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Foods, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Fatty Acid Composition of Gluten-Free Food (Bakery Products) for Celiac People
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study (first analytical approach) was to obtain data concerning the fatty acid composition of gluten-free foods (bakery products) for celiac people. The study included 35 different products (snacks, biscuits, bakery products, pasta, flours, etc.) from several manufacturers. After extraction
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The aim of this study (first analytical approach) was to obtain data concerning the fatty acid composition of gluten-free foods (bakery products) for celiac people. The study included 35 different products (snacks, biscuits, bakery products, pasta, flours, etc.) from several manufacturers. After extraction and esterification, the fatty acid composition was determined by Gaschromatography (GC–MS) Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were found to be the major constituents (57%), followed by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) (30%), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (13%). Only 15 of the 35 gluten-free samples analyzed appeared to provide adequate energy intake, while, in 11 samples, saturated fatty acids were found to supply more energy than that recommended by the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. Moreover, data analyses showed that, although gluten-free commercial products are high added-value foods, industrial products in many cases contain palm and palm kernel oils, whereas the local producers generally use the finest raw materials, such as olive oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Free Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Rice Koji Extract Components that Increase β-Glucocerebrosidase Levels in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Rice miso contains many ingredients derived from rice koji and has been a valuable source of nutrition since ancient times. We found that the consumption of rice miso led to improvements in the moisture content of cheek stratum corneum, skin viscoelasticity, and skin
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Rice miso contains many ingredients derived from rice koji and has been a valuable source of nutrition since ancient times. We found that the consumption of rice miso led to improvements in the moisture content of cheek stratum corneum, skin viscoelasticity, and skin texture. Further, rice miso extract was found to increase the mRNA expression and activity of β-glucocerebrosidase (β-GCase), an enzyme involved in ceramide synthesis in the stratum corneum, in cultures. In this study, we identified the lipid-derived components of rice koji that increase the β-GCase activity in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. The methanol fraction of rice koji extract induced an increase in the mRNA expression and activity of β-GCase in keratinocytes. The active fraction of rice koji was found to contain phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The total PA concentration in rice koji was 973.9 ng/mg dry weight, which was 17.5 times higher than that in steamed rice. Among the molecular species, PA_18:2/18:2 was the most frequently found. The total LPA concentration in rice koji was 29.6 ng/mg dry weight, and 2-LPA_18:2 was the most frequently found LPA. Since PA and LPA increase the mRNA expression and activity of β-GCase in keratinocytes, they are thought to be the active ingredients in rice koji that increase the β-GCase levels in human epidermal keratinocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Extraction Conditions of Free and Bound Phenolic Compounds from Rice By-Products and Their Antioxidant Effects
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Rice by-products are extensively abundant agricultural wastes from the rice industry. This study was designed to optimize experimental conditions for maximum recovery of free and bound phenolic compounds from rice by-products. Optimized conditions were determined using response surface methodology based on total phenolic
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Rice by-products are extensively abundant agricultural wastes from the rice industry. This study was designed to optimize experimental conditions for maximum recovery of free and bound phenolic compounds from rice by-products. Optimized conditions were determined using response surface methodology based on total phenolic content (TPC), ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power (FRAP). A Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction time and temperature, and NaOH concentration, hydrolysis time and temperature for free and bound fractions, respectively. The optimal conditions for the free phenolics were 41–56%, 40 °C, 10 min, whereas for bound phenolics were 2.5–3.6 M, 80 °C, 120 min. Under these conditions free TPC, ABTS and FRAP values in the bran were approximately 2-times higher than in the husk. However, bound TPC and FRAP values in the husk were 1.9- and 1.2-times higher than those in the bran, respectively, while bran fraction observed the highest ABTS value. Ferulic acid was most evident in the bran, whereas p-coumaric acid was mostly found in the husk. Findings from this study demonstrates that rice by-products could be exploited as valuable sources of bioactive components that could be used as ingredients of functional food and nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols in Foods and Their Function in Disease Prevention)
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Open AccessReview Potential Use of Bacillus coagulans in the Food Industry
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Probiotic microorganisms are generally considered to beneficially affect host health when used in adequate amounts. Although generally used in dairy products, they are also widely used in various commercial food products such as fermented meats, cereals, baby foods, fruit juices, and ice creams.
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Probiotic microorganisms are generally considered to beneficially affect host health when used in adequate amounts. Although generally used in dairy products, they are also widely used in various commercial food products such as fermented meats, cereals, baby foods, fruit juices, and ice creams. Among lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most commonly used bacteria in probiotic foods, but they are not resistant to heat treatment. Probiotic food diversity is expected to be greater with the use of probiotics, which are resistant to heat treatment and gastrointestinal system conditions. Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) has recently attracted the attention of researchers and food manufacturers, as it exhibits characteristics of both the Bacillus and Lactobacillus genera. B. coagulans is a spore-forming bacterium which is resistant to high temperatures with its probiotic activity. In addition, a large number of studies have been carried out on the low-cost microbial production of industrially valuable products such as lactic acid and various enzymes of B. coagulans which have been used in food production. In this review, the importance of B. coagulans in food industry is discussed. Moreover, some studies on B. coagulans products and the use of B. coagulans as a probiotic in food products are summarized. Full article
Open AccessArticle Whole Grain Muffin Acceptance by Young Adults
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Adolescents and young adults in the United States do not consume recommended amounts of whole grains. University dining services have opportunities to inform students about whole grains and to offer foods containing blends of whole grains with refined flour to increase daily consumption
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Adolescents and young adults in the United States do not consume recommended amounts of whole grains. University dining services have opportunities to inform students about whole grains and to offer foods containing blends of whole grains with refined flour to increase daily consumption of these healthful foods. An online survey of university students (n = 100) found that 70% of respondents did not know the proportion of servings of whole grains that should be eaten daily. Mini blueberry muffins containing 50, 75, and 100% white whole wheat flour were served to 50 undergraduate students who rated their liking of the muffins using a nine-point hedonic scale. Respondents liked all muffin formulations similarly for appearance, taste, texture and overall liking. After the whole grain content of each muffin was revealed, 66% of students increased their liking of the muffins containing 100% whole wheat flour. Only half of the students increased their liking for the 75% whole wheat flour muffins, and most students reported no change in liking for the muffins made with the lowest percentage of whole wheat flour. Labeling whole grain foods in university foodservice operations may increase consumption of this food group by some students. Further research with actual purchase behavior is needed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Pharma-Nutritional Properties of Olive Oil Phenols. Transfer of New Findings to Human Nutrition
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
The Mediterranean diet has been long associated with improved cardiovascular prognosis, chemoprevention, and lower incidence of neurodegeneration. Of the multiple components of this diet, olive oil stands out because its use has historically been limited to the Mediterranean basin. The health benefits of
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The Mediterranean diet has been long associated with improved cardiovascular prognosis, chemoprevention, and lower incidence of neurodegeneration. Of the multiple components of this diet, olive oil stands out because its use has historically been limited to the Mediterranean basin. The health benefits of olive oil and some of its components are being rapidly decoded. In this paper we review the most recent pharma-nutritional investigations on olive oil biophenols and their health effects, chiefly focusing on recent findings that elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle Consumer Acceptability of Dry Cured Meat from Cull Ewes Reared with Different Linseed Supplementation Levels and Feeding Durations
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
Dry cured meat—‘cecina’—is a traditional, although not well-known, dry product that could add value to cull ewes. Because of this, the aim of the study was to assess consumer acceptability of ‘cecina’ from cull ewes finished with different levels of linseed (5, 10
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Dry cured meat—‘cecina’—is a traditional, although not well-known, dry product that could add value to cull ewes. Because of this, the aim of the study was to assess consumer acceptability of ‘cecina’ from cull ewes finished with different levels of linseed (5, 10 or 15%) for different periods before slaughtering (30, 50 or 70 days). One hundred and fifty consumers evaluated colour acceptability, fatness and odour, flavour and overall acceptability of ‘cecina’ from those 9 treatments. Additionally, habits of consumption of cured products and preferences for different species and willingness to pay for ‘cecina’ were investigated. Linseed supplementation was identified as the most important factor for sensorial attributes (p < 0.01), with the preferred ‘cecina’ being that with 5% and 10% supplementation. Feeding duration only modified the fatness acceptability (p < 0.01). ‘Cecina’ from small ruminants is a product consumed occasionally by the majority of participants; however, it presented an adequate overall acceptability. Consequently, elaborating ‘cecina’ would be a feasible strategy to improve the income of farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat Products)
Open AccessArticle Protection by the Total Flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice via Modulation of FXR Signaling
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
We previously reported the effects of the total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, there have been no papers reporting the role of R. laevigata TFs against lipopolysaccharide
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We previously reported the effects of the total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, there have been no papers reporting the role of R. laevigata TFs against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. In this paper, liver injury in mice was induced by LPS, and R. Laevigata extract was intragastrically administered to the mice for 7 days. Biochemical parameters in serum and liver tissue were examined, and pathological changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Oil Red O staining. The results showed that the TFs markedly reduced serum ALT (alanine transferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TG (total triglyceride), and TC (total cholesterol) levels and relative liver weights and improved liver pathological changes. In addition, the TFs markedly decreased tissue MDA (malondialdehyde) level and increased the levels of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase). A mechanistic study showed that the TFs significantly increased the expression levels of Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid factor2-related factor 2), HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), NQO1 (NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1), GCLC (glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit), and GCLM (glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit) and decreased Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) level by activating FXR (farnesoid X receptor) against oxidative stress. Furthermore, the TFs markedly suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) and subsequently decreased the expression levels of IL (interleukin)-1β, IL-6, HMGB-1 (high -mobility group box 1), and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) by activating FXR and FOXO3a (forkhead box O3) against inflammation. Besides, the TFs obviously reduced the expression levels of SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1c), ACC1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1), FASN (fatty acid synthase), and SCD1 (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1), and improved CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) level by activating FXR to regulate lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that TFs exhibited protective effect against LPS-induced liver injury by altering FXR-mediated oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid metabolism, and should be developed as an effective food and healthcare product for the therapy of liver injury in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols in Foods and Their Function in Disease Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle DNA Barcoding for Identification of Consumer-Relevant Fungi Sold in New York: A Powerful Tool for Citizen Scientists?
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
Although significant progress has been made in our understanding of fungal diversity, identification based on phenotype can be difficult, even for trained experts. Fungi typically have a cryptic nature and can have a similar appearance to distantly related species. Moreover, the appearance of
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Although significant progress has been made in our understanding of fungal diversity, identification based on phenotype can be difficult, even for trained experts. Fungi typically have a cryptic nature and can have a similar appearance to distantly related species. Moreover, the appearance of industrially processed mushrooms complicates species identification, as they are often sold sliced and dried. Here we present a small-scale citizen science project, wherein the participants generated and analyzed DNA sequences from fruiting bodies of dried and fresh fungi that were sold for commercial use in New York City supermarkets. We report positive outcomes and the limitations of a youth citizen scientist, aiming to identify dried mushrooms, using established DNA barcoding protocols and exclusively open-access data analysis tools for species identification. Our results indicate that the single-locus nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA barcoding approach allowed for identification of only a subset of all of the samples at the species level, although the generated high-quality DNA barcodes were submitted to three different databases. Our results highlight the need for a curated, centralized, and open access ITS reference database that allows rapid third-party annotations for the benefit of both traditional research as well as the emerging citizen science community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Stable-Isotope and Physicochemical Data as a Possible Tool to Differentiate between Honey-Production Environments in Uruguay
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
The allocation of honey origin is an increasingly important issue worldwide as it is closely related to product quality and consumer preference. In South America, honeys produced in grasslands and eucalyptus or native forests are preferred at the regional level, so their differentiation
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The allocation of honey origin is an increasingly important issue worldwide as it is closely related to product quality and consumer preference. In South America, honeys produced in grasslands and eucalyptus or native forests are preferred at the regional level, so their differentiation is essential to assure consumers of their authenticity according to their productive system. The objective of this study was to differentiate honeys produced in three environments: one, a monoculture system based on the eucalyptus forest, and two others based in natural environments of grasslands and native forests. To do this, honey’s physicochemical and isotopic variables (pH, free acidity, lactic acid content, moisture, total sugar content, and honey and extracted protein 13C isotopic composition) were analysed. Discriminant analysis applied to the data revealed that, based on the selected variables, it was impossible to differentiate the three groups of honeys due to the superposition of those produced in grasslands and native forests. For this reason, a group of honeys derived from native and polyfloral environments (grasslands and native forests) was formed and subjected to discriminant analysis (DA), together with the group of honeys derived from a commercial plantation of eucalyptus forest. The model obtained in this case achieved 100% correct allocation both at the training stage and the cross-validation stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analysis)
Open AccessReview Current Knowledge on Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food-Related Environments: Incidence, Resistance to Biocides, Ecology and Biocontrol
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
Although many efforts have been made to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry, growing pervasiveness amongst the population over the last decades has made this bacterium considered to be one of the most hazardous foodborne pathogens. Its outstanding biocide tolerance capacity and
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Although many efforts have been made to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry, growing pervasiveness amongst the population over the last decades has made this bacterium considered to be one of the most hazardous foodborne pathogens. Its outstanding biocide tolerance capacity and ability to promiscuously associate with other bacterial species forming multispecies communities have permitted this microorganism to survive and persist within the industrial environment. This review is designed to give the reader an overall picture of the current state-of-the-art in L. monocytogenes sessile communities in terms of food safety and legislation, ecological aspects and biocontrol strategies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Temporal Drivers of Liking Based on Functional Data Analysis and Non-Additive Models for Multi-Attribute Time-Intensity Data of Fruit Chews
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
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Abstract
Conventional drivers of liking analysis was extended with a time dimension into temporal drivers of liking (TDOL) based on functional data analysis methodology and non-additive models for multiple-attribute time-intensity (MATI) data. The non-additive models, which consider both direct effects and interaction effects of
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Conventional drivers of liking analysis was extended with a time dimension into temporal drivers of liking (TDOL) based on functional data analysis methodology and non-additive models for multiple-attribute time-intensity (MATI) data. The non-additive models, which consider both direct effects and interaction effects of attributes to consumer overall liking, include Choquet integral and fuzzy measure in the multi-criteria decision-making, and linear regression based on variance decomposition. Dynamics of TDOL, i.e., the derivatives of the relative importance functional curves were also explored. Well-established R packages ‘fda’, ‘kappalab’ and ‘relaimpo’ were used in the paper for developing TDOL. Applied use of these methods shows that the relative importance of MATI curves offers insights for understanding the temporal aspects of consumer liking for fruit chews. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods)
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Open AccessCommunication What Temperature of Coffee Exceeds the Pain Threshold? Pilot Study of a Sensory Analysis Method as Basis for Cancer Risk Assessment
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 26 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A method for sensory
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A method for sensory analysis of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally increased in temperature during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated in the form of a pilot study using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of β-Lactams and Chloramphenicol Residues in Raw Milk—Development and Application of an HPLC-DAD Method in Comparison with Microbial Inhibition Assays
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
The present study was carried out to assess the detection sensitivity of four microbial inhibition assays (MIAs) in comparison with the results obtained by the High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) method for antibiotics of the β-lactam group and chloramphenicol in
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The present study was carried out to assess the detection sensitivity of four microbial inhibition assays (MIAs) in comparison with the results obtained by the High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) method for antibiotics of the β-lactam group and chloramphenicol in fortified raw milk samples. MIAs presented fairly good results when detecting β-lactams, whereas none were able to detect chloramphenicol at or above the permissible limits. HPLC analysis revealed high recoveries of examined compounds, whereas all detection limits observed were lower than their respective maximum residue limits (MRL) values. The extraction and clean-up procedure of antibiotics was performed by a modified matrix solid phase dispersion procedure using a mixture of Plexa by Agilent and QuEChERS as a sorbent. The HPLC method developed was validated, determining the accuracy, precision, linearity, decision limit, and detection capability. Both methods were used to monitor raw milk samples of several cows and sheep, obtained from producers in different regions of Greece, for the presence of examined antibiotic residues. Results obtained showed that MIAs could be used effectively and routinely to detect antibiotic residues in several milk types. However, in some cases, spoilage of milk samples revealed that the kits’ sensitivity could be strongly affected, whereas this fact does not affect the effectiveness of HPLC-DAD analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity, Detection and Prevention of Food Contaminants)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Selenium-Enriched Ricegrass Juice against Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and DNA Damage in HEK293 Kidney Cells
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in food is a problem endangering human health. Cd detoxication is an interesting topic particularly using food which provides no side effects. Ricegrass juice is a squeezed juice from young rice leaves which is introduced as a functional drink rich
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Cadmium (Cd) contamination in food is a problem endangering human health. Cd detoxication is an interesting topic particularly using food which provides no side effects. Ricegrass juice is a squeezed juice from young rice leaves which is introduced as a functional drink rich in polyphenol components. Se-enrichment into ricegrass is initiated to provide extra advantages of their functional properties. The protective role of ricegrass juice (RG) and Se-enriched ricegrass juice (Se-RG) against Cd toxicity during pre-, co- and post-treatment on HEK293 kidney cells were investigated. Results confirmed that RG and Se-RG had very low toxicity for kidney cells. Both extracts showed a protective role during pre-treatment and co-treatment against Cd toxicity by exerting a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the percentage of DNA damage in tail and tail length of the comets over the Cd-treated cells. However, the Se-RG indicated additional benefits in all properties over RG. High Se content in Se-RG resulted in more protective effects of the regular ricegrass juice. In summary, this study provides clear evidence that Se-enriched ricegrass juice has potential to be developed as a functional food to protect the human body from Cd contamination via the reduction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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