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Foods, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 444-589

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessEditorial Global Food Safety—International Consumers’ Rights?
Foods 2013, 2(4), 460-461; doi:10.3390/foods2040460
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
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Abstract
Your submissions to this Special Issue “Food Microbiology and Safety” of Foods—a new open access journal—are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their [...] Read more.
Your submissions to this Special Issue “Food Microbiology and Safety” of Foods—a new open access journal—are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Behavior of Heat-Denatured Whey: Buttermilk Protein Aggregates during the Yogurt-Making Process and Their Influence on Set-Type Yogurt Properties
Foods 2013, 2(4), 444-459; doi:10.3390/foods2040444
Received: 16 July 2013 / Revised: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of using heat-denatured whey:buttermilk protein aggregate in acid-set type yogurt production. Whey and buttermilk (25:75) protein concentrate was adjusted to pH 4.6, heated at 90 °C for 5 min, homogenized and freeze-dried. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of using heat-denatured whey:buttermilk protein aggregate in acid-set type yogurt production. Whey and buttermilk (25:75) protein concentrate was adjusted to pH 4.6, heated at 90 °C for 5 min, homogenized and freeze-dried. Set-type yogurts were prepared from skim milk standardized to 15% (w/v) total solids and 4.2% (w/v) protein using different levels of powdered skim milk or freeze-dried protein aggregate. The use of the protein aggregate significantly modified yogurt texture, but did not affect the water-holding capacity of the gel. Confocal laser-scanning microscope images showed the presence of large particles in milk enriched with protein aggregate, which directly affected the homogeneity of the clusters within the protein matrix. Thiol groups were freed during heating of the protein aggregate suspended in water, suggesting that the aggregates could interact with milk proteins during heating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Flavour of Dairy Products)
Open AccessArticle Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity
Foods 2013, 2(4), 462-477; doi:10.3390/foods2040462
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 3 October 2013 / Accepted: 3 October 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
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Abstract
Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or [...] Read more.
Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1%) and polyphenols (84.7%). The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP) made with this optimized SCCO2 extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO2 extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO2 extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage
Foods 2013, 2(4), 478-487; doi:10.3390/foods2040478
Received: 13 August 2013 / Revised: 5 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
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Abstract
Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in [...] Read more.
Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst’s native micro-flora’s ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst’s native micro-flora (p < 0.05). The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst’s native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)
Open AccessArticle Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce
Foods 2013, 2(4), 488-498; doi:10.3390/foods2040488
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
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Abstract
Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens) [...] Read more.
Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens) production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce). Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates (Salmonella and E. coli), spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid) significantly reduced Salmonella, E. coli, coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless), it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)
Open AccessCommunication Iridescence in Meat Caused by Surface Gratings
Foods 2013, 2(4), 499-506; doi:10.3390/foods2040499
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
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Abstract
The photonic structure of cut muscle tissues reveals that the well-ordered gratings diffract light, producing iridescent colours. Cut fibrils protruding from the muscle surface create a two-dimensional periodic array, which diffract light at specific wavelengths upon illumination. However, this photonic effect misleads [...] Read more.
The photonic structure of cut muscle tissues reveals that the well-ordered gratings diffract light, producing iridescent colours. Cut fibrils protruding from the muscle surface create a two-dimensional periodic array, which diffract light at specific wavelengths upon illumination. However, this photonic effect misleads consumers in a negative way to relate the optical phenomenon with the quality of the product. Here we discuss the fundamentals of this optical phenomenon and demonstrate a methodology for quantitatively measuring iridescence caused by diffraction gratings of muscle tissue surface of pork (Sus scrofa domesticus) using reflection spectrophotometry. Iridescence was discussed theoretically as a light phenomenon and spectral measurements were taken from the gratings and monitored in real time during controlled drying. The findings show that the intensity of diffraction diminishes as the surface grating was dried with an air flow at 50 °C for 2 min while the diffracted light wavelength was at 585 ± 9 nm. Our findings indicate that the diffraction may be caused by a blazed surface grating. The implications of the study include providing guidelines to minimise the iridescence by altering the surface microstructure, and in consequence, removing the optical effect. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life
Foods 2013, 2(4), 507-520; doi:10.3390/foods2040507
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
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Abstract
O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15%) was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary [...] Read more.
O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15%) was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa) and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa) (30% CO2/70% N2) settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days). This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS), bacon slices (BA), and meat and potato pies (PP)). Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE) to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors and Food Safety)
Open AccessArticle Dairy-Based Emulsions: Viscosity Affects Fat Difference Thresholds and Sweetness Perception
Foods 2013, 2(4), 521-533; doi:10.3390/foods2040521
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In complex emulsions, viscosity or viscosity-associated sensory attributes such as creaminess are important for quality assessment and product differentiation. Two sets of emulsions with fat or locust bean gum content being varied at seven levels were developed; the two emulsions at each [...] Read more.
In complex emulsions, viscosity or viscosity-associated sensory attributes such as creaminess are important for quality assessment and product differentiation. Two sets of emulsions with fat or locust bean gum content being varied at seven levels were developed; the two emulsions at each level had similar apparent viscosity. Additionally, sugar concentration was kept constant either with respect to total emulsion, or with respect to the aqueous phase. Series of two-alternative forced choice tests were performed with one constant stimulus, and just noticeable differences were calculated using probability regression. The results show that, when viscosity was not compensated, it was easy for the subjects to (a) distinguish emulsions with different fat content when the fat content was addressed in the question, and to (b) distinguish emulsions with different fat or locust bean gum content when creaminess was addressed. For the latter descriptor, it is of minor importance whether viscosity is altered by fat content or a thickener. Weber fractions that were calculated for viscosity were approximately 0.20. The quantitative effects of viscosity on sweetness, however, depend on how product rheology was modified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Flavour of Dairy Products)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder
Foods 2013, 2(4), 534-543; doi:10.3390/foods2040534
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the [...] Read more.
Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min) of warming at lower temperature (40 °C) without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Flavour of Dairy Products)
Open AccessArticle Determination of Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Mushroom Production and Distribution
Foods 2013, 2(4), 544-553; doi:10.3390/foods2040544
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
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Abstract
In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if its numbers do not exceed 100 CFU/g throughout the shelf-life of the food. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Challenge [...] Read more.
In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if its numbers do not exceed 100 CFU/g throughout the shelf-life of the food. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Challenge studies to determine the ability of a food to support growth of L. monocytogenes are essential as predictive modelling often overestimates the growth ability of L. monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine if growth of L. monocytogenes was supported during the production and distribution of mushrooms. A three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto three independent batches of whole mushrooms, sliced mushrooms, mushroom casing and mushroom substrate at a concentration of about 100–1000 CFU/g. The batches were incubated at potential abuse temperatures, as a worst case scenario, and at intervals during storage L. monocytogenes numbers, % moisture and pH were determined. The results showed that the sliced and whole mushrooms had the ability to support growth, while mushroom casing allowed survival but did not support growth. Mushroom substrate showed a rich background microflora that grew on Listeria selective media and this hindered enumeration of L. monocytogenes. In the case of this study, Combase predictions were not always accurate, indicating that challenge studies may be a necessary part of growth determination of L. monocytogenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)
Open AccessArticle Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times
Foods 2013, 2(4), 554-571; doi:10.3390/foods2040554
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 29 November 2013
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Abstract
Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how [...] Read more.
Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be brewed. The first and second brews of the green tea samples provided similar flavor intensities. The third and fourth brews provided milder flavors and lower bitterness and astringency when measured using descriptive sensory analysis. In the brewed liquor of green tea mostly linalool, nonanal, geraniol, jasmone, and β-ionone volatile compounds were present at low levels (using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The geraniol, linalool, and linalool oxide compounds in green tea may contribute to the floral/perfumy flavor. Green teas in leaf form may be brewed up to four times: the first two brews providing stronger flavor, bitterness, and astringency whereas the third and fourth brews will provide milder flavor, bitterness, and astringency. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development and Piloting of a Food Safety Audit Tool for the Domestic Environment
Foods 2013, 2(4), 572-584; doi:10.3390/foods2040572
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
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Abstract
Research suggests that consumers often mishandle food in the home based on survey and observation studies. There is a need for a standardized tool for researchers to objectively evaluate the prevalence and identify the nature of food safety risks in the domestic [...] Read more.
Research suggests that consumers often mishandle food in the home based on survey and observation studies. There is a need for a standardized tool for researchers to objectively evaluate the prevalence and identify the nature of food safety risks in the domestic environment. An audit tool was developed to measure compliance with recommended sanitation, refrigeration and food storage conditions in the domestic kitchen. The tool was piloted by four researchers who independently completed the inspection in 22 homes. Audit tool questions were evaluated for reliability using the κ statistic. Questions that were not sufficiently reliable (κ < 0.5) or did not provide direct evidence of risk were revised or eliminated from the final tool. Piloting the audit tool found good reliability among 18 questions, 6 questions were revised and 28 eliminated, resulting in a final 24 question tool. The audit tool was able to identify potential food safety risks, including evidence of pest infestation (27%), incorrect refrigeration temperature (73%), and lack of hot water (>43 °C, 32%). The audit tool developed here provides an objective measure for researchers to observe and record the most prevalent food safety risks in consumer’s kitchens and potentially compare risks among consumers of different demographics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessOpinion Economic Impact of Food Safety Outbreaks on Food Businesses
Foods 2013, 2(4), 585-589; doi:10.3390/foods2040585
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A globalized food trade, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing toward an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. Moreover, the volume of international food trade has increased to become very large. All of these factors are putting pressure on [...] Read more.
A globalized food trade, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing toward an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. Moreover, the volume of international food trade has increased to become very large. All of these factors are putting pressure on the food companies to meet global demand in order to be competitive. This scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient toward food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. The estimated cost of food safety incidents for the economy of the United States is around $7 billion per year which comes from notifying consumers, removing food from shelves, and paying damages as a result of lawsuits. Most other countries similarly have economic losses. Much of these losses represent lost markets, loss of consumer demand, litigation and company closures. Concrete steps are needed to improve safety of foods produced for local or overseas markets to avoid unexpected food scandals and economic losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)

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