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Children, Volume 5, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The majority of adolescent girls do not engage in the recommended 60 minutes per day of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Family TXT: Feasibility and Acceptability of a mHealth Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Pre-Adolescent African American Girls
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Obesity prevalence is greater in African American girls than their non-Hispanic white peers. Obesity prevention programs are needed to help parents create an obesity-preventive home environment. This paper reports the feasibility and acceptability of a mHealth child obesity prevention program consisting of self-determination
[...] Read more.
Obesity prevalence is greater in African American girls than their non-Hispanic white peers. Obesity prevention programs are needed to help parents create an obesity-preventive home environment. This paper reports the feasibility and acceptability of a mHealth child obesity prevention program consisting of self-determination theory-grounded text messages promoting a healthy home food and activity environment to parents of 8–10-year-old African American girls. A one-group design with baseline and immediate post-intervention assessments was utilized. Mothers (n = 19) received 36 text messages over 12 weeks. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through staff logs and post-intervention surveys and an interview. Feasibility and acceptability criteria were met. Mothers reported positive reactions to the intervention; they liked the program, used the information, and all but one gave it an A or B grade. The majority made changes and shared the text messages with others. This research provides evidence that a theoretically grounded mHealth child obesity prevention intervention is feasible and acceptable to parents of African American girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
Open AccessArticle Understanding the Relative Contributions of Sensitive and Insensitive Parent Behaviors on Infant Vaccination Pain
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Parents play a critical role in supporting infants’ ability to manage strong emotions. Routine vaccinations provide an ideal context to observe the effect of parents’ behaviors on infants’ pain-related distress. Previous research in the vaccination context showed that parent sensitivity, operationalized by variables
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Parents play a critical role in supporting infants’ ability to manage strong emotions. Routine vaccinations provide an ideal context to observe the effect of parents’ behaviors on infants’ pain-related distress. Previous research in the vaccination context showed that parent sensitivity, operationalized by variables such as emotional availability and proximal soothing behaviors, is associated with infant pain-related distress behavior. However, the magnitudes of these relationships were smaller than expected given the established importance of parents in the development of distress regulation. In recent work, a reliable and valid measure to operationalize insensitive behaviors was developed. The objective of the current study was to examine the relative contribution of variables representing sensitive and insensitive behaviors to the prediction of infant pain-related distress behaviors during the reactivity and regulation phases of needle pain. Archival data was used to analyze a subsample of infants followed during their two-month, six-month, and 12-month vaccinations (n = 81). Results of regression analyses indicated that parent insensitive behaviors generally had the strongest relationships with pain outcomes across all ages, with a greater influence on regulation-phase pain-related distress behavior, rather than reactivity-phase pain-related distress behavior. Our findings support the utility of a measure of distress-promoting parent behaviors in a vaccination context, and highlight the potential value of this measure for clinicians and researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
Open AccessArticle Obesity-Related Metabolic Risk in Sedentary Hispanic Adolescent Girls with Normal BMI
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Hispanic adolescent girls with normal BMI frequently have high body fat %. Without knowledge of body fat content and distribution, their risk for metabolic complications is unknown. We measured metabolic risk indicators and abdominal fat distribution in post-pubertal Hispanic adolescent girls with Normal
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Hispanic adolescent girls with normal BMI frequently have high body fat %. Without knowledge of body fat content and distribution, their risk for metabolic complications is unknown. We measured metabolic risk indicators and abdominal fat distribution in post-pubertal Hispanic adolescent girls with Normal BMI (N-BMI: BMI < 85th percentile) and compared these indicators between girls with Normal BMI and High Fat content (N-BMI-HF: body fat ≥ 27%; n = 15) and Normal BMI and Normal Fat content (N-BMI-NF: body fat < 27%; n = 8). Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin and Hs-CRP were determined. Insulin resistance was calculated using an oral glucose tolerance test. Body fat % was measured by DXA and subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat by MRI/MRS. The N-BMI-HF girls had increased abdominal and hepatic fat content and increased insulin resistance, plasma leptin and Hs-CRP concentrations (p < 0.05) as compared to their N-BMI-NF counterparts. In N-BMI girls, insulin resistance, plasma insulin and leptin correlated with BMI and body fat % (p < 0.05). This research confirms the necessity of the development of BMI and body fat % cut-off criteria per sex, age and racial/ethnic group based on metabolic risk factors to optimize the effectiveness of metabolic risk screening procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Metabolic Dysregulation in Childhood)
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Open AccessReview Respiratory Diagnostic Tools in Neuromuscular Disease
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) are at risk of acquiring respiratory complications. Both clinical assessments and respiratory diagnostic tests are important to optimize the respiratory health and care of such children. The following respiratory diagnostic tools and their utility for evaluating children with
[...] Read more.
Children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) are at risk of acquiring respiratory complications. Both clinical assessments and respiratory diagnostic tests are important to optimize the respiratory health and care of such children. The following respiratory diagnostic tools and their utility for evaluating children with NMD are discussed in this article: lung function testing (spirometry and lung volumes), peak cough flow (PCF), respiratory muscle strength testing, oximetry, capnography, and polysomnography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
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Open AccessBrief Report Interval Outcomes of a Lifestyle Weight-Loss Intervention in Early Adolescence
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
We undertook a feasibility study to reassess metabolic outcomes in young people with early onset obesity who attended a hospital-based lifestyle weight-loss intervention during adolescence. Comparisons of metabolic assessments, including body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI–SDSs), blood pressure (BP), oral glucose tolerance
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We undertook a feasibility study to reassess metabolic outcomes in young people with early onset obesity who attended a hospital-based lifestyle weight-loss intervention during adolescence. Comparisons of metabolic assessments, including body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI–SDSs), blood pressure (BP), oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), lipid profile, and alanine transaminase (ALT), before and after treatment were made. Twenty-five subjects (10 males) with median ages (interquartile range, IQR) of 14.5 (12.6–15.4) years at the beginning of intervention and 18.2 (17.2–18.9) years at reassessment and who were 3.5 (2.4–6.5) years post-intervention were recruited. Twenty-eight percent had a ≥0.25 reduction in BMI–SDS from baseline (responders). Responders demonstrated significantly lower BMI–SDS, systolic BP, and glucose disposal at reassessment compared with baseline. They also showed significantly lower total fat percentage SDSs, trunk fat percentages, 120 min insulin, and ALT, as well as higher insulin sensitivity index (ISIcomp) than non-responders. Male gender and younger age at the initiation of intervention showed a non-significant trend towards greater success in weight loss. Long-term benefits were demonstrated in around one-quarter of obese adolescents after lifestyle modification treatment, with associated improvements in body composition and metabolic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
Open AccessArticle Parent Attributions of Ambiguous Symptoms in Their Children: A Preliminary Measure Validation in Parents of Children with Chronic Pain
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
How parents attribute cause to their child’s physical symptoms is likely important in understanding how the parent responds to the child, as well as the child’s health outcomes, especially within the context of chronic illness. Here, we adapt the Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire for
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How parents attribute cause to their child’s physical symptoms is likely important in understanding how the parent responds to the child, as well as the child’s health outcomes, especially within the context of chronic illness. Here, we adapt the Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire for parent report (SIQ-PR) and provide preliminary validation in a sample of parents of children with chronic pain (N = 311). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIQ-PR structure is consistent with the original measure, with three distinct attribution types: psychological (emotional/affective), somatic (illness/disease), and environmental (situational/transient) causes. All three subscales demonstrated satisfactory to good internal consistency, and temporal stability. Parents typically endorsed more than one attribution for each symptom, indicating that parents of children with chronic pain have a multidimensional interpretation of physical symptoms in their children. Further, parent psychological and somatic attributions, but not environmental attributions, were significantly associated with (i) parent protective responses towards their child, and (ii) the child’s self-reported somatic and psychological symptoms, indicating convergent and divergent validity. The SIQ-PR may be a useful measure for future studies investigating intergenerational and interpersonal models of pediatric chronic pain, and more broadly, to examine parent attributions of children’s ambiguous symptoms within the context of childhood chronic illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
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Open AccessPerspective Integrative Approaches in Pediatric Palliative Care
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Pediatric palliative care is a field which focuses on caring for and treating the symptoms and distress typically associated with life-limiting illness. Integrative medicine is supported by evidence and aims to heal the whole person, including all aspects of one’s lifestyle. Therapies offered
[...] Read more.
Pediatric palliative care is a field which focuses on caring for and treating the symptoms and distress typically associated with life-limiting illness. Integrative medicine is supported by evidence and aims to heal the whole person, including all aspects of one’s lifestyle. Therapies offered by integrative medicine often empower patients and families, allowing for a sense of control. This review addresses the merging of integrative medicine philosophy and modalities with the care given to children with life-limiting illness. We review an introduction to integrative medicine, trends in its incorporation in the healthcare setting, application to patients receiving palliative care and the management of specific symptoms. A case study is offered to illustrate these principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Palliative Care)
Open AccessReview Pediatric Headache Clinic Model: Implementation of Integrative Therapies in Practice
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
The demand for integrative medicine has risen in recent years as research has demonstrated the efficacy of such treatments. The public has also become more conscientious of the potential limitations of conventional treatment alone. Because primary headache syndromes are often the culmination of
[...] Read more.
The demand for integrative medicine has risen in recent years as research has demonstrated the efficacy of such treatments. The public has also become more conscientious of the potential limitations of conventional treatment alone. Because primary headache syndromes are often the culmination of genetics, lifestyle, stress, trauma, and environmental factors, they are best treated with therapies that are equally multifaceted. The Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri Headache Clinic has successfully incorporated integrative therapies including nutraceuticals, acupuncture, aromatherapy, biofeedback, relaxation training, hypnosis, psychology services, and lifestyle recommendations for headache management. This paper provides a detailed review of the implementation of integrative therapies for headache treatment and discusses examples through case studies. It can serve as a model for other specialty settings intending to incorporate all evidenced-based practices, whether complementary or conventional. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementing Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Practice)
Open AccessArticle Family Income Reduces Risk of Obesity for White but Not Black Children
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 10 June 2018
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Abstract
Background: Although the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on obesity and cardiovascular disease are well established, these effects may differ across racial and ethnic groups. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the association between family income and
[...] Read more.
Background: Although the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on obesity and cardiovascular disease are well established, these effects may differ across racial and ethnic groups. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the association between family income and childhood obesity in White and Black families. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH), 2003–2004, a nationally representative survey in the United States. This analysis included 76,705 children 2–17 years old who were either White (n = 67,610, 88.14%) or Black (n = 9095, 11.86%). Family income to needs ratio was the independent variable. Childhood obesity was the outcome. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Overall, higher income to needs ratio was protective against childhood obesity. Race, however, interacted with income to needs ratio on odds of childhood obesity, indicating smaller effects for Black compared to White families. Race stratified logistic regressions showed an association between family income and childhood obesity for White but not Black families. Conclusions: The protective effect of income against childhood obesity is smaller for Blacks than Whites. Merely equalizing population access to SES and economic resources would not be sufficient for elimination of racial disparities in obesity and related cardiovascular disease in the United States. Policies should go beyond access to SES and address structural barriers in the lives of Blacks which result in a diminished health return of very same SES resources for them. As the likely causes are multi-level barriers, multi-level interventions are needed to eliminate racial disparities in childhood obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Metabolic Dysregulation in Childhood)
Open AccessArticle Children’s Self-Perceived and Actual Motor Competence in Relation to Their Peers
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
Motor skill competence enables children to move with efficiency and confidence in a variety of physically challenging situations. A child who lacks motor skill competence may be less inclined to take part in physical activities in which his or her peers excel. In
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Motor skill competence enables children to move with efficiency and confidence in a variety of physically challenging situations. A child who lacks motor skill competence may be less inclined to take part in physical activities in which his or her peers excel. In this regard, the development of motor competence and children’s perception of their motor abilities may play an important role in ensuring sufficiently physically active adults. To better understand the role of motor competence in children’s participation in physical activity, this study examined children’s perception of their motor competence in comparison to others with their actual motor competence. Data were collected from 1031 children in grades 3, 4, 5, and 6 and between the ages of 8 to 12 years from elementary and junior schools. Using the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) protocols, physical competence and perceived physical competence were obtained from the Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment and the CAPL questionnaire, respectively. Results from this study support previous research as children’s ability to accurately perceive their motor competence increased with age/grade. Still, over half of the participants in this study were not able to accurately perceive their motor competence. In addition, as grade increased from 3 to 6, children over-estimated their abilities less and underestimated their abilities more. This lack of ability to accurately estimate their abilities may be impacting children’s level of physical activity and should be addressed when promoting physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Self-Reported Physical Activity is Not a Valid Method for Measuring Physical Activity in 15-Year-Old South African Boys and Girls
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of chronic lifestyle-related diseases. The development of valid instruments for the assessment of physical activity remains a challenge in field studies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the level of
[...] Read more.
Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of chronic lifestyle-related diseases. The development of valid instruments for the assessment of physical activity remains a challenge in field studies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the level of agreement between physical activity objectively measured by the ActiHeart® (Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge, UK) device and subjectively reported physical activity by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) among adolescents attending schools in the Tlokwe Local Municipality, South Africa. A cross-sectional study design was used with a total of 63 boys and 45 girls aged 15 years who took part in the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PHALS). Stature and weight were measured according to standard International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) protocols. Objective physical activity (PA) was measured by a combined heart rate and accelerometer device (ActiHeart®) for seven consecutive days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed. Subjective physical activity was assessed with the self-reported IPAQ-SF. Objective PA indicated that 93% of the participants were inactive and only 6% were highly active. The IPAQ-SF showed that 24% were inactive, with 57% active. A non-significant correlation (r = 0.11; p = 0.29) between the ActiHeart® measure of activity energy expenditure (AEE) and total physical activity (IPAQ-SF) was observed. The Bland–Altman plot showed no agreement between the two measurement instruments and also a variation in the level of equivalence. When Cohen’s kappa (κ) was run to determine the agreement between the two measurement instruments for estimated physical activity, a poor agreement (κ = 0.011, p < 0.005) between the two was found. The poor level of agreement between the objective measure of physical activity (ActiHeart®) and the IPAQ-SF questionnaire should be interpreted cautiously. Future physical activity research using a combination of subjective and objective assessment methods in a large-scale cohort in adolescents is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessCommunication Food Allergy Perceptions and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Racially Diverse Sample
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
This study examined caregiver perceptions of risk of food allergen exposure, and food allergy severity, worry, and health-related quality of life, and identified variations by race/ethnicity. Given the lack of data on racial/ethnic background in research on the psychosocial impacts of food allergy,
[...] Read more.
This study examined caregiver perceptions of risk of food allergen exposure, and food allergy severity, worry, and health-related quality of life, and identified variations by race/ethnicity. Given the lack of data on racial/ethnic background in research on the psychosocial impacts of food allergy, this study meets a pressing need for research regarding food allergy-related experiences among diverse populations. This study found there were significant differences in perceived risk of allergen exposure among racial/ethnic groups with Asian Americans reporting significantly higher perceived risk of allergen exposure than Hispanic, Caucasian, and African American caregivers. There were no significant differences in food allergy severity, food allergy worry, or health-related quality of life among racial/ethnic groups; however, variability among racial/ethnic groups was apparent. Data may inform screening, counseling, and education practices for families from diverse backgrounds and aid in hypothesis generation for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
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Open AccessCommentary Specialized Care without the Subspecialist: A Value Opportunity for Secondary Care
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
An underutilized value strategy that may reduce unnecessary subspecialty involvement in pediatric healthcare targets the high-quality care of children with common chronic conditions such as obesity, asthma, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder within primary care settings. In this commentary, we propose that “secondary
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An underutilized value strategy that may reduce unnecessary subspecialty involvement in pediatric healthcare targets the high-quality care of children with common chronic conditions such as obesity, asthma, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder within primary care settings. In this commentary, we propose that “secondary care”, defined as specialized visits delivered by primary care providers, a general pediatrician, or other primary care providers, can obtain the knowledge, skill and, over time, the experience to manage one or more of these common chronic conditions by creating clinical time and space to provide condition-focused care. This care model promotes familiarity, comfort, proximity to home, and leverages the provider’s expertise and connections with community-based resources. Evidence is provided to prove that, with multi-disciplinary and subspecialist support, this model of care can improve the quality, decrease the costs, and improve the provider’s satisfaction with care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Nausea Severity Scale for Assessment of Nausea in Children with Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a pediatric measure of chronic nausea severity, the Nausea Severity Scale (NSS), and evaluate its reliability and validity in youth with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGID). Pediatric patients (aged 11–17 years-old, n = 236)
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The objective of this study was to develop a pediatric measure of chronic nausea severity, the Nausea Severity Scale (NSS), and evaluate its reliability and validity in youth with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGID). Pediatric patients (aged 11–17 years-old, n = 236) presenting to an outpatient clinic for evaluation of abdominal pain completed the NSS, Children’s Somatization Inventory (CSI), Functional Disability Inventory (FDI), Abdominal Pain Index (API), Patient-Report Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), Anxiety and Depression Scales and the Pediatric Rome III Questionnaire for FGIDs. The NSS demonstrated good concurrent, discriminant, and construct validity, as well as good internal consistency. One-third (34%) of AP-FGID patients reported experiencing nausea “most” or “every day” in the previous two weeks. The severity of nausea was higher in females than males and correlated significantly with the severity of somatic symptoms, functional disability, anxiety, and depression. The NSS is a valid and reliable measure of nausea in children with AP-FGID. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
Open AccessArticle The Feasibility of a Novel School Peer-Led Mentoring Model to Improve the Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Time of Adolescent Girls: The Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) Project
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA.
[...] Read more.
Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA. The investigation aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel school three-tier peer-led mentoring model designed to improve PA levels and reduce sedentary time (ST) of adolescent girls. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13–15 years old) from three UK secondary schools were invited to participate in a peer-led mentoring intervention (Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) project). The peer-led mentoring model was delivered in all three schools. Two of the schools received an additional after-school PA component. PA and ST were assessed through wrist-worn accelerometry. Girls who received an exercise class after-school component significantly increased their whole day moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (3.2 min, p = 0.009, d = 0.33). Girls who received no after-school component significantly decreased their MVPA (3.5 min, p = 0.016, d = 0.36) and increased their ST (17.2 min, p = 0.006, d = 0.43). The G-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility of recruitment and data collection procedures for adolescent girls. The peer-led mentoring model shows promise for impacting girls’ MVPA levels when combined with an after-school club PA opportunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle Pediatric Patients Receiving Specialized Palliative Home Care According to German Law: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
In Germany, every child with a life-limiting condition suffering from symptoms that cannot sufficiently be controlled is eligible by law for specialized pediatric palliative home care (SPPHC). It is the aim of this study to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children
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In Germany, every child with a life-limiting condition suffering from symptoms that cannot sufficiently be controlled is eligible by law for specialized pediatric palliative home care (SPPHC). It is the aim of this study to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children referred to SPPHC and to compare patients with cancer and non-cancer conditions. The prospective multicenter study includes data on 75 children (median age 7.7 years, 50.7% male). The majority had non-cancer conditions (72%). The most common symptoms were cognitive impairment, somatic pain, impairment in communication or swallowing difficulties. Swallowing difficulties, seizures, and spasticity occurred significantly more often in non-cancer patients (p < 0.01). Cancer patients received antiemetics significantly more often (permanent and on demand) than non-cancer patients (p < 0.01). Significantly more non-cancer patients had some type of feeding tube (57.3%) or received oxygen (33.3%) (p < 0.01). Central venous catheters had been fitted in 20% of the patients, mostly in cancer patients (p < 0.001). Tracheostomy tubes (9.3%) or ventilation (14.7%) were only used in non-cancer patients. In conclusion, patients referred to SPPHC are a diverse cohort with complex conditions including a large range of neurologically originating symptoms. The care of pediatric palliative care patients with cancer is different to the care of non-cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
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Open AccessCommunication Safety of Oral Food Challenges in Early Life
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
Oral food challenges are becoming more frequent in the allergy clinic due to an increased demand related to early food introduction in infants. We examined the safety of oral food challenges in 18 high-risk infants with prior allergic reactions, as well as infants
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Oral food challenges are becoming more frequent in the allergy clinic due to an increased demand related to early food introduction in infants. We examined the safety of oral food challenges in 18 high-risk infants with prior allergic reactions, as well as infants with no known exposure to the food, presenting consecutively in a dedicated food allergy clinic for an oral food challenge. Foods challenged included peanut, tree nuts, sesame, baked egg, baked milk, and soy. A total of 17/18 (94%) infants had a negative challenge. Only 1/18 (6%) had a positive challenge, and in this case, symptoms were mild and limited to the skin. Our results suggest that food challenges in infants and young children up to the age of 2 years are safe with symptoms limited to the skin when reactions occur. In our cohort, the large majority of food challenges were negative, with most infants being sensitized rather than allergic to the food. Larger studies are needed to confirm this finding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
Open AccessArticle Alanine Aminotransferase as a Monitoring Biomarker in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Secondary Analysis Using TONIC Trial Data
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Validated noninvasive biomarkers to assess treatment response in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking. We aimed to validate alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a monitoring biomarker for change in liver histology. Methods: A retrospective analysis using data from the TONIC trial. NAFLD
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Background: Validated noninvasive biomarkers to assess treatment response in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking. We aimed to validate alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a monitoring biomarker for change in liver histology. Methods: A retrospective analysis using data from the TONIC trial. NAFLD histologic assessments were defined by: Fibrosis score, NAFLD activity score (NAS), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and a combination of NASH resolution and fibrosis (NASH + fibrosis). Analysis was performed using classification and regression trees (CART) as well as logistic regression. Results: Mean ALT for the child over 96 weeks and percent change of ALT from baseline to 96 weeks were significant predictors of progression of NAFLD for each histologic assessment (p < 0.001 for fibrosis score, NASH, and NASH + fibrosis and p < 0.05 for NAS). Mean ALT adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity was a better predictor for change in NASH (81.8 (11.0) ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) mean (SD (Standard derivation))) and NASH + fibrosis (77.8 (11.2)), compared to change in NAS (63 (17.7)) and fibrosis (58.6 (11.1)). Conclusion: Mean ALT over 96 weeks is a reasonable proxy of histologic improvement of NASH and NASH + fibrosis. These findings support ALT as a valid monitoring biomarker of histologic change over time in children with NASH and fibrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Integrative Pediatrics)
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