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Dent. J., Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Dentin Erosion: Method Validation and Efficacy of Fluoride Protection
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 27; doi:10.3390/dj5040027
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
The aging population experiences more gingival recession and root exposure which increases the opportunity for dentin erosion. This study tested the use of transverse microradiography (TMR) methods to assess dentin erosion and the interaction between fluoride and citric acid on the amount of
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The aging population experiences more gingival recession and root exposure which increases the opportunity for dentin erosion. This study tested the use of transverse microradiography (TMR) methods to assess dentin erosion and the interaction between fluoride and citric acid on the amount of erosion in the dentin samples. In a 4 × 3 interaction experimental design, four fluoride concentrations (0.00, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 mg/L) and three citric acid concentrations (0.0, 0.25, and 1.00%) were combined to form 12 experimental solutions. Forty-eight dentin samples were placed in the experimental solutions for 1 and 4 h and the amount of surface lost was determined by TMR methods. The resolution of the TMR method was 0.9 μm per pixel with a 0.1% and a 5% confidence interval of ±4.2 μm. Dentin erosion increased with the concentration of citric acid and time, the erosion decreased when concentration of fluoride was increased. Effects due to fluoride and citric acid concentrations individually, and their interaction on the amount of erosion observed was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). This study found that TMR methods are appropriate and that 25.0 mg/L was the optimal fluoride concentration to protect dentin from a 1.00% citric acid challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts on Erosive Tooth Wear)
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Open AccessArticle Nanoclay-Reinforced Glass-Ionomer Cements: In Vitro Wear Evaluation and Comparison by Two Wear-Test Methods
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 28; doi:10.3390/dj5040028
Received: 25 March 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Glass ionomer cement (GIC) represents a major transformation in restorative dentistry. Wear of dental restoratives is a common phenomenon and the determination of the wear resistance of direct-restorative materials is a challenging task. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the wear
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Glass ionomer cement (GIC) represents a major transformation in restorative dentistry. Wear of dental restoratives is a common phenomenon and the determination of the wear resistance of direct-restorative materials is a challenging task. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the wear resistance of novel glass ionomer cement by two wear-test methods and to compare the two wear methods.The wear resistance of a conventional glass ionomer cement (HiFi Advanced Health Care Kent, UK) and cements modified by including various percentages of nanoclays (1, 2 and 4 wt %) was measured by a reciprocating wear test (ball-on-flat) and Oregon Health and Sciences University’s (OHSU) wear simulator. The OHSU wear simulation subjected the cement specimens to three wear mechanisms, namely abrasion, three-body abrasion and attrition using a steatite antagonist. The abrasion wear resulted in material loss from GIC specimen as the steatite antagonist forced through the exposed glass particles when it travelled along the sliding path.The hardness of specimens was measured by the Vickers hardness test. The results of reciprocation wear test showed that HiFi-1 resulted in the lowest wear volume 4.90 (0.60) mm3 (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the wear volume in comparison to HiFi, HiFi-2 and HiFi-4. Similarly, the results of OHSU wear simulator showed that the total wear volume of HiFi-4 1.49 (0.24) was higher than HiFi-1 and HiFi-2. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was found in the OHSU total wear volume in GICs after nanoclay incorporation. The Vickers hardness (HV) of the nanoclay-reinforced cements was measured between 62 and 89 HV. Nanoclay addition at a higher concentration (4%) resulted in higher wear volume and wear depth. The total wear volumes were less dependent upon abrasion volume and attrition volume. The total wear depths were strongly influenced by attrition depth and to some extent by abrasion depth. The addition of nanoclay in higher wt % to HiFi did not result in significant improvement in wear resistance and hardness. Nonetheless, wear is a very complex phenomenon because it is sensitive to a wide number of factors that do not necessarily act in the same way when compared using different parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Polishing of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns—Results of Different Dental Practitioner Groups
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 30; doi:10.3390/dj5040030
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
This pilot study evaluates the surface roughness of monolithic zirconia crowns after chairside polishing by different dental practitioner groups. Four practitioner groups (group I: dental clinical students (n = 6); group II: dentists < 2 years post-qualification experience (n = 6);
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This pilot study evaluates the surface roughness of monolithic zirconia crowns after chairside polishing by different dental practitioner groups. Four practitioner groups (group I: dental clinical students (n = 6); group II: dentists < 2 years post-qualification experience (n = 6); group III: dentists > 2 years post-qualification experience (n = 6) and group IV: dental technicians (n = 6)) were asked to polish two CAD/CAM-fabricated full-contour zirconia crowns (48 in total). A two-step zirconia polishing kit was used in both trials. The first trial (T1) was conducted without a time limitation. In the second trial (T2), the polish was restricted to 15 seconds for each polisher. Two blinded investigators (I1 and I2) analyzed the surface roughness (Ra) before and after polishing (Alicona measuring system). No statistically significant difference in surface roughness was found between the polishing results of the dental practitioner groups. Major difference in surface finish was achieved by dental technicians, with a median value of 25.4 nm (interquartile range 10.15–35.26 nm) for I1 in T1. The lowest difference was achieved by dental students, with a median value of Ra = 6.72 nm (interquartile range 4.7–17.9 nm) in T1. In T2, experienced dentists showed the highest difference in surface finish, with a median value of 41.35 nm (interquartile range 7.77–54.11). No significant correlation was found between polishing time and polishing results. The polishing of monolithic zirconium dioxide crowns can be performed with the present polishing set directly chairside after occlusal adjustment, regardless of the practitioner’s experience level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Qualitative Evaluation of Clinical Audit in UK Dental Foundation Training
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 31; doi:10.3390/dj5040031
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
Clinical Audit (CA) has been recognized as a useful tool for tool for improving service delivery, clinical governance, and the education and performance of the dental team. This study develops the discussion by investigating its use as an educational tool within UK Dental
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Clinical Audit (CA) has been recognized as a useful tool for tool for improving service delivery, clinical governance, and the education and performance of the dental team. This study develops the discussion by investigating its use as an educational tool within UK Dental Foundation Training (DFT). The aim was to investigate the views of Foundation Dentists (FDs) and Training Programme Directors (TPDs) on the CA module in their FD training schemes, to provide insight and recommendations for those supervising and undertaking CA. A literature review was conducted followed by a qualitative research methodology, using group interviews. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed using NVIVO, a Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis tool. CA was found to be a useful tool for teaching management and professionalism and can bring some improvement to clinical practice, but TPDs have doubts about the long-term effects on service delivery. The role of the Educational Supervisor (ES) is discussed and recommendations are given for those supervising and conducting CA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Open AccessCommunication Effect of Decontamination and Cleaning on the Shear Bond Strength of High Translucency Zirconia
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 32; doi:10.3390/dj5040032
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: This study evaluated the bonding performance of high translucency zirconia after diverse surficial decontamination and cleaning procedures. (2) Methods: High translucency zirconia (LavaTM Esthetic) specimens (2.0 mm × 20 mm × 10 mm) were exposed to different surface treatments prior
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(1) Background: This study evaluated the bonding performance of high translucency zirconia after diverse surficial decontamination and cleaning procedures. (2) Methods: High translucency zirconia (LavaTM Esthetic) specimens (2.0 mm × 20 mm × 10 mm) were exposed to different surface treatments prior to bonding to CoCr cylinders (d = 5 mm, height = 3 mm). All surfaces were sandblasted (40 µm aluminum oxide, 2 bar) and treated with alcohol (al), saliva (s), saliva + water (sw), or saliva + NaOCl + water (sn) before bonding was performed with the following adhesive luting systems: RelyXTM Unicem 2 (RX), ScotchbondTM Universal (SBU) + RelyXTM Ultimate (RU) or Monobond Plus (MP) + Multilink® Automix (ML). After 24 h, thermocycling (TC:12,000 × 5 °C/55 °C) and 90 days of storage at 37 °C in distilled water, the shear bond strength (SBS) was evaluated according to ISO/TS 11,405:2015. Failure modes along bonding areas were characterized. Means and standard deviations (n = 10 per group) were determined and statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA/Bonferroni (α = 0.05). (3) Results: The SBS after 24 h varied between 3.5 (sRX) and 69.4 MPa (snMP + ML). Values from 0 (sRX) to 70.3 MPa (swRX) were found after TC. Data after 90 days of storage showed the lowest values for sRX (0 MPa) and the highest values for alSBU + RU (75.5 MPa). Adhesive failure was noted at all aging conditions. (4) Conclusions: SBU + RU or RX and MP + ML including saliva decontamination of the ceramic surface with water or NaOCl + water allow efficient bonding to LavaTM Esthetic. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Probiotics: A Promising Role in Dental Health
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 26; doi:10.3390/dj5040026
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance
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Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of available antimicrobials have restricted their use in an array of prophylactic options. Indeed, some new strategies to prevent oral diseases are based on manipulating oral microbiota, which is provided by probiotics. Currently, no sufficient substantial evidence exists to support the use of probiotics to prevent, treat or manage oral cavity diseases. At present, probiotic use did not cause adverse effects or increased risks of caries or periodontal diseases. This implicates no strong evidence against treatment using probiotics. In this review, we try to explore the use of probiotics in prevention, treatment and management of some oral cavity diseases and the possibilities of developing designer probiotics for the next generation of oral and throat complimentary healthcare. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants—A Literature Review
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 34; doi:10.3390/dj5040034
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
This paper reviews the literature and discusses the latest updates on the use of pit and fissure sealants. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants in preventing caries and the management of early carious lesions. It compares the use of different
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This paper reviews the literature and discusses the latest updates on the use of pit and fissure sealants. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants in preventing caries and the management of early carious lesions. It compares the use of different sealant materials and their indications. It describes the application technique for sealants. It also reviews the cost-effectiveness of sealants as a preventive strategy. From this review and after the discussion of recently published studies on pit and fissure sealants, it is evident that sealants are effective in caries prevention and in preventing the progression of incipient lesions. It is therefore recommended that pit and fissure sealant be applied to high-caries-risk children for optimum cost-effectiveness. It is a highly sensitive technique that needs optimum isolation, cleaning of the tooth surface, etching, and the application of a thin bonding layer for maximum benefit. Recall and repair, when needed, are important to maximize the effectiveness of such sealant use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Open AccessReview PEEK with Reinforced Materials and Modifications for Dental Implant Applications
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 35; doi:10.3390/dj5040035 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a semi-crystalline linear polycyclic thermoplastic that has been proposed as a substitute for metals in biomaterials. PEEK can also be applied to dental implant materials as a superstructure, implant abutment, or implant body. This article summarizes the current research on
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Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a semi-crystalline linear polycyclic thermoplastic that has been proposed as a substitute for metals in biomaterials. PEEK can also be applied to dental implant materials as a superstructure, implant abutment, or implant body. This article summarizes the current research on PEEK applications in dental implants, especially for the improvement of PEEK surface and body modifications. Although various benchmark reports on the reinforcement and surface modifications of PEEK are available, few clinical trials using PEEK for dental implant bodies have been published. Controlled clinical trials, especially for the use of PEEK in implant abutment and implant bodies, are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Meth Mouth—A Growing Epidemic in Dentistry?
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 29; doi:10.3390/dj5040029
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
In the past two decades, the synthetic style and fashion drug “crystal meth” (“crystal”, “meth”), chemically representing the crystalline form of the methamphetamine hydrochloride, has become more and more popular in the United States, in Eastern Europe, and just recently in Central and
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In the past two decades, the synthetic style and fashion drug “crystal meth” (“crystal”, “meth”), chemically representing the crystalline form of the methamphetamine hydrochloride, has become more and more popular in the United States, in Eastern Europe, and just recently in Central and Western Europe. “Meth” is cheap, easy to synthesize and to market, and has an extremely high potential for abuse and dependence. As a strong sympathomimetic, “meth” has the potency to switch off hunger, fatigue and, pain while simultaneously increasing physical and mental performance. The most relevant side effects are heart and circulatory complaints, severe psychotic attacks, personality changes, and progressive neurodegeneration. Another effect is “meth mouth”, defined as serious tooth and oral health damage after long-standing “meth” abuse; this condition may become increasingly relevant in dentistry and oral- and maxillofacial surgery. There might be an association between general methamphetamine abuse and the development of osteonecrosis, similar to the medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ). Several case reports concerning “meth” patients after tooth extractions or oral surgery have presented clinical pictures similar to MRONJ. This overview summarizes the most relevant aspect concerning “crystal meth” abuse and “meth mouth”. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Colored Gingiva Composite Used for the Rehabilitation of Gingiva Recessions and Non-Carious Cervical Lesions
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 33; doi:10.3390/dj5040033
Received: 5 November 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
In this case of extensive gingival recession (Miller’s Class II) and mild physiologic pigmentation, an alternative method for the placement of Amaris Gingiva-Colored Composite was used to produce a non-invasive, aesthetic result acceptable to the patient. In restoring the defects in the entire
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In this case of extensive gingival recession (Miller’s Class II) and mild physiologic pigmentation, an alternative method for the placement of Amaris Gingiva-Colored Composite was used to produce a non-invasive, aesthetic result acceptable to the patient. In restoring the defects in the entire maxilla of this patient, the opaquers were not mixed, but applied individually, directly to various areas of the teeth. Multiple opaquers were placed in a pattern mimicking the coloring of the patient’s gingiva. These were then covered with the base shade for a more aesthetic result to the patient’s satisfaction. The restorations resulting from the alternative method were highly aesthetic and at an eleven (11) month review showed no signs of failure giving rise to the conclusion that this method proposed for application of Amaris Gingiva-Colored Composite is viable for producing highly-aesthetic restorations in cases of gingival recession. Full article
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