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Foods, Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The effects of different cryomaceration temperatures on the polyphenol content during the wine [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Children Residing in Low-Income Households Like a Variety of Vegetables
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Child vegetable intake falls far below the minimum recommended levels. Knowing which vegetables children may like help those responsible for providing vegetables to children to improve intake. The objective of this study was to measure vegetable liking for a wide variety of vegetables
[...] Read more.
Child vegetable intake falls far below the minimum recommended levels. Knowing which vegetables children may like help those responsible for providing vegetables to children to improve intake. The objective of this study was to measure vegetable liking for a wide variety of vegetables by a racially and ethnically diverse population of 9–12-year old children from low-income families. Children rated their liking of 35 vegetables using a 10-point hedonic scale. We tabulated the number of children that found each vegetable acceptable (ratings of ‘okay’ or above) and the number that found each vegetable unacceptable (ratings below ‘okay’). More than 50% of children who had tried a vegetable considered it acceptable. A large majority of the vegetables had mean ratings in the acceptable range. Corn was the most liked vegetable, closely followed by potatoes, lettuce, and carrots. Artichoke had the lowest mean liking, followed by onion and beets. We found children liked a wide variety of vegetables which offers counter evidence to the commonly held perception that children do not like vegetables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Encapsulation of Citrus By-Product Extracts by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Using Combinations of Maltodextrin with Soybean Protein and ι-Carrageenan
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The effect of different combinations of maltodextrin (MD) coating agents (MD, MD + soybean protein, and MD + ι-carrageenan) on the encapsulation of lemon by-product aqueous extracts using freeze-drying and spray-drying were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and
[...] Read more.
The effect of different combinations of maltodextrin (MD) coating agents (MD, MD + soybean protein, and MD + ι-carrageenan) on the encapsulation of lemon by-product aqueous extracts using freeze-drying and spray-drying were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the microparticles were evaluated. Freeze-drying with the mixture of MD + soybean protein resulted in the highest retention of TPC, TFC, and FRAP (1.66 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g d.b., 0.43 ± 0.02 mg CE/g d.b., and 3.70 ± 0.05 mM TE/g, respectively). Freeze-drying resulted in microparticles with lower moisture content (MC) and water activity (aw) than those produced by spray-drying. Specifically, the MC and aw of the microparticles produced by freeze-drying ranged from 1.15 to 2.15% and 0.13 to 0.14, respectively, while the MC and aw of the microparticles produced by spray-drying ranged from 6.06% to 6.60% and 0.33 to 0.40, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that spray-drying resulted in the formation of spherical particles of different sizes regardless of the type of coating agent. Although freeze-drying resulted in microparticles with amorphous glassy shapes, the mixture of MD + soybean protein resulted in the formation of spherical porous particles. X-ray diffraction revealed a low degree of crystallinity for the samples produced by both techniques. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Evaluation of Commercial Prototype Bacteriophage Intervention Designed for Reducing O157 and Non-O157 Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) on Beef Cattle Hide
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Microbiological safety of beef products can be protected by application of antimicrobial interventions throughout the beef chain. This study evaluated a commercial prototype antimicrobial intervention comprised of lytic bacteriophages formulated to reduce O157 and non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) on beef cattle hide
[...] Read more.
Microbiological safety of beef products can be protected by application of antimicrobial interventions throughout the beef chain. This study evaluated a commercial prototype antimicrobial intervention comprised of lytic bacteriophages formulated to reduce O157 and non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) on beef cattle hide pieces, simulating commercial pre-harvest hide decontamination. STEC reduction in vitro by individual and cocktailed phages was determined by efficiency of plating (EOP). Following STEC inoculation onto hide pieces, the phage intervention was applied and hide pieces were analyzed to quantify reductions in STEC counts. Phage intervention treatment resulted in 0.4 to 0.7 log10 CFU/cm2 (p < 0.01) E. coli O157, O121, and O103 reduction. Conversely, E. coli O111 and O45 did not show any significant reduction after application of bacteriophage intervention (p > 0.05). Multiplicity of infection (MOI) evaluation indicated E. coli O157 and O121 isolates required the fewest numbers of phages per host cell to produce host lysis. STEC-attacking phages may be applied to assist in preventing STEC transmission to beef products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology Research in Meat and Meat Production)
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Open AccessArticle The Proportion of Fermented Milk in Dehydrated Fermented Milk–Parboiled Wheat Composites Significantly Affects Their Composition, Pasting Behaviour, and Flow Properties on Reconstitution
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Dairy and cereal are frequently combined to create composite foods with enhanced nutritional benefits. Dehydrated fermented milk–wheat composites (FMWC) were prepared by blending fermented milk (FM) and parboiled wheat (W), incubating at 35 °C for 24 h, drying at 46 °C for 48
[...] Read more.
Dairy and cereal are frequently combined to create composite foods with enhanced nutritional benefits. Dehydrated fermented milk–wheat composites (FMWC) were prepared by blending fermented milk (FM) and parboiled wheat (W), incubating at 35 °C for 24 h, drying at 46 °C for 48 h, and milling to 1 mm. Increasing the weight ratio of FM to W from 1.5 to 4.0 resulted in reductions in total solids (from 96 to 92%) and starch (from 52 to 39%), and increases in protein (15.2–18.9%), fat (3.7–5.9%), lactose (6.4–11.4%), and lactic acid (2.7–4.2%). FMWC need to be reconstituted prior to consumption. The water-holding capacity, pasting viscosity, and setback viscosity of the reconstituted FMWC (16.7% total solids) decreased with the ratio of FM to W. The reconstituted FMWC exhibited pseudoplastic flow behaviour on shearing from 18 to 120 s−1. Increasing the FM:W ratio coincided with a lower yield stress, consistency index, and viscosity at 120 s−1. The results demonstrate the critical impact of the FM:W ratio on the composition, pasting behavior, and consistency of the reconstituted FMWC. The difference in consistency associated with varying the FM:W ratio is likely to impact on satiety and nutrient value of the FMWCs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Peanut Consumption in Malawi: An Opportunity for Innovation
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Peanuts are a valuable source of nutrients, but peanut consumption patterns, consumption frequencies, and the factors influencing peanut consumption in Malawi are not known. This study surveyed consumers to fill this knowledge gap and to assess Malawian consumers’ readiness to try new food
[...] Read more.
Peanuts are a valuable source of nutrients, but peanut consumption patterns, consumption frequencies, and the factors influencing peanut consumption in Malawi are not known. This study surveyed consumers to fill this knowledge gap and to assess Malawian consumers’ readiness to try new food products. Out of the 489 respondents surveyed, all but three consumed peanuts (in any form). The majority (70.4%) consumed peanuts at least three times in a week. Chi-square test showed that demographic and socioeconomic variables had significant effects (p < 0.05) on peanut product preferences, the frequency of peanut consumption, and readiness to try new foods. For instance, women mostly preferred peanut flour compared to men, and peanut butter was the most preferred form for younger consumers. Logistic regression analysis showed that consumers with high school education or below were 2.35 times more likely to eat peanuts more often than consumers with post high school education. Among the participants that were ready to try new foods (54%), men and those with post high school education were 1.90 and 2.74 times more likely to try new foods than their respective counterparts. In general, the diversity of peanut products on the Malawian market is limited, and socioeconomic restrictions override consumer preferences. Therefore, future peanut-based food products innovations should explore ways to overcome such restrictions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrition Transition and Traditional Food Cultural Changes in Sri Lanka during Colonization and Post-Colonization
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Sri Lanka was a colony of the Portuguese, Dutch, and British. The simplification of Sri Lankan food culture can be seen most clearly today, including how the diet has been changed in the last 400 years since the colonial occupation began. Therefore, greater
[...] Read more.
Sri Lanka was a colony of the Portuguese, Dutch, and British. The simplification of Sri Lankan food culture can be seen most clearly today, including how the diet has been changed in the last 400 years since the colonial occupation began. Therefore, greater efforts must be made to uncover the colonial forces that have undermined food security and health in Sri Lanka. Also traditional eating habits, which are associated with countless health benefits, have been gradually replaced by the globalized food system of multinational corporations and hidden hunger, a system inherent in the emergence of non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cholesterol, and kidney disease epidemics, in Sri Lanka. This article discusses factors that have underpinned the dietary change in Sri Lanka from its early colonization to the post-colonization period. The research followed the integrated concept in ethnological and sociological study approaches. The study examined literature and conducted several interviews with field experts and senior people in marginal areas in Sri Lanka. This study examines the Sri Lankan traditional food system and how it changed after the colonial period, including the main changes and their impact on current micronutrient deficiencies and non-communicable diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multistep Optimization of β-Glucosidase Extraction from Germinated Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merril) and Recovery of Isoflavone Aglycones
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Epicotyls from germinated soybeans (EGS) have great potential as sources of endogenous β-glucosidase. Furthermore, this enzyme may improve the conversion of isoflavones into their corresponding aglycones. β-Glucosidase may also increase the release of aglycones from the cell wall of the plant materials. Therefore,
[...] Read more.
Epicotyls from germinated soybeans (EGS) have great potential as sources of endogenous β-glucosidase. Furthermore, this enzyme may improve the conversion of isoflavones into their corresponding aglycones. β-Glucosidase may also increase the release of aglycones from the cell wall of the plant materials. Therefore, the aim of this work was to optimize both the extraction of β-glucosidase from EGS and to further examine its application in defatted soybean cotyledon to improve the recovery of aglycones, which were evaluated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). A multistep optimization was carried out and the effects of temperature and pH were investigated by applying a central composite design. The linear effect of pH and the quadratic effect of pH and temperature were significant for the extraction of β-glucosidase and recovery aglycones, respectively. Optimum extraction of β-glucosidase from EGS occurred at 30 °C and pH 5.0. Furthermore, the maximum recovery of aglycones (98.7%), which occurred at 35 °C and pH 7.0–7.6 during 144 h of germination, increased 8.5 times with respect to the lowest concentration. The higher bioaccessibility of aglycones when compared with their conjugated counterparts is well substantiated. Therefore, the data provided in this contribution may be useful for enhancing the benefits of soybean, their products, and/or their processing by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
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Open AccessReview Polar Lipids from Olives and Olive Oil: A Review on Their Identification, Significance and Potential Biotechnological Applications
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
Polar lipids are minor components of olives and olive oil and include a myriad of molecules such as phospholipids and glycolipids. Even though sensitive and high-resolution analytical approaches have been used to unveil the polar lipidome of these matrices, new insights on their
[...] Read more.
Polar lipids are minor components of olives and olive oil and include a myriad of molecules such as phospholipids and glycolipids. Even though sensitive and high-resolution analytical approaches have been used to unveil the polar lipidome of these matrices, new insights on their composition are needed. In this review, we will describe the findings on the identification and characterization of polar lipids from olives and olive oil and the underlying analytical challenges. The significance of polar lipids will also be discussed as potential markers of identity and traceability of olives and olive oil and in detecting adulteration of olive oil. Their potential impact on nutrition and health will be presented as a valuable source of bioactive compounds and as promising ingredients for different uses from olive-derived industrial by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Iodine Feeding on Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Biogenic Amines Content in a Raw Ewes’ Milk Cheese
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
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Abstract
Iodine is an essential trace element involved in the regulation of thyroid metabolism and antioxidant status in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ewes’ dietary iodine supplementation on biogenic amines content as well as microbiological
[...] Read more.
Iodine is an essential trace element involved in the regulation of thyroid metabolism and antioxidant status in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ewes’ dietary iodine supplementation on biogenic amines content as well as microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics in a raw milk cheese at different ripening times (milk, curd, and 2, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). Two cheese-making trials were carried out using milk from ewes fed with unifeed (Cheese A) or with the same concentrate enriched with iodine (Cheese B). The results indicated that the counts of principal microbial groups and physico-chemical characteristics were quite similar in both cheeses at day 90. Cheese B was characterized by a higher content of biogenic amines and propionic acid. Propionic bacteria were found in both cheeses mainly in Trial B in agreement with the higher content of propionic acid detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Grape Cryo-Maceration Process at Different Temperatures
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
This research aimed to determine the effects of cryo-maceration at different temperatures on polyphenol content during the winemaking process of Chardonnay wine. Samples of Chardonnay grapes were subjected to rapid cooling processes by direct injection of liquid CO2 to obtain final temperatures
[...] Read more.
This research aimed to determine the effects of cryo-maceration at different temperatures on polyphenol content during the winemaking process of Chardonnay wine. Samples of Chardonnay grapes were subjected to rapid cooling processes by direct injection of liquid CO2 to obtain final temperatures of 10.0, 8.0, 6.0 and 4.0 °C and yield different batches of grape mash. Subsequently, each batch underwent the winemaking process to produce four different wines. The wines obtained were characterized by chemical analyses. We observed higher extraction of polyphenolic compounds with low-temperature cold maceration, particularly when the temperature was reduced from 10.0 to 6.0 °C. Conversely, when the temperature was reduced below 6.0 °C, the increase in polyphenol content in wine was negligible, whereas CO2 consumption increased. Furthermore, a numerical simulation was performed to determine the pipe length, L0, after which the temperature was constant. This condition is very important because it guarantees that after the length L0, the thermodynamic exchange between liquid CO2 and is complete, eliminating the possibility of liquid CO2 pockets in the cyclone. Full article
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Open AccessReview Novel Food Processing and Extraction Technologies of High-Added Value Compounds from Plant Materials
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
Some functional foods contain biologically active compounds (BAC) that can be derived from various biological sources (fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, wastes, and by-products). Global food markets demand foods from plant materials that are “safe”, “fresh”, “natural”, and with “nutritional value” while processed in
[...] Read more.
Some functional foods contain biologically active compounds (BAC) that can be derived from various biological sources (fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, wastes, and by-products). Global food markets demand foods from plant materials that are “safe”, “fresh”, “natural”, and with “nutritional value” while processed in sustainable ways. Functional foods commonly incorporate some plant extract(s) rich with BACs produced by conventional extraction. This approach implies negative thermal influences on extraction yield and quality with a large expenditure of organic solvents and energy. On the other hand, sustainable extractions, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), high-pressure assisted extraction (HPAE), high voltage electric discharges assisted extraction (HVED), pulsed electric fields assisted extraction (PEF), supercritical fluids extraction (SFE), and others are aligned with the “green” concepts and able to provide raw materials on industrial scale with optimal expenditure of energy and chemicals. This review provides an overview of relevant innovative food processing and extraction technologies applied to various plant matrices as raw materials for functional foods production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Food Processing and Extraction Technologies)
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Open AccessCommunication Microbiological Parameters in the Primary Production of Berries: A Pilot Study
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
The primary production of fresh soft fruits was considered to be a suspected critical point for the contamination of frozen berries that were responsible for the large 2013–2014 Hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak in Europe. In this study, an Italian berries’ production area
[...] Read more.
The primary production of fresh soft fruits was considered to be a suspected critical point for the contamination of frozen berries that were responsible for the large 2013–2014 Hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak in Europe. In this study, an Italian berries’ production area was studied for its agro-technical characteristics, and the fresh fruits were analyzed for the presence of enteric viruses (HAV and Norovirus (NoV) genogroup I and genogroup II (GGI and GGII)), the enumeration of hygienic quality parameters, and the prevalence of bacterial pathogens. A total of 50 producers were sampled, who specialized in the exclusive or shared cultivation of berries. Escherichia coli was detected in two blackberry samples, whereas HAV and Norovirus were not detected. The samples were negative for Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The farms’ attributes were not associated with positive samples, apart from the presence of E. coli and the aerobic mesophilic bacteria for blackberry that were statistically correlated. In blueberries, the high aerobic mesophilic count could likely be associated with the resistance of the outer layer to handling. However, the two pathogens (Salmonella spp. and STEC) and the targeted viruses (HAV, NoV GGI and GGII) were not detected, highlighting the low risk of foodborne pathogens and viral contamination at the primary production stage of the berry food chain in the area considered in this pilot study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fresh Produce Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Using Different Kinds and Ratios of Vegetable Oils on Ice Cream Quality Characteristics
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop ice cream products using different types of oils, a sensory ballot to focus on the textural attributes of new ice cream products, evaluate physicochemical properties of these products and physical measurements. Milkfat, hazelnut oil and
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop ice cream products using different types of oils, a sensory ballot to focus on the textural attributes of new ice cream products, evaluate physicochemical properties of these products and physical measurements. Milkfat, hazelnut oil and olive oil were mixed at different concentrations for a total of 12% fat. Control sample contains 12% milk fat while the other formulations contain different proportion of milk fat, hazelnut oil and olive oil as the fat content. The combination of the different proportion of milk fat, hazelnut oil and olive oil are given as % milk fat, % hazelnut oil and % olive oil respectively; 12:0:0, 0:12:0, 0:0:12, 6:6:0, 6:0:6, 0:6:6, 4:4:4. The pH, free acidity, total solid ingredient, b* value and volume increase rate were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis results showed that: samples were 50% hazelnut oil-50% olive oil had the highest color and appearance scores. On the other hand, the highest score in body and texture scores were belongs to the sample of used 50% milk fat-50% hazelnut oil and 50% milk fat-50% olive oil, 50% milk fat-50% olive oil the most preferred ones in total quality criterions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Retail Stores Policies for Marketing of Lobsters in Sardinia (Italy) as Influenced by Different Practices Related to Animal Welfare and Product Quality
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the marketing policies of lobsters as influenced by different practices related to product quality in seven supermarkets located in Italy. Retailers were divided in two categories: large scale and medium scale. The two groups
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the marketing policies of lobsters as influenced by different practices related to product quality in seven supermarkets located in Italy. Retailers were divided in two categories: large scale and medium scale. The two groups were compared to screen for differences and to assess differences in score distribution attributed to different practices related to product quality. Our results showed no statistical differences (p > 0.05) between the two categories. Lobsters were often marketed alive on ice and/or stocked for long periods in supermarket aquariums, highlighting the need to improve the specific European regulations on health, welfare, and quality at the market stage. Retail shop managers should be encouraged to develop better practices and policies in terms of marketing of lobsters. This will help in keeping the animals in good health and improve product quality at the marketing stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Safety, Quality and Processing)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Clitoria ternatea Flower Extract on the In Vitro Enzymatic Digestibility of Starch and Its Application in Bread
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess the effect of the Clitoria ternatea L. flower extract (CTE), on the inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase, in vitro starch hydrolysis, and predicted the glycemic index of different type of flours including potato, cassava, rice, corn, wheat, and glutinous
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the effect of the Clitoria ternatea L. flower extract (CTE), on the inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase, in vitro starch hydrolysis, and predicted the glycemic index of different type of flours including potato, cassava, rice, corn, wheat, and glutinous rice flour. The application in a bakery product prepared from flour and CTE was also determined. The results demonstrated that the 1% and 2% (w/v) CTE inhibited the pancreatic α-amylase activity by using all flours as a substrate. Moreover, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (w/v) CTE showed a significant reduction in the glucose release, hydrolysis index (HI), and predicted glycemic index (pGI) of flour. In glutinous rice flour, 1% and 2% (w/v) CTE had a significantly lower level of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) with a concomitant higher level of undigested starch. The statistical analysis demonstrated strong positive significant correlations between the percentage of CTE and the undigested starch of wheat and cassava. The addition of 5%, 10%, and 20% (w/w) CTE significantly reduced the rate of starch digestion of the wheat bread. The pGI of bread incorporated with 5% CTE (w/w) was significantly lower than that of the control bread. Our findings suggest that CTE could reduce the starch digestibility, the HI, and pGI of flour through the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. Taken together, CTE may be a potent ingredient for the reduced glycemic index of flours. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Concentration of Immunoglobulins in Microfiltration Permeates of Skim Milk: Impact of Transmembrane Pressure and Temperature on the IgG Transmission Using Different Ceramic Membrane Types and Pore Sizes
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
The use of bioactive bovine milk immunoglobulins (Ig) has been found to be an alternative treatment for certain human gastrointestinal diseases. Some methodologies have been developed with bovine colostrum. These are considered in laboratory scale and are bound to high cost and limited
[...] Read more.
The use of bioactive bovine milk immunoglobulins (Ig) has been found to be an alternative treatment for certain human gastrointestinal diseases. Some methodologies have been developed with bovine colostrum. These are considered in laboratory scale and are bound to high cost and limited availability of the raw material. The main challenge remains in obtaining high amounts of active IgG from an available source as mature cow milk by the means of industrial processes. Microfiltration (MF) was chosen as a process variant, which enables a gentle and effective concentration of the Ig fractions (ca. 0.06% in raw milk) while reducing casein and lactose at the same time. Different microfiltration membranes (ceramic standard and gradient), pore sizes (0.14–0.8 µm), transmembrane pressures (0.5–2.5 bar), and temperatures (10, 50 °C) were investigated. The transmission of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and casein during the filtration of raw skim milk (<0.1% fat) was evaluated during batch filtration using a single channel pilot plant. The transmission levels of IgG (~160 kDa) were measured to be at the same level as the reference major whey protein β-Lg (~18 kDa) at all evaluated pore sizes and process parameters despite the large difference in molecular mass of both fractions. Ceramic gradient membranes with a pore sizes of 0.14 µm showed IgG-transmission rates between 45% to 65% while reducing the casein fraction below 1% in the permeates. Contrary to the expectations, a lower pore size of 0.14 µm yielded fluxes up to 35% higher than 0.2 µm MF membranes. It was found that low transmembrane pressures benefit the Ig transmission. Upscaling the presented results to a continuous MF membrane process offers new possibilities for the production of immunoglobulin enriched supplements with well-known processing equipment for large scale milk protein fractionation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processing Technology in the Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle Increasing the Yield of Irish Brown Crab (Cancer pagurus) during Processing without Adversely Affecting Shelf-Life
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
During the processing of Irish Brown Crab (Cancer pagurus), protein and moisture are released and losses up to 10% (by weight) are common. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of clean label ingredients to reduce this loss,
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During the processing of Irish Brown Crab (Cancer pagurus), protein and moisture are released and losses up to 10% (by weight) are common. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of clean label ingredients to reduce this loss, without adversely affecting shelf-life or promoting the growth of spoilage bacteria. Following preliminary studies, 5% (w/v) sodium caseinate (SC) and (5%, w/v) potato starch (PS), with and without (0.5%, w/v) ascorbic acid (AA) were selected. Ninety crabs (30 per treatment) were soaked and boiled in water (control 1), AA (control 2), SC, PS, SC plus AA, or PS plus AA and analyzed for cook loss as well as pH, aw, water holding capacity (WHC), and microbial shelf-life (total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC), and spoilage bacteria) during 28 days storage at 4 °C. On average, 11.1% of the control 1 weight was lost during processing. This was reduced to 8.0% when treated with AA (control 2) and to 3.5%, 4.7%, 5.8%, and 2.3% with SC, PS, SC plus AA, and PS plus AA, respectively. None of these treatments negatively impacted on shelf-life and similar growth curves were observed for TVC, TEC, Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and hydrogen disulphide producing bacteria, regardless of treatment. It was therefore concluded that, subject to sensory evaluation and validation under commercial conditions, these natural ingredients could be used to substantially increase the yield and hence commercial value of crab meat, without adversely affecting shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Aroma-Active Compounds in Seed Extract of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
Turkish Nigella sativa L. seed extracts were used to detect the aroma and key odorant compounds of the spice using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Volatile compounds were extracted by the purge and trap extraction (PTE) method. A total of 32 volatile compounds consisting
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Turkish Nigella sativa L. seed extracts were used to detect the aroma and key odorant compounds of the spice using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Volatile compounds were extracted by the purge and trap extraction (PTE) method. A total of 32 volatile compounds consisting of different chemical classes acids (13), alcohols (7), phenols (3), terpene (1), esters (2), ketones (2), aldehyde (1), lactone (1) and hydrocarbons (2) were determined. The amounts of volatile compounds were found to be 21,544 µg kg−1. The application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed the presence of 13 odor-active compounds alcohols (2), carboxylic acids (4), phenols (2), terpene (1), ketone (1), hydrocarbon (1) and unknown compounds (2) in Nigella sativa L. extract. Flavor dilution (FD) factors of key odorants ranged between 4 and 1024, while odor activity values (OAV) were in the range of 1.0 to 170.8. Acetoin was the only aroma-active ketone detected in Nigella sativa L. seed extracts. It had the strongest aroma (FD = 1024) and provided a buttery odor. This compound represented the most abundant compound of overall aroma profile with a concentration of 9394 µg kg−1, followed by isobutanoic acid (FD = 512 with a concentration of 218 µg kg−1) and contributed a powerful aroma and a cheesy characteristic odor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Colors as an Alternative to Size in Fusarium graminearum Growth Studies
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
Size-based fungal growth studies have limitations. For example, the growth in size stops in closed systems once it reaches the borders and poorly describes metabolic status, especially in the stationary phase. This might lead mycotoxin studies to unrealistic results. Color change could be
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Size-based fungal growth studies have limitations. For example, the growth in size stops in closed systems once it reaches the borders and poorly describes metabolic status, especially in the stationary phase. This might lead mycotoxin studies to unrealistic results. Color change could be a viable alternative, as pigments result from a mold’s metabolic activity. This study aimed to verify the possibility of using gray values and the RGB system to analyze the growth of Fusarium graminearum. It consisted of color and area measurements using ImageJ software for specimens grown in yeast extract agar (YEA). The results suggest the utility of color and gray values as reliable tools to analyze the growth of F. graminearum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Fish Consumption Desire and Its Factors: A Comparison between the United Kingdom and Singapore
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
It is widely known that rapid population growth and income improvement in some developing countries, and growing health consciousness in some developed countries, are the main factors that have contributed to the global increase in the consumption of fishery products in the past
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It is widely known that rapid population growth and income improvement in some developing countries, and growing health consciousness in some developed countries, are the main factors that have contributed to the global increase in the consumption of fishery products in the past few decades. While a detailed analysis of fish consumption behavior is being conducted in several countries, there are other countries where changes in fish consumption desire and their social and psychological factors are not fully clarified. This study investigates the changes in fish consumption desire and its associated factors in the United Kingdom (UK) and Singapore. Primary data were gathered from 1200 participants through a web questionnaire survey in the UK and Singapore. The results show that approximately five times as many respondents stated that the desire to purchase fish had increased in both the UK and Singapore compared to those that believed it had not 10 years ago. Second, the increase in fish consumption in the UK is positively associated with younger age, cheaper price, the health benefits of fish, concern over the health of meat, and religion. Third, the increase in fish consumption in Singapore is positively associated with cheaper prices and is negatively associated with concerns over sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessReview Use of Sourdough in Low FODMAP Baking
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet allows most irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to manage their gastrointestinal symptoms by avoiding FODMAP-containing foods, such as onions, pulses, and products made from wheat or rye. The downside of a low FODMAP
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A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet allows most irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to manage their gastrointestinal symptoms by avoiding FODMAP-containing foods, such as onions, pulses, and products made from wheat or rye. The downside of a low FODMAP diet is the reduced intake of dietary fiber. Applying sourdoughs—with specific FODMAP-targeting metabolic properties—to wholegrain bread making can help to remarkably reduce the content of FODMAPs in bread without affecting the content of the slowly fermented and well-tolerated dietary fiber. In this review, we outline the metabolism of FODMAPs in conventional sourdoughs and outline concepts related to fructan and mannitol metabolism that allow development of low FODMAP sourdough bread. We also summarize clinical studies where low FODMAP but high fiber, rye sourdough bread was tested for its effects on gut fermentation and gastrointestinal symptoms with very promising results. The sourdough bread-making process offers a means to develop natural and fiber-rich low FODMAP bakery products for IBS patients and thereby help them to increase their dietary fiber intake. Full article
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