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Hydrology, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Numerical Tests of the Lookup Table Method in Solving Richards’ Equation for Infiltration and Drainage in Heterogeneous Soils
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 33; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030033
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
The lookup table option, as an alternative to analytical calculation for evaluating the nonlinear heterogeneous soil characteristics, is introduced and compared for both the Picard and Newton iterative schemes in the numerical solution of Richards’ equation. The lookup table method can be a
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The lookup table option, as an alternative to analytical calculation for evaluating the nonlinear heterogeneous soil characteristics, is introduced and compared for both the Picard and Newton iterative schemes in the numerical solution of Richards’ equation. The lookup table method can be a cost-effective alternative to analytical evaluation in the case of heterogeneous soils, but it has not been examined in detail in the hydrological modeling literature. Three layered soil test problems are considered, and the robustness and accuracy of the lookup table approach are assessed for uniform and non-uniform distributions of lookup points in the soil moisture retention curves. Results from the three one-dimensional test simulations show that the uniform distributed option gives improved convergence and robustness for the drainage problem compared to the non-uniform strategy. On the other hand, the non-uniform technique can be chosen for test problems involving flow into initially dry layered soils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Variations in Frequency of Landslide Events Affecting Pyroclastic Covers in Campania Region under the Effect of Climate Changes
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 34; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030034
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, pyroclastic covers mantling slopes in the Campania region of southern Italy have frequently been affected by flowslides. Due to high exposure and demographic pressure in these areas, assessment of the potential effects of climate change on the frequency of such
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In recent years, pyroclastic covers mantling slopes in the Campania region of southern Italy have frequently been affected by flowslides. Due to high exposure and demographic pressure in these areas, assessment of the potential effects of climate change on the frequency of such events has become a crucial issue. In this regard, our paper proposes a simulation chain comprising three main elements: (i) climate simulation at the highest horizontal resolution available for Italy (8 km); (ii) a bias correction procedure in an attempt to remove systematic errors in the entire weather forcing probability distribution; (iii) the data obtained used as input for an interpretative tool estimating the evolution of soil pore water pressure and water storage (bulk water content) by means of a well-calibrated coupled thermo-hydraulic approach able to adequately take into account soil-atmosphere interaction dynamics. The predictive ability of the geotechnical model to reproduce failure conditions was tested by forcing it with temperature and precipitation observations. Subsequently, the performance of the entire modeling chain was evaluated for a period from 1981 to 2010. Lastly, variations in landslide occurrence were assessed up to 2100 under two concentration scenarios. An increase with different features was estimated under both scenarios depending on the time horizon and the severity of the concentration scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floods and Landslide Prediction)
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Open AccessArticle “Cape Fear”—A Hybrid Hillslope Plot for Monitoring Hydrological Processes
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 35; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030035
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Innovative experimental field designs and methods are instrumental for dissecting hydrological processes in hillslopes. However, experimental studies at the catchment scale are rarely affordable to most research groups, and laboratory flumes are oversimplified to reproduce natural phenomena. In this work, we present the
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Innovative experimental field designs and methods are instrumental for dissecting hydrological processes in hillslopes. However, experimental studies at the catchment scale are rarely affordable to most research groups, and laboratory flumes are oversimplified to reproduce natural phenomena. In this work, we present the innovative “hybrid” experimental plot of Cape Fear, which features controllable water fluxes and boundary conditions, but it is directly exposed to external atmospheric agents. We demonstrate the suitability of Cape Fear to study hydrological phenomena through a feasibility test, whereby the response of the plot to a natural storm is in line with the well-known hydrological response of natural hillslopes. Future studies will address the influence of the plot geometry parameters on rill formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Extreme Precipitation Indices Trend Assessment over the Upper Oueme River Valley-(Benin)
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 36; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030036
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
This study analyzed trends in extreme precipitation based on daily rainfall data provided by Bénin Méteo Agency for the Upper Ouémé valley in Benin over the period 1951–2014. Eleven indices divided into two groups were considered. The first group consists of frequency indices:
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This study analyzed trends in extreme precipitation based on daily rainfall data provided by Bénin Méteo Agency for the Upper Ouémé valley in Benin over the period 1951–2014. Eleven indices divided into two groups were considered. The first group consists of frequency indices: number of heavy rainfall days, very heavy rainfall days and extremely heavy rainfall days; and maximum number of Consecutive dry days and wet days. The second group concerns intensity: daily maximum rainfall (RX1day), maximum five-day rainfall (RX5day), annual total wet-day rainfall (PRCPTOT), simple daily intensity index (SDII), very wet day (R95P) and extremely wet day rainfall (R99P). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to assess trends in those indices. The results show that only 30% of the stations experienced decreasing trends for the number of heavy rainfall days (R10mm) and daily maximum rainfall (RX1day). For the annual total wet-day rainfall (PRCPTOT), the simple daily intensity index (SDII) and the very wet day rainfall (R95P), 20% of stations faced significant negative trends. In addition, the decreasing trends are observed for 10% stations considering the number of very heavy rainfall days (R20mm), the maximum five-day rainfall (RX5day) and the extremely wet day rainfall (R99P). About the increasing trend, 10% stations are identified for the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), very heavy rainfall days (R20mm), the daily maximum rainfall (RX1day), the simple daily intensity index, and the extremely wet day rainfall (R99P). These results show the absence of clear trend of climate indices evolution in almost all stations. Consequently, uncertainties in the evolution of rainfall indices must be taken into account in the definition of adaptation strategies for flood or drought risks. Similarly, these results show a slight drop in the dry sequences of the 1970s and 1980s revealed in the region by previous studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Groundwater Engineering in an Environmentally Sensitive Urban Area: Assessment, Landuse Change/Infrastructure Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 37; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030037
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
A rise in the shallow unconfined groundwater at a site in Australia is causing water logging of the underground facility in the affected area. Realizing this problem, a study was conducted to identify the source of water that is causing the rise and
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A rise in the shallow unconfined groundwater at a site in Australia is causing water logging of the underground facility in the affected area. Realizing this problem, a study was conducted to identify the source of water that is causing the rise and to develop an implementation and operation plan of the mitigation (dewatering system). Modelling was undertaken using MODFLOW-SURFACT code, within the framework of Visual MODFLOW, to assess the spatial and temporal groundwater level at the site. The study undertaken incorporates compilation and assessment of available data, including a list of factual information reviewed, development of a conceptual groundwater model for the site and modelling of the pre and post development conditions. The outcomes of the assessment indicate water level rises due to the construction of the embankment are likely less than 0.12 m and changes in land, such as affected area burial, may change aquifer characteristics more significantly than the embankment. It is concluded that the elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are most likely a result of above average rainfall since 2007 and long term cumulative land use changes. The embankment construction is just one of many land use changes that have occurred both within and surrounding the affected area and likely only a minor contributor to the elevated water levels. Greater contribution may be attributed to re-direction of the natural flow paths the railway culvert weir reducing the overland flow gradient and ongoing changes (burial) within the affected area and including the embankment. The model findings gives answers on what factors may be/are causing/contributing to, the higher than usual groundwater levels in the study area. A combination of drainage and/or pumping (dewatering system) is suggested as a solution to overcome the problem of rising groundwater levels at the site. Further, the model output can aid in assessing mitigation options, including horizontal drainage networks and pumping to control for the rising water table conditions in the area, depending on the level of treatment and pathogenic criteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Trends and Changes in Recent and Future Penman-Monteith Potential Evapotranspiration in Benin (West Africa)
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 38; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030038
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the recent variability of the annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) of six synoptic stations of Benin was carried out. The future changes of PET under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were also quantified under three different projected periods (P1 = 2011–2040, P2
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In this study, the recent variability of the annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) of six synoptic stations of Benin was carried out. The future changes of PET under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were also quantified under three different projected periods (P1 = 2011–2040, P2 = 2041–2070 and P3 = 2071–2100) compared to the reference period (1981–2010). The results show a high variability of PET at all stations over the baseline period with alternating of deficit and excess periods. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios indicate that annual PET gradually increase and reach its maximum on 2100. However, PET’s changes from the two forcing scenarios start to diverge only around 2070 and this divergence is maximal on 2100. The rates of changes related to the baseline period vary from 2 to 7% for P1 and both scenarios, 5 to 10% for P2 and both scenarios, 7 to 12% for P3 and RCP4.5 scenario and 15 to 20% for P3 and RCP8.5 scenario. At seasonal scale, the results show a progressive increase (from 15 to 25% related to the baseline period) of PET until 2100 for January, February, June, July and December. In April, May, August, September and October, there is a slight decrease (from −5 to 0%) of PET according to RCP4.5 scenario while there is a slight increase (0 to 5%) for RCP8.5 scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrological Evaluation of Satellite and Reanalysis Precipitation Products in the Upper Blue Nile Basin: A Case Study of Gilgel Abbay
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 39; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030039
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the performance of various global precipitation products for water resources application in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Three precipitation products of gauge-adjusted (corrected) CMORPH, (TRMM) TMPA 3B42v7 and ECMWF reanalysis products are evaluated. A
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The aim of this study is to assess the performance of various global precipitation products for water resources application in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Three precipitation products of gauge-adjusted (corrected) CMORPH, (TRMM) TMPA 3B42v7 and ECMWF reanalysis products are evaluated. A Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST) distributed hydrological model is calibrated and used for the evaluation. The model is calibrated for 2000–2005 and validated for 2006–2011 periods using daily observed rainfall and discharge datasets. The results indicate the precipitation products consistently provide a better performance of runoff estimation when they are independently calibrated than simulation modes of the products. We conclude as long as each product is calibrated independently, global precipitation products can provide enough information for water resource management in data-scarce regions of upper Blue Nile Basin. Further analysis is underway to understand the response characteristics of the precipitation products at larger spatio-temporal scales. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water Balance Analysis over the Niger Inland Delta-Mali: Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the Flooded Area and Water Losses
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 40; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030040
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
The Niger Inland Delta (NID) wetland comprises a large flooded area that plays an important role in the ecosystem services. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the NID’s hydro-climatological functioning using water balance approach. After a clear description of the water budget’s
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The Niger Inland Delta (NID) wetland comprises a large flooded area that plays an important role in the ecosystem services. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the NID’s hydro-climatological functioning using water balance approach. After a clear description of the water budget’s elements specific to the NID catchment, a spatial and temporal dynamics of the annual flood across the NID over the period 2000–2009 was performed using data from satellite QuickSCAT and its associated sensor SeaWinds. The estimated areas were used along with observed discharge and remotely-sensed climatic data to quantitatively evaluate each water balance component. The results indicate: (i) a clear spatiotemporal of the flooded areas varied between 25,000 km2 in wet periods and 2000 km2 in dry periods; (ii) an average evapotranspiration loss of 17.31 km3 (43% of the total inflow) was assessed in the catchment; (iii) precipitation’s contribution to the NID’s budget totals 5.16 km3 (12.8% of the total inflow); and (iv) the contribution of return flow from irrigated fields totals 1.8 km3 (4.5% of the total inflow, among which 1.2 km3 are from Office du Niger) to the flooded areas, refined the NID’s water balance estimates. Knowledge gained on NID’s water balance analysis will be used to develop and calibrate hydrological models in the Niger Inland Delta of the basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lithological Identification and Underground Water Conditions in Jeddo Using Geophysical and Geochemical Methods
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 42; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030042
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Resistivity soundings and hydrogeochemical methods were carried out in order to establish the characteristics of the aquifer in Jeddo, Southern Nigeria. Results of the resistivity sounding revealed that the formation is made up of clay, clayey sand, and fine- to coarse-grained sand. The
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Resistivity soundings and hydrogeochemical methods were carried out in order to establish the characteristics of the aquifer in Jeddo, Southern Nigeria. Results of the resistivity sounding revealed that the formation is made up of clay, clayey sand, and fine- to coarse-grained sand. The mean depth of the aquifer was obtained as 12.7 m while the aquifer resistivity ranged from 161 to 1728 Ωm. The mean value of transmissivity obtained for the aquifer is 169 m2 day−1 while analysis of the transmissivity revealed that about 6% of the study area has greatest potential for a productive aquifer. The study also revealed that the underground water flows in the northeast–southwest direction. The hydro geochemical analysis of water samples showed that some parameters such as lead, color and pH exceeded the permissible limits, which were established by Federal Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization. It is concluded from the water quality index (WQI) that the groundwater is of poor quality and requires some remediation before it can be used for domestic and industrial purposes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Differences in Stream Water Nitrate Concentrations between a Nitrogen-Saturated Upland Forest and a Downstream Mixed Land Use River Basin
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 43; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030043
Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Nitrogen (N) saturation of upland forests has been assumed to be a substantial N source downstream. However, removal processes of N, including assimilation and denitrification in the downstream area, have not been clarified. To evaluate the N removal processes, nitrate (NO3
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Nitrogen (N) saturation of upland forests has been assumed to be a substantial N source downstream. However, removal processes of N, including assimilation and denitrification in the downstream area, have not been clarified. To evaluate the N removal processes, nitrate (NO3) and organic N concentrations, as well as nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) and oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of NO3 were measured along three rivers of Tatara River Basin, Japan where upland forests have already been N-saturated. Geographic information system (GIS) based topographical analysis was also conducted to evaluate the land use as urban area in relation to topography. In two of the three rivers, NO3 concentrations did not increase from upstream to downstream, despite the potential non-point N sources of urban areas. In another river, NO3 concentrations rather decreased. The values of δ15N and δ18O of NO3 and organic N concentrations suggested the presence of denitrification and assimilation over N pollutants in the river whose watersheds have a lower percentage of urban area. The lower percentage of urban area could be explained by the lower topographic index. This study concluded that the NO3 leaching from upland N-saturated forests was substantially assimilated or denitrified in the downstream area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bayesian Hierarchical Regression to Assess Variation of Stream Temperature with Atmospheric Temperature in a Small Watershed
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 44; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030044
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper described the variability of stream temperature, Ts, and compared relationships between Ts and air temperature, Ta, at 10 sites along a 1.2 km reach in a 2 km2 basin in New Jersey, USA, using Bayesian
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This paper described the variability of stream temperature, T s , and compared relationships between T s and air temperature, T a , at 10 sites along a 1.2 km reach in a 2 km 2 basin in New Jersey, USA, using Bayesian Hierarchical Regression. Mean daily mean T s was significantly cooler at two sites and significantly warmer at three sites relative to the mean daily T s for all sites combined. Seasonal daily mean T s showed the greatest variation between sites in the summer within the reach for both daily mean and daily maximum temperatures. Posterior distributions for slope parameters ( β j ) for regressions varied significantly by season and showed the greatest variation in summer. The strongest relationships occurred in autumn with β = 0 . 743 ± 0 . 019 ( β = 0 . 712 ± 0 . 022 ), and the weakest relationships occurred in the summer with β = 0 . 254 ± 0 . 030 ( β = 0 . 193 ± 0 . 039 ). Results support the conclusion that riparian shading impacts the effect of T a on T s , and that T s shows a stronger relationship with measured T a at sites in open areas that are more likely to have meteorologic conditions similar to bulk conditions. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Groundwater Discharge in the Arctic: A Review of Studies and Implications for Biogeochemistry
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 41; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030041
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Groundwater discharge, including submarine groundwater discharge, discharge to lakes and rivers, and subglacial discharge, affects freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. The implications for biogeochemistry include the transport of nutrients, metals, and gases to these systems. The Arctic is one region of
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Groundwater discharge, including submarine groundwater discharge, discharge to lakes and rivers, and subglacial discharge, affects freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. The implications for biogeochemistry include the transport of nutrients, metals, and gases to these systems. The Arctic is one region of the globe that has been understudied with respect to groundwater discharge until recently, when a handful of studies sought to understand the nature of groundwater discharge and its impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Those studies are summarized here, and the implications for biogeochemistry are synthesized. Carbon and nitrogen are the most frequently studied solutes with respect to groundwater discharge in the Arctic. The transport of carbon and nitrogen through groundwater discharge are discussed across study sites, and scientists expect their transport through this mechanism to significantly change with the onset of climate change. The Arctic is of special interest in terms of groundwater discharge, as climate change data predicts that it will warm faster than other environments. Lastly, the effects of climate change on the physical and biogeochemical aspects of groundwater discharge in the Arctic are discussed, as are research priorities. Full article
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