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Foods, Volume 6, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Glycomacropeptide Reduces Intestinal Epithelial Cell Barrier Dysfunction and Adhesion of Entero-Hemorrhagic and Entero-Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Vitro
Foods 2017, 6(11), 93; doi:10.3390/foods6110093
Received: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion
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In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion of kappa-casein that is released from whey during cheese-making by the action of chymosin. Many of the biological properties associated with GMP, such as anti-adhesion, have been linked with the carbohydrate portion of the protein. In this study, we investigated the ability of GMP to inhibit the adhesion of a variety of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains to HT-29 and Caco-2 intestinal cell lines, given the importance of E. coli in causing bacterial gastroenteritis. GMP significantly reduced pathogen adhesion, albeit with a high degree of species specificity toward enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains O125:H32 and O111:H2 and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain 12900 O157:H7. The anti-adhesive effect resulted from the interaction of GMP with the E. coli cells and was also dependent on GMP concentration. Pre-incubation of intestinal Caco-2 cells with GMP reduced pathogen translocation as represented by a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Thus, GMP is an effective in-vitro inhibitor of adhesion and epithelial injury caused by E. coli and may have potential as a biofunctional ingredient in foods to improve gastrointestinal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Liver Pâtés with Annatto Extract (Bixa orellana L.) and Date Palm Co-Products (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
Foods 2017, 6(11), 94; doi:10.3390/foods6110094
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
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Abstract
Two novel ingredients were incorporated into spreadable liver pâtés to study their effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics and their possible use in the meat industry. Fresh date (Phoenix dactylifera, cv. Confitera) co-products, as a paste (0, 2.5 and 7.5%), and
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Two novel ingredients were incorporated into spreadable liver pâtés to study their effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics and their possible use in the meat industry. Fresh date (Phoenix dactylifera, cv. Confitera) co-products, as a paste (0, 2.5 and 7.5%), and annatto (Bixa orellana) extract (0 and 128 mg/kg), as a colourant, and their combinations were incorporated into liver pâtés to study their effect on the final quality. The six formulations were analysed for chemical composition, physicochemical characteristics (pH, aw, colour, emulsion stability, and texture), and sensory properties. Pâtés tolerated suitable incorporation of date paste, providing emulsifying activity and being able to counteract to some extent the emulsion destabilisation caused by the annatto. All formulations showed an acceptable sensory quality, particularly pâtés with annatto and 7.5% date paste, which was softer, juicier, and presented redness values similar to the control as well as better emulsion stability. The combined use of these novel ingredients could be used as natural ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Animal Origin)
Open AccessArticle The Content of Tocols in South African Wheat; Impact on Nutritional Benefits
Foods 2017, 6(11), 95; doi:10.3390/foods6110095
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Wheat is a major component within human consumption, and due to the large intake of wheat, it has an impact on human nutritional health. This study aimed at an increased understanding of how the content and composition of tocols may be governed for
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Wheat is a major component within human consumption, and due to the large intake of wheat, it has an impact on human nutritional health. This study aimed at an increased understanding of how the content and composition of tocols may be governed for increased nutritional benefit of wheat consumption. Therefore, ten South African wheat cultivars from three locations were fractionated into white and whole flour, the content and concentration of tocols were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and vitamin E activity was determined. The content and composition of tocols and vitamin E activity differed with fractionation, genotype, environment, and their interaction. The highest tocol content (59.8 mg kg−1) was obtained in whole flour for the cultivar Elands grown in Ladybrand, while whole Caledon flour from Clarence resulted in the highest vitamin E activity (16.3 mg kg−1). The lowest vitamin E activity (1.9 mg kg−1) was found in the cultivar C1PAN3118 from Ladybrand. High values of tocotrienols were obtained in whole flour of the cultivars Caledon (30.5 mg kg−1 in Clarens), Elands (35.5 mg kg−1 in Ladybrand), and Limpopo (33.7 mg kg−1 in Bultfontein). The highest tocotrienol to tocopherol ratio was found in white flour (2.83) due to higher reduction of tocotrienols than of tocopherols at fractionation. The quantity and composition of tocols can be governed in wheat flour, primarily by the selection of fractionation method at flour production, but also complemented by selection of genetic material and the growing environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes)
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Open AccessArticle 1H NMR and Multivariate Analysis for Geographic Characterization of Commercial Extra Virgin Olive Oil: A Possible Correlation with Climate Data
Foods 2017, 6(11), 96; doi:10.3390/foods6110096
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis has been applied in order to investigate metabolomic profiles of more than 200 extravirgin olive oils (EVOOs) collected in a period of over four years (2009–2012) from different geographic areas. In particular,
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1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis has been applied in order to investigate metabolomic profiles of more than 200 extravirgin olive oils (EVOOs) collected in a period of over four years (2009–2012) from different geographic areas. In particular, commercially blended EVOO samples originating from different Italian regions (Tuscany, Sicily and Apulia), as well as European (Spain and Portugal) and non-European (Tunisia, Turkey, Chile and Australia) countries. Multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analisys (PCA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA)) applied on the NMR data revealed the existence of marked differences between Italian (in particular from Tuscany, Sicily and Apulia regions) and foreign (in particular Tunisian) EVOO samples. A possible correlation with available climate data has been also investigated. These results aim to develop a powerful NMR-based tool able to protect Italian olive oil productions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Physico-Chemical Characterization of a Shea Butter-Containing Lipid Nutrition Supplement for Sub-Saharan Africa
Foods 2017, 6(11), 97; doi:10.3390/foods6110097
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) according
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Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID’s A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa), a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed. LNS formulas were batched (0.8 kg) in a wet grinder, sealed under nitrogen in three-layer mini-pouches (20 g), and underwent ASLT at 40 ± 2 °C for six months with sampling every eight weeks. At each time point, water activity, moisture, peroxide value, oil separation, vitamin C content, and hardness were evaluated. Results showed comparable stability among all formulas with an increase in Aw (p < 0.05) but no change in vitamin C, oil separation, or peroxide value. Addition of Shea butter improved the LNS’s hardness, which remained stable over time. Modifying fat profile in LNS can improve its texture and essential fatty acid content without affecting its storage stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reformulation and Innovation for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Lard in Cocoa Butter—Its Fatty Acid Composition, Triacylglycerol Profiles, and Thermal Characteristics
Foods 2017, 6(11), 98; doi:10.3390/foods6110098
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
The present study investigates the detection of lard in cocoa butter through changes in fatty acids composition, triacylglycerols profile, and thermal characteristics. Cocoa butter was mixed with 1% to 30% (v/v) of lard and analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector,
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The present study investigates the detection of lard in cocoa butter through changes in fatty acids composition, triacylglycerols profile, and thermal characteristics. Cocoa butter was mixed with 1% to 30% (v/v) of lard and analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results revealed that the mixing of lard in cocoa butter showed an increased amount of oleic acid in the cocoa butter while there was a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid and stearic acids. The amount of POS, SOS, and POP also decreased with the addition of lard. A heating thermogram from the DSC analysis showed that as the concentration of lard increased from 3% to 30%, two minor peaks at −26 °C and 34.5 °C started to appear and a minor peak at 34.5 °C gradually overlapped with the neighbouring major peak. A cooling thermogram of the above adulterated cocoa butter showed a minor peak shift to a lower temperature of −36 °C to −41.5 °C. Values from this study could be used as a basis for the identification of lard from other fats in the food authentication process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Analysis of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle Fatty Acid Profiles of In Vitro Digested Processed Milk
Foods 2017, 6(11), 99; doi:10.3390/foods6110099
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Digestion of milkfat releases some long-chain (18-carbon) fatty acids (FAs) that can provide health benefits to the consumer, yet because they are found in small amounts and can be difficult to identify, there is limited information on the effects that common fluid milk
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Digestion of milkfat releases some long-chain (18-carbon) fatty acids (FAs) that can provide health benefits to the consumer, yet because they are found in small amounts and can be difficult to identify, there is limited information on the effects that common fluid milk processing may have on the digestibility of these FAs. This study provides FA profiles for raw and combinations of homogenized and/or heat-treated (high and ultra-high temperature pasteurization) milk, before and after in vitro digestion, in order to determine the effects of processing on the digestibility of these healthy fatty acids. Use of a highly sensitive separation column resulted in improved FA profiles that showed that, when milk was subjected to both pasteurization and homogenization, the release of the 18-carbon FAs, oleic acid, linoleic acid (an omega-6 FA), rumenic acid (a conjugated linoleic acid, CLA), and linolenic acid (an omega-3 FA) tended to be higher than with either pasteurization or homogenization, or with no treatment. Milk is noted for containing the omega-3 FAs and CLAs, which are associated with positive health benefits. Determining how processing factors may impact the components in milk will aid in understanding the release of healthy FAs when milk and dairy foods are consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
Open AccessArticle Immunodetection of Porcine Red Blood Cell Containing Food Ingredients Using a Porcine-Hemoglobin-Specific Monoclonal Antibody
Foods 2017, 6(11), 101; doi:10.3390/foods6110101
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 24C12-E7 has been found to bind to a 12 kDa antigenic protein in the red blood cell (RBC) of porcine blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the identity of this 12 kDa protein and consequently examine its
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Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 24C12-E7 has been found to bind to a 12 kDa antigenic protein in the red blood cell (RBC) of porcine blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the identity of this 12 kDa protein and consequently examine its potential as a marker for monitoring porcine RBC-containing ingredients (PRBCIs) in foods. Proteomic techniques identified the 12 kDa antigenic protein to be a monomer of the tetrameric hemoglobin molecule. Further heat-processing of spray-dried PRBCIs diminishes its detectability. Whereas mAb 24C12-E7-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) could detect 1% (v/v) or less of PRBCIs in raw and cooked ground meats (beef, pork and chicken), the detection limits were 3 to 30 times higher for spiked cooked beef and pork. The assay is effective for monitoring the presence of PRBCIs in foods to protect the billions of people that avoid consuming blood. In situations where these PRBCIs are present as ingredients in foods that have undergone further heat processing, the assay, however, may not be as sensitive depending on the types of sample matrix, types of PRBCIs and the level of inclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Old Fashioned vs. Ultra-Processed-Based Current Diets: Possible Implication in the Increased Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease in Childhood
Foods 2017, 6(11), 100; doi:10.3390/foods6110100
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for
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Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a “leaky gut”. These factors have been associated with increased risk of autoimmunity in genetically predisposed children. In addition, food emulsifiers, commonly used in ultra-processed products could modify the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability, which could increase the risk of autoimmunity. In contrast, unprocessed and minimally processed food-based diets have shown the capacity to promote gut microbiota eubiosis, anti-inflammatory response, and epithelial integrity, through bacterial butyrate production. Thus, to decrease the susceptibility to autoimmunity, genetically predisposed children should avoid ultra-processed food products and encourage the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods. Full article
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Open AccessReview Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL) Milk
Foods 2017, 6(11), 102; doi:10.3390/foods6110102
Received: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Extended shelf-life (ESL) or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT) sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this,
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Extended shelf-life (ESL) or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT) sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B* (inactivation of thermophilic spores), of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Processing of Food Products)
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