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Inorganics, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Computing Free Energies of Hydroxylated Silica Nanoclusters: Forcefield versus Density Functional Calculations
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 41; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030041
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
We assess the feasibility of efficiently calculating accurate thermodynamic properties of (SiO2)n·(H2O)m nanoclusters, using classical interatomic forcefields (FFs). Specifically, we use a recently parameterized FF for hydroxylated bulk silica systems (FFSiOH) to calculate zero-point energies and
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We assess the feasibility of efficiently calculating accurate thermodynamic properties of (SiO2)n·(H2O)m nanoclusters, using classical interatomic forcefields (FFs). Specifically, we use a recently parameterized FF for hydroxylated bulk silica systems (FFSiOH) to calculate zero-point energies and thermal contributions to vibrational internal energy and entropy, in order to estimate the free energy correction to the internal electronic energy of these nanoclusters. The performance of FFSiOH is then benchmarked against the results of corresponding calculations using density functional theory (DFT) calculations employing the B3LYP functional. Results are reported first for a set of (SiO2)n·(H2O)m clusters with n = 4, 8 and 16, each possessing three different degrees of hydroxylation (R = m/n): 0.0, 0.25 and 0.5. Secondly, we consider five distinct hydroxylated nanocluster isomers with the same (SiO2)16·(H2O)4 composition. Finally, the free energies for the progressive hydroxylation of three nanoclusters with R = 0–0.5 are also calculated. Our results demonstrate that, in all cases, the use of FFSiOH can provide estimates of thermodynamic properties with an accuracy close to that of DFT calculations, and at a fraction of the computational cost. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Silver(I) Extraction with Benzo-18-Crown-6 Ether from Water into 1,2-Dichloroethane: Analyses on Ionic Strength of the Phases and their Equilibrium Potentials
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 42; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030042
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Extraction constants (Kex & Kex±) for the extraction of silver picrate (AgPic) by benzo-18-crown-6 ether (B18C6) into 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) were determined at 298 K and various ionic strength (I)-values of a water phase with or without excess
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Extraction constants (Kex & Kex±) for the extraction of silver picrate (AgPic) by benzo-18-crown-6 ether (B18C6) into 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) were determined at 298 K and various ionic strength (I)-values of a water phase with or without excess HNO3. Here the symbols, Kex and Kex±, were defined as [AgLPic]DCE/P and [AgL+]DCE[Pic]DCE/P with P = [Ag+][L]DCE[Pic] and L = B18C6, respectively; [ ]DCE refers to the concentration of the corresponding species in the DCE phase at equilibrium. Simultaneously, KD,Pic (= [Pic]DCE/[Pic]) and K1,DCE (= Kex/Kex±) values for given I and IDCE values were determined, where the symbol IDCE shows I of the DCE phase. Also, equilibrium potential differences (Δφeq) based on the Pic transfer at the water/DCE interface were obtained from the analysis of the KD,Pic [= KD,PicS exp{−(F/RT) Δφeq}] values; the symbol KD,PicS shows KD,Pic at Δφeq = 0 V. On the basis of these results, I dependences of logKex and logKex± and IDCE ones of logK1,DCE and logKex± were examined. Extraction experiments of AgClO4 and AgNO3 by B18C6 into DCE were done for comparison. The logKex±-versus-Δφeq plot for the above Ag(I) extraction systems with Pic, ClO4, and NO3 gave a good positive correlation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A DFT Study on the O2 Adsorption Properties of Supported PtNi Clusters
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 43; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030043
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
We present a systematic study on the adsorption properties of molecular oxygen on Pt, Ni and PtNi clusters previously deposited on MgO(100) by means of density functional theory calculations. We map the different adsorption sites for a variety of cluster geometries, including icosahedra,
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We present a systematic study on the adsorption properties of molecular oxygen on Pt, Ni and PtNi clusters previously deposited on MgO(100) by means of density functional theory calculations. We map the different adsorption sites for a variety of cluster geometries, including icosahedra, decahedra, truncated octahedra and cuboctahedra, in the size range between 25–58 atoms. The average adsorption energy depends on the chemical composition, varying from 2 eV for pure Ni, 1.07 for pure Pt and 1.09 for a Pt s h e l l Ni c o r e nanoalloy. To correlate the adsorption map to the adsorption properties, we opt for a geometrical descriptor based on the metallic coordination up to the second coordination shell. We find an almost linear relationship between the second coordination shell and adsorption energy, with low coordination sites, such as those located at the (111)/(111) and (111)/(100) cluster edges-displaying adsorption energies above 1 eV, while higher coordination sites such as (111) cluster facets have an interaction of 0.4 eV or lower. The inclusion of van der Waals corrections leads to an overall increase of the O 2 adsorption energy without an alteration of the general adsorption trends. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and In Vitro (Anticancer) Evaluation of η6-Arene Ruthenium Complexes Bearing Stannyl Ligands
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 44; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030044
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Treatment of the known half-sandwich complexes of the type [(η6-C6H6)RuCl2(P(OR)3)] (R = Me or Ph) with SnCl2 yielded three new half-sandwich ruthenium complexes (C1C3): [(η6-C6
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Treatment of the known half-sandwich complexes of the type [(η6-C6H6)RuCl2(P(OR)3)] (R = Me or Ph) with SnCl2 yielded three new half-sandwich ruthenium complexes (C1C3): [(η6-C6H6)RuCl(SnCl3)(P(OMe)3)] (C1), [(η6-C6H6)RuCl(SnCl3)(P(OPh)3)] (C2) and the bis-stannyl complex [(η6-C6H6)Ru(SnCl3)2(P(OMe)3)] (C3) by facile insertion of SnCl2 into the Ru–Cl bonds. Treatment of the known complexes [(η6-C6H6)RuCl(SnCl3)(PPh3)] and [(η6-C6H6)RuCl2(PPh3)] with 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DAMP) and ammonium tetrafluoroborate afforded the complex salts: [(η6-C6H6)Ru(SnCl3)(PPh3)(DAMP)]+BF4 (C4) and [(η6-C6H6)RuCl(PPh3)(DAMP)]+BF4 (C5) respectively. Complexes C1C5 have been fully characterized by spectroscopic means (IR, UV–vis, multinuclear NMR, ESI–MS) and their thermal behaviour elucidated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Structural characterization by single crystal X-ray crystallography of the novel complex C2 and [(η6-C6H6)RuCl2(P(OPh)3)], the latter having escaped elucidation by this method, is also reported. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the complexes was determined on the A2780 (human ovarian cancer), A2780cisR (human ovarian cis-platin-resistant cancer), and the HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cell lines and discussed, and an attempt is made to elucidate the effect of the stannyl ligand on cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Inhibiting Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Computational Studies on the Selective Polymerization of Lactide Catalyzed by Bifunctional Yttrium NHC Catalyst
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 46; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030046
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
A theoretical investigation of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) mechanism of rac-lactide (LA) with an yttrium complex featuring a N-heterocyclic carbine (NHC) tethered moiety is reported. It was found that the carbonyl of lactide is attacked by N(SiMe3)2 group
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A theoretical investigation of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) mechanism of rac-lactide (LA) with an yttrium complex featuring a N-heterocyclic carbine (NHC) tethered moiety is reported. It was found that the carbonyl of lactide is attacked by N(SiMe3)2 group rather than NHC species at the chain initiation step. The polymerization selectivity was further investigated via two consecutive insertions of lactide monomer molecules. The insertion of the second monomer in different assembly modes indicated that the steric interactions between the last enchained monomer unit and the incoming monomer together with the repulsion between the incoming monomer and the ligand framework are the primary factors determining the stereoselectivity. The interaction energy between the monomer and the metal center could also play an important role in the stereocontrol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue N-Heterocyclic Carbene Metal Complexes: From Design to Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Magnetic Properties of Composites Incorporating an Fe(II) Spin Crossover Complex and Polyoxometalates
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 48; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030048
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
[Fe(dppOH)2]2+ (dppOH = 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine) is known to show spin crossover (SCO) behavior and light-induced excited spin state transitions (LIESST). Here, we show that the SCO properties of the [Fe(dppOH)2]2+ complex can be altered by a crystal engineering
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[Fe(dppOH)2]2+ (dppOH = 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine) is known to show spin crossover (SCO) behavior and light-induced excited spin state transitions (LIESST). Here, we show that the SCO properties of the [Fe(dppOH)2]2+ complex can be altered by a crystal engineering approach employing counter anion exchange with polyoxometalate (POM) anions. Using this strategy, two new composite materials (TBA)[Fe(dppOH)2][PMo12O40] (1) and [Fe(dppOH)2]3[PMo12O40]2 (2) (TBA = tetra-n-butylammonium) have been isolated and studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. 1 was found to be in a high spin state at 300 K and showed no spin crossover behavior due to a dense packing structure induced by hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group of the dppOH ligands and the POM anions. Conversely, 2 contains two crystallographically unique Fe centers, where one is in the low spin state whilst the other is locked in a high spin state in a manner analogous to 1. As a result, 2 was found to show partial spin crossover behavior around 230 K with a decrease in the χmT value of 1.9 emu·mol−1·K. This simple approach could therefore provide a useful method to aid in the design of next generation spin crossover materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle High-Temperature Wide Thermal Hysteresis of an Iron(II) Dinuclear Double Helicate
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 49; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030049
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
Two new dinuclear iron(II) complexes (1·PF6 and 1·AsF6) of the general formula [FeII2(L2C3)2](X)4·nH2O·mMeCN (X = PF6, n = m = 1.5 for 1·PF6 and X
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Two new dinuclear iron(II) complexes (1·PF6 and 1·AsF6) of the general formula [FeII2(L2C3)2](X)4·nH2O·mMeCN (X = PF6, n = m = 1.5 for 1·PF6 and X = AsF6, n = 3, m = 1 for 1·AsF6) have been prepared and structurally characterized, where L2C3 is a bis-1,2,3-triazolimine type Schiff-base ligand, 1,1′-[propane-1,3-diylbis(1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-diyl)]bis{N-[2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl]methanimine}. Single crystal X-ray structure analyses revealed that 1·PF6 and 1·AsF6 are isostructural. The complex-cation [FeII2(L2C3)2]4+ of both has the same dinuclear double helicate architecture, in which each iron(II) center has an N6 octahedral coordination environment. Neighboring helicates are connected by intermolecular π–π interactions to give a chiral one-dimensional (1D) structure, and cationic 1D chains with the opposite chirality exist in the crystal lattice to give a heterochiral crystal. Magnetic and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed only for 1·AsF6, since the thermal stability in a high-temperature spin crossover (SCO) region of 1·PF6 is poorer than that of 1·AsF6. 1·AsF6 shows an unsymmetrical hysteretic SCO between the low-spin–low-spin (LS–LS) and high-spin–high-spin (HS–HS) states at above room temperature. The critical temperatures of warming (Tc↑) and cooling (Tc↓) modes in the abrupt spin transition area are 485 and 401 K, respectively, indicating the occurrence of 84 K-wide thermal hysteresis in the first thermal cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Heteroleptic and Homoleptic Iron(III) Spin-Crossover Complexes; Effects of Ligand Substituents and Intermolecular Interactions between Co-Cation/Anion and the Complex
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 51; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030051
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
The structural and magnetic properties of a range of new iron(III) bis-tridentate Schiff base complexes are described with emphasis on how intermolecular structural interactions influence spin states and spin crossover (SCO) in these d5 materials. Three pairs of complexes were investigated. The
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The structural and magnetic properties of a range of new iron(III) bis-tridentate Schiff base complexes are described with emphasis on how intermolecular structural interactions influence spin states and spin crossover (SCO) in these d5 materials. Three pairs of complexes were investigated. The first pair are the neutral, heteroleptic complexes [Fe(3-OMe-SalEen)(thsa)] 1 and [Fe(3-MeOSalEen)(3-EtOthsa)] 2, where 3-R-HSalEen = (E)-2-(((2-(ethylamino)ethyl)imino)methyl)-6-R-phenol and 3-R-H2thsa = thiosemicarbazone-3-R-salicylaldimine. They display spin transitions above room temperature. However, 2 shows incomplete and gradual change, while SCO in 1 is complete and more abrupt. Lower cooperativity in 2 is ascribed to the lack of π–π interactions, compared to 1. The second pair, cationic species [Fe(3-EtOSalEen)2]NO3 3 and [Fe(3-EtOSalEen)2]Cl 4 differ only in the counter-anion. They show partial SCO above room temperature with 3 displaying a sharp transition at 343 K. Weak hydrogen bonds from cation to Cl probably lead to weaker cooperativity in 4. The last pair, CsH2O[Fe(3-MeO-thsa)2] 5 and Cs(H2O)2[Fe(5-NO2-thsa)2] 6, are anionic homoleptic chelates that have different substituents on the salicylaldiminate rings of thsa2−. The Cs cations bond to O atoms of water and the ligands, in unusual ways thus forming attractive 1D and 3D networks in 5 and 6, respectively, and 5 remains HS (high spin) at all temperatures while 6 remains LS (low spin). Comparisons are made to other literature examples of Cs salts of [Fe(5-R-thsa)2] (R = H and Br). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Pybox-Iron(II) Spin-Crossover Complexes with Substituent Effects from the 4-Position of the Pyridine Ring (Pybox = 2,6-Bis(oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine)
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 52; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030052
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Spin-crossover (SCO) behavior of a series of [Fe(X-pybox)2](ClO4)2 was investigated, where X-pybox stands for 4-X-substituted 2,6-bis(oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine with X = H, Cl, Ph, CH3O, and CH3S. We confirmed that the mother compound [Fe(H-pybox)2](ClO
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Spin-crossover (SCO) behavior of a series of [Fe(X-pybox)2](ClO4)2 was investigated, where X-pybox stands for 4-X-substituted 2,6-bis(oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine with X = H, Cl, Ph, CH3O, and CH3S. We confirmed that the mother compound [Fe(H-pybox)2](ClO4)2 underwent SCO above room temperature. After X was introduced, the SCO temperatures (T1/2) were modulated as 310, 230, and 330 K for X = Cl, Ph, and CH3S, respectively. The CH3O derivative possessed the high-spin state down to 2 K. Crystallographic analysis for X = H, Cl, CH3O, and CH3S was successful, being consistent with the results of the magnetic study. Distorted coordination structures stabilize the HS (high-spin) state, and the highest degree of the coordination structure distortion is found in the CH3O derivative. A plot of T1/2 against the Hammett substituent constant σp showed a positive relation. Solution susceptometry was also performed to remove intermolecular interaction and rigid crystal lattice effects, and the T1/2’s were determined as 260, 270, 240, 170, and 210 K for X = H, Cl, Ph, CH3O, and CH3S, respectively, in acetone. The substituent effect on T1/2 became very distinct, and it is clarified that electron-donating groups stabilize the HS state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessCommunication Halogen Substituent Effect on the Spin-Transition Temperature in Spin-Crossover Fe(III) Compounds Bearing Salicylaldehyde 2-Pyridyl Hydrazone-Type Ligands and Dicarboxylic Acids
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 53; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030053
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
Four Fe(III) spin-crossover (SCO) compounds, [Fe(HL1)2](HCl4TPA) (1-Cl), [Fe(HL1)2](HBr4TPA) (1-Br), [Fe(HL2)2](HCl4TPA) (2-Cl), and [Fe(HL2)2](HBr4TPA) (2-Br) (HL1 = 4-chloro-2-nitro-6-(1-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl)phenolate; HL2 =
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Four Fe(III) spin-crossover (SCO) compounds, [Fe(HL1)2](HCl4TPA) (1-Cl), [Fe(HL1)2](HBr4TPA) (1-Br), [Fe(HL2)2](HCl4TPA) (2-Cl), and [Fe(HL2)2](HBr4TPA) (2-Br) (HL1 = 4-chloro-2-nitro-6-(1-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl)phenolate; HL2 = 4-bromo-2-nitro-6-(1-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl)phenolate; HCl4TPA = 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-carboxybenzoate; and HBr4TPA = 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-4-carboxybenzoate), were synthesized to investigate the halogen substituent change effect in salicylaldehyde 2-pyridyl hydrazone-type ligands and dicarboxylic acids in SCO complexes to the spin-transition temperature. Crystal structure analyses showed that these compounds were isostructural. In addition, a one-dimensional hydrogen–bonded column was formed by the dicarboxylic acid anion and weak hydrogen bonds between the Fe(III) complexes. From Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic property measurements, these compounds were confirmed to exhibit gradual SCO. The spin-transition temperature can be shifted by changing the halogen substituent in the salicylaldehyde 2-pyridyl hydrazone-type ligands and dicarboxylic acids without changing the molecular arrangement in the crystal packing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Spin-Singlet Transition in the Magnetic Hybrid Compound from a Spin-Crossover Fe(III) Cation and π-Radical Anion
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 54; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030054
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
To develop a new spin-crossover functional material, a magnetic hybrid compound [Fe(qsal)2][Ni(mnt)2] was designed and synthesized (Hqsal = N-(8-quinolyl)salicylaldimine, mnt = maleonitriledithiolate). The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility suggested the coexistence of the high-spin (HS) Fe(III) cation and
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To develop a new spin-crossover functional material, a magnetic hybrid compound [Fe(qsal)2][Ni(mnt)2] was designed and synthesized (Hqsal = N-(8-quinolyl)salicylaldimine, mnt = maleonitriledithiolate). The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility suggested the coexistence of the high-spin (HS) Fe(III) cation and π-radical anion at room temperature and a magnetic transition below 100 K. The thermal variation of crystal structures revealed that strong π-stacking interaction between the π-ligand in the [Fe(qsal)2] cation and [Ni(mnt)2] anion induced the distortion of an Fe(III) coordination structure and the suppression of a dimerization of the [Ni(mnt)2] anion. Transfer integral calculations indicated that the magnetic transition below 100 K originated from a spin-singlet formation transformation in the [Ni(mnt)2] dimer. The magnetic relaxation of Mössbauer spectra and large thermal variation of a g-value in electron paramagnetic resonance spectra below the magnetic transition temperature implied the existence of a magnetic correlation between d-spin and π-spin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Modification of Cooperativity and Critical Temperatures on a Hofmann-Like Template Structure by Modular Substituent
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 55; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030055
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 6 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
In a series of Hofmann-like spin crossover complexes, two new compounds, {Fe(3-F-4-Methyl-py)2[Au(CN)2]2} (1) and {Fe(3-Methyl-py)2[Au(CN)2]2} (2) (py = pyridine) are described. The series maintains a uniform 2-dimentional
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In a series of Hofmann-like spin crossover complexes, two new compounds, {Fe(3-F-4-Methyl-py)2[Au(CN)2]2} (1) and {Fe(3-Methyl-py)2[Au(CN)2]2} (2) (py = pyridine) are described. The series maintains a uniform 2-dimentional (2-D) layer structure of {Fe[Au(CN)2]2}. The layers are combined with another layer by strong aurophilic interactions, which results in a bilayer structure. Both coordination compounds 1 and 2 at 293 K crystallize in the centrosymmetric space groups P21/c. The asymmetric unit contains two pyridine derivative ligands, one type of Fe2+, and two types of crystallographically distinct [Au(CN)2] units. Compound 1 undergoes a complete two-step spin transition. On the other hand, 2 maintains the characteristic of the high-spin state. The present compounds and other closely related bilayer compounds are compared and discussed in terms of the cooperativity and critical temperature. The bilayer structure is able to be further linked by substituent-substituent contact resulting in 3-dimentional (3-D) network cooperativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Metal–Organic Frameworks and Their Derivatives for Photocatalytic Water Splitting
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 40; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030040
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
Amongst many strategies for renewable energy conversion, light-driven water splitting to produce clean H2 represents a promising approach and has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Owing to the multi-electron/multi-proton transfer nature of water splitting, low-cost and competent catalysts are needed. Along
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Amongst many strategies for renewable energy conversion, light-driven water splitting to produce clean H2 represents a promising approach and has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Owing to the multi-electron/multi-proton transfer nature of water splitting, low-cost and competent catalysts are needed. Along the rapid development of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) during the last two decades or so, MOFs have been recognized as an interesting group of catalysts or catalyst supports for photocatalytic water splitting. The modular synthesis, intrinsically high surface area, tunable porosity, and diverse metal nodes and organic struts of MOFs render them excellent catalyst candidates for photocatalytic water splitting. To date, the application of MOFs and their derivatives as photocatalysts for water splitting has become a burgeoning field. Herein, we showcase several representative MOF-based photocatalytic systems for both H2 and O2 evolution reactions (HER, OER). The design principle of each catalytic system is specifically discussed. The current challenges and opportunities of utilizing MOFs for photocatalytic water splitting are discussed in the end. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemical Water Splitting)
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Open AccessReview Supramolecular Control of Spin Crossover Phenomena Using Various Amphiphiles
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 45; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030045
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
An aspect of nanochemistry that has attracted significant attention is the formation of nanoarchitectures from the self-assembly of metal complexes, based on the design of compounds having cooperative functionalities. This technique is currently seen as important within the field of nanomaterials. In the
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An aspect of nanochemistry that has attracted significant attention is the formation of nanoarchitectures from the self-assembly of metal complexes, based on the design of compounds having cooperative functionalities. This technique is currently seen as important within the field of nanomaterials. In the present review, we describe the methods that allow tuning of the intermolecular interactions between spin crossover (SCO) complexes in various media. These approaches include the use of lipophilic derivatives, lipids, and diblock copolypeptide amphiphiles. The resulting supramolecular assemblies can enhance the solubility of various SCO complexes in both organic and aqueous media. In addition, amphiphilic modifications of coordination systems can result in metastable structures and dynamic structural transformations leading to unique solution properties, including spin state switching. The supramolecular chemistry of metal complexes is unprecedented in its scope and potential applications, and it is hoped that the studies presented herein will promote further investigation of dynamic supramolecular devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessReview Design and Control of Cooperativity in Spin-Crossover in Metal–Organic Complexes: A Theoretical Overview
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 47; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030047
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
Metal organic complexes consisting of transition metal centers linked by organic ligands, may show bistability which enables the system to be observed in two different electronic states depending on external condition. One of the spectacular examples of molecular bistability is the spin-crossover phenomena.
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Metal organic complexes consisting of transition metal centers linked by organic ligands, may show bistability which enables the system to be observed in two different electronic states depending on external condition. One of the spectacular examples of molecular bistability is the spin-crossover phenomena. Spin-Crossover (SCO) describes the phenomena in which the transition metal ion in the complex under the influence of external stimuli may show a crossover between a low-spin and high-spin state. For applications in memory devices, it is desirable to make the SCO phenomena cooperative, which may happen with associated hysteresis effect. In this respect, compounds with extended solid state structures containing metal ions connected by organic spacer linkers like linear polymers, coordination network solids are preferred candidates over isolated molecules or molecular assemblies. The microscopic understanding, design and control of mechanism driving cooperativity, however, are challenging. In this review we discuss the recent theoretical progress in this direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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