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ChemEngineering, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial ChemEngineering—Inaugural Editorial
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010001
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract I am pleased to introduce ChemEngineering, a new peer-reviewed, open access journal, on behalf of the Editorial Board members. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Removal of Nitrate from Drinking Water by Ion-Exchange Followed by nZVI-Based Reduction and Electrooxidation of the Ammonia Product to N2(g)
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010002
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Ion-exchange (IX) is common for separating NO3 from drinking water. From both cost and environmental perspectives, the IX regeneration brine must be recycled, via nitrate reduction to N2(g). Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) reduces nitrate efficiently to ammonia, under brine
[...] Read more.
Ion-exchange (IX) is common for separating NO3 from drinking water. From both cost and environmental perspectives, the IX regeneration brine must be recycled, via nitrate reduction to N2(g). Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) reduces nitrate efficiently to ammonia, under brine conditions. However, to be sustainable, the formed ammonia should be oxidized. Accordingly, a new process was developed, comprising IX separation, nZVI-based nitrate removal from the IX regeneration brine, followed by indirect ammonia electro-oxidation. The aim was to convert nitrate to N2(g) while allowing repeated usage of the NaCl brine for multiple IX cycles. All process steps were experimentally examined and shown to be feasible: nitrate was efficiently separated using IX, which was subsequently regenerated with the treated/recovered NaCl brine. The nitrate released to the brine reacted with nZVI, generating ammonia and Fe(II). Fresh nZVI particles were reproduced from the resulting brine, which contained Fe(II), Na+, Cl and ammonia. The ammonia in the nZVI production procedure filtrate was indirectly electro-oxidized to N2(g) at the inherent high Cl concentration, which prepared the brine for the next IX regeneration cycle. The dominant reaction between nZVI and NO3 was described best (Wilcoxon test) by 4Fe(s) + 10H+ + NO3 → 4Fe2+ + NH4+ + 3H2O, and proceeded at >5 mmol·L−1·min−1 at room temperature and 3 < pH < 5. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Characterization of Water/Sodium Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) Sulfosuccinate-HDEHP/n-Dodecane Reverse Micelles for Electroextraction of Neodymium
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010003
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
The extraction and separation of metal ions in the lanthanide series using the liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) technique poses a major challenge due to the chemical similarities of the metals and hence interest exists in devising a technique to improve the separation factor. In
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The extraction and separation of metal ions in the lanthanide series using the liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) technique poses a major challenge due to the chemical similarities of the metals and hence interest exists in devising a technique to improve the separation factor. In this work, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) is explored for improved organic phase conductivity to aid the use of an imposed external field to improve the LLX. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to determine the effect of molar water content, AOT and HDEHP (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid) concentration, and the temperature on the reverse micelle solution conductivity. Results showed that as AOT concentration and water content increases, conductivity increases until the reverse micelles collapse. The addition of HDEHP caused a significant drop in solution conductivity. For a mixed AOT and HDEHP system and at a small applied external field range of 0–1.4 kV m−1 and 60 rpm stir rate, a significant improvement in Nd extraction was observed relative to the traditional LLX using HDEHP only. With AOT only, a 40% improvement in extraction was observed with applied field relative to the absence of field. Cost consideration favors the use of mixed AOT and HDEHP at a slow stir rate for improved Nd extraction. Full article
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