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Toxics 2017, 5(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5040029

Exposure to Inorganic Nanoparticles: Routes of Entry, Immune Response, Biodistribution and In Vitro/In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation

Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Academic Editor: João Fernando Pereira Gomes
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Environmental and Health Risks of Nanotechnology)
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Abstract

The development of different kinds of nanoparticles, showing different physico-chemical properties, has fostered their large use in many fields, including medicine. As a consequence, inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., metals or semiconductors), have raised issues about their potential toxicity. The scientific community is investigating the toxicity mechanisms of these materials, in vitro and in vivo, in order to provide accurate references concerning their use. This review will give the readers a thorough exploration on the entry mechanisms of inorganic nanoparticles in the human body, such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs), silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and quantum dots (QDsNPs). In addition, biodistribution, the current trends and novelties of in vitro and in vivo toxicology studies will be discussed, with a particular focus on immune response. View Full-Text
Keywords: inorganic nanoparticles; in vitro/in vivo toxicity; routes of entry; immune response; biodistribution inorganic nanoparticles; in vitro/in vivo toxicity; routes of entry; immune response; biodistribution
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De Matteis, V. Exposure to Inorganic Nanoparticles: Routes of Entry, Immune Response, Biodistribution and In Vitro/In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation. Toxics 2017, 5, 29.

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