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Dent. J., Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Dentin Erosion: Method Validation and Efficacy of Fluoride Protection
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 27; doi:10.3390/dj5040027
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
The aging population experiences more gingival recession and root exposure which increases the opportunity for dentin erosion. This study tested the use of transverse microradiography (TMR) methods to assess dentin erosion and the interaction between fluoride and citric acid on the amount of
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The aging population experiences more gingival recession and root exposure which increases the opportunity for dentin erosion. This study tested the use of transverse microradiography (TMR) methods to assess dentin erosion and the interaction between fluoride and citric acid on the amount of erosion in the dentin samples. In a 4 × 3 interaction experimental design, four fluoride concentrations (0.00, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 mg/L) and three citric acid concentrations (0.0, 0.25, and 1.00%) were combined to form 12 experimental solutions. Forty-eight dentin samples were placed in the experimental solutions for 1 and 4 h and the amount of surface lost was determined by TMR methods. The resolution of the TMR method was 0.9 μm per pixel with a 0.1% and a 5% confidence interval of ±4.2 μm. Dentin erosion increased with the concentration of citric acid and time, the erosion decreased when concentration of fluoride was increased. Effects due to fluoride and citric acid concentrations individually, and their interaction on the amount of erosion observed was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). This study found that TMR methods are appropriate and that 25.0 mg/L was the optimal fluoride concentration to protect dentin from a 1.00% citric acid challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts on Erosive Tooth Wear)
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Open AccessArticle Nanoclay-Reinforced Glass-Ionomer Cements: In Vitro Wear Evaluation and Comparison by Two Wear-Test Methods
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 28; doi:10.3390/dj5040028
Received: 25 March 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Glass ionomer cement (GIC) represents a major transformation in restorative dentistry. Wear of dental restoratives is a common phenomenon and the determination of the wear resistance of direct-restorative materials is a challenging task. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the wear
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Glass ionomer cement (GIC) represents a major transformation in restorative dentistry. Wear of dental restoratives is a common phenomenon and the determination of the wear resistance of direct-restorative materials is a challenging task. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the wear resistance of novel glass ionomer cement by two wear-test methods and to compare the two wear methods.The wear resistance of a conventional glass ionomer cement (HiFi Advanced Health Care Kent, UK) and cements modified by including various percentages of nanoclays (1, 2 and 4 wt %) was measured by a reciprocating wear test (ball-on-flat) and Oregon Health and Sciences University’s (OHSU) wear simulator. The OHSU wear simulation subjected the cement specimens to three wear mechanisms, namely abrasion, three-body abrasion and attrition using a steatite antagonist. The abrasion wear resulted in material loss from GIC specimen as the steatite antagonist forced through the exposed glass particles when it travelled along the sliding path.The hardness of specimens was measured by the Vickers hardness test. The results of reciprocation wear test showed that HiFi-1 resulted in the lowest wear volume 4.90 (0.60) mm3 (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the wear volume in comparison to HiFi, HiFi-2 and HiFi-4. Similarly, the results of OHSU wear simulator showed that the total wear volume of HiFi-4 1.49 (0.24) was higher than HiFi-1 and HiFi-2. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was found in the OHSU total wear volume in GICs after nanoclay incorporation. The Vickers hardness (HV) of the nanoclay-reinforced cements was measured between 62 and 89 HV. Nanoclay addition at a higher concentration (4%) resulted in higher wear volume and wear depth. The total wear volumes were less dependent upon abrasion volume and attrition volume. The total wear depths were strongly influenced by attrition depth and to some extent by abrasion depth. The addition of nanoclay in higher wt % to HiFi did not result in significant improvement in wear resistance and hardness. Nonetheless, wear is a very complex phenomenon because it is sensitive to a wide number of factors that do not necessarily act in the same way when compared using different parameters. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Probiotics: A Promising Role in Dental Health
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 26; doi:10.3390/dj5040026
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance
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Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of available antimicrobials have restricted their use in an array of prophylactic options. Indeed, some new strategies to prevent oral diseases are based on manipulating oral microbiota, which is provided by probiotics. Currently, no sufficient substantial evidence exists to support the use of probiotics to prevent, treat or manage oral cavity diseases. At present, probiotic use did not cause adverse effects or increased risks of caries or periodontal diseases. This implicates no strong evidence against treatment using probiotics. In this review, we try to explore the use of probiotics in prevention, treatment and management of some oral cavity diseases and the possibilities of developing designer probiotics for the next generation of oral and throat complimentary healthcare. Full article
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