA). Three resolved voltammetric peaks (at 183 mV for UA, 273 mV for AA and 317 mV for DA, all vs. Ag/AgCl) were found. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to simultaneously detect UA, AA and DA in their ternary mixtures. The linear working range extends from 10 to 3000 μM for UA; 0.1 to 2.5 μM, and 5.0 to 2 × 104 µM for AA; and 0.2 to 80.0 μM and 120.0 to 500 µM for DA, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) are 0.1, 50.0, and 0.4 μM, respectively. The performance of the sensor was evaluated by analysing spiked human urine samples, and the recoveries were found to be well over 98.0% for the three compounds. These results indicate that the rGO-SPCE represents a sensitive analytical sensing tool for simultaneous analysis of UA, AA and DA. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Trends in Field-Effect Transistors-Based Immunosensors
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 20; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040020
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
Immunosensors are analytical platforms that detect specific antigen-antibody interactions and play an important role in a wide range of applications in biomedical clinical diagnosis, food safety, and monitoring contaminants in the environment. Field-effect transistors (FET) immunosensors have been developed as promising alternatives to
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Immunosensors are analytical platforms that detect specific antigen-antibody interactions and play an important role in a wide range of applications in biomedical clinical diagnosis, food safety, and monitoring contaminants in the environment. Field-effect transistors (FET) immunosensors have been developed as promising alternatives to conventional immunoassays, which require complicated processes and long-time data acquisition. The electrical signal of FET-based immunosensors is generated as a result of the antigen-antibody conjugation. FET biosensors present real-time and rapid response, require small sample volume, and exhibit higher sensitivity and selectivity. This review brings an overview on the recent literature of FET-based immunosensors, highlighting a diversity of nanomaterials modified with specific receptors as immunosensing platforms for the ultrasensitive detection of various biomolecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensors and Aptasensors)
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