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Beverages, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Impact of Legislation on the Development of Craft Beer
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 18; doi:10.3390/beverages3020018
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ways in which federal and state legislation has impacted the growth of the US craft beer industry. In order to achieve this purpose, the city of Charlotte in North Carolina (N.C.) will be used
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ways in which federal and state legislation has impacted the growth of the US craft beer industry. In order to achieve this purpose, the city of Charlotte in North Carolina (N.C.) will be used as a case study. The research is conceptual in nature, a preferred choice as it allows a researcher to break down the issue into its constituent parts in order to gain a broader understanding. The research demonstrates that the legal framework in place for the production and distribution of alcoholic beverages in the U.S.A., which is a legacy of the Prohibition movement of the last century, continues to have a significant impact on the development of the craft beer industry. The growth in the number of breweries across the U.S.A. has been driven by the craft brewing industry and has provided consumers with a vastly increased array of choices (Burgdorf, 2016). The growth in the craft beer industry has not been proportional across all states, however. While many factors influence the growth of craft breweries (Carroll and Swaminathan, 2000), regulations such as those that restrict how brewers can distribute and retail beer have inhibited growth in many states, limiting consumer choice. The research demonstrates that change can be effected, as it has in N.C., through consumer pressure at the grassroots level. This paper provides an original perspective to the consideration of the growth of this important industry, arguing that future growth in the sector will continue to be impacted by the legislative frameworks in place. This in turn impacts on the ability of entrepreneurs to grow their businesses, and on aspects of consumer choice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Juice Extraction Process and Investigation on Must Fermentation of Overripe Giant Horn Plantains
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 19; doi:10.3390/beverages3020019
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
The study was initiated to optimize the enzymabtic extraction process of plantain pulp using response surface methodology. Weight loss of plantain decreased until it became stable at an over-ripe stage. The significant regression model describing the changes of extraction yield and Brix with
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The study was initiated to optimize the enzymabtic extraction process of plantain pulp using response surface methodology. Weight loss of plantain decreased until it became stable at an over-ripe stage. The significant regression model describing the changes of extraction yield and Brix with respect to hydrolysis parameters was established. Temperature contributed to reducing the yield from 53.52% down to 49.43%, and the dilution factor increased the yield from 53.52% to 92.97%. On the contrary, the dilution factor significantly reduced Brix from 21.74 °Bx down to 0.15 °Bx, while the enzyme concentration increased Brix from 21.73 °Bx to 26.16 °Bx. The optimum conditions for juice extraction from plantain pulp were: temperature: 25 °C; enzyme concentration: 5%; dilution ratio: 1.10; and extraction time: 24 h. The implementation of these conditions led to (resulted in obtaining) obtaining a must yield of more than 70% and Brix between 10 °Bx and 15 °Bx. The total polyphenols and flavonoids were 7.70 ± 0.99 mg GAE /100 g and 0.4 ± 0.01 µg rutin/g for must and 17.01 ± 0.34 mg GAE/100 g and 4 ± 0.12 µg rutin/g and 7.70 ± 0.99 for wine, indicated the presence of antioxidant activity in the produced wine. On the other hand, the total soluble solids were between 16.06 ± 0.58 °Bx and 1.5 ± 0.10 °Bx, which permitted obtaining a wine with low alcohol content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 20; doi:10.3390/beverages3020020
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the
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A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the fruity esters methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol from amino acids and an organic acid present in the wort. We investigated the impact of two critical process parameters (volumetric power input and inoculum concentration) on the morphology of, and flavor production by, the shiitake pellets in a 1 L stirred bioreactor. Increasing the volumetric power input and biomass concentration influenced the morphology of the pellets and promoted the production of the most important flavor compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate in the beverage. Furthermore the worty off-flavor methional was degraded during the cultivation in stirred bioreactor by shiitake pellets. These findings provide useful information to facilitate the scale-up of the biotransformation and fermentation process in bioreactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography as Complementary Methods for the Analysis of Beer Samples
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 21; doi:10.3390/beverages3020021
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Chemical analysis of the organic components in beer has applications to quality control, authenticity and improvements to the flavor characteristics and brewing process. This study aims to show the complementary nature of two instrumental techniques which, in combination, can identify and quantify a
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Chemical analysis of the organic components in beer has applications to quality control, authenticity and improvements to the flavor characteristics and brewing process. This study aims to show the complementary nature of two instrumental techniques which, in combination, can identify and quantify a number of organic components in a beer sample. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was used to provide concentrations of 26 different organic compounds including alcohols, organic acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Calorie content was also estimated for the samples. NMR data for ethanol concentrations were validated by comparison to a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) method. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify a range of volatile compounds such as alcohols, esters and hop-derived aroma compounds. A simple and inexpensive conversion of a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC FID) instrument to allow the use of Solid-Phase Microextraction was found to be useful for the quantification of volatile esters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
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Open AccessArticle Automated Bioanalyzer Based on Amperometric Enzymatic Biosensors for the Determination of Ethanol in Low-Alcohol Beers
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 22; doi:10.3390/beverages3020022
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
In this work, a new automated bioanalyzer based on the use of enzymatic biosensors as amperometric detectors is reported. This automatic bioanalyzer is configurable both as continuous flow and flow injection analysis systems and enables both on-line and off-line monitoring of ethanol in
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In this work, a new automated bioanalyzer based on the use of enzymatic biosensors as amperometric detectors is reported. This automatic bioanalyzer is configurable both as continuous flow and flow injection analysis systems and enables both on-line and off-line monitoring of ethanol in low-alcohol beer to be performed. The attractive analytical and operational characteristics demonstrated by the automated bioanalyzer make it a promising, simple, rapid, and reliable tool for quality control of this beverage in the beer industry, either during the manufacturing process or in the final product. Moreover its applicability to the analysis of the ethanol content in different non-alcoholic beers working at different modes was successfully demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Soybean–Navy Bean Emulsions Using Different Processing Technologies
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 23; doi:10.3390/beverages3020023
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
In this study, an innovative emulsion made from soybean and navy bean blends of different proportionalities was developed. In addition, two processing methods were used: traditional cooking and jet-cooking. The physical attributes and storage stability were measured and compared. This study found that
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In this study, an innovative emulsion made from soybean and navy bean blends of different proportionalities was developed. In addition, two processing methods were used: traditional cooking and jet-cooking. The physical attributes and storage stability were measured and compared. This study found that the high content of starch and fiber in navy bean flour contributes to the increase in viscosity of the emulsions, at both room and refrigeration temperatures, as the proportion of navy bean flour in the blends increased. The steam jet-cooked emulsions with higher soybean content has better shelf life stability, smaller particle size, higher fat, lower starch, and lower viscosity, whereas the traditional kettle cooking method is better in reducing anti-nutritional components. No significant difference was found between the two cooking methods in terms of nutritional contents in the emulsions, such as protein, crude fat, and total starch. The traditional kettle cooking, with its longer cooking time, seems to reduce more trypsin inhibitor in the emulsions than those prepared with the steam jet-cooking. This exploratory study is the first to report soybean–navy bean beverage prototypes having desirable nutritional value and the potential for functional beverage market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Emulsions)
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Open AccessArticle An Overview of the Utilisation of Brewery By-Products as Generated by British Craft Breweries
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 24; doi:10.3390/beverages3020024
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
There is a wide range of information available on by-product disposal methods used by large national breweries. However, little information is available on the methods of by-product disposal used by craft breweries. An investigation was carried out in which 200+ British craft brewers
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There is a wide range of information available on by-product disposal methods used by large national breweries. However, little information is available on the methods of by-product disposal used by craft breweries. An investigation was carried out in which 200+ British craft brewers were contacted, of which 90 craft brewers provided basic information about their brewery operations and by-product disposal. Representatives of eleven breweries were interviewed to provide an in-depth case study of their by-product disposal methods. The research found that urban craft brewers use a wider range of disposal methods compared to rural craft brewers; urban brewers dispose of more waste through sewage and landfill, as well as using external companies, such as bio-recycling and anaerobic digester plants, whereas rural brewers have relationships with farmers who dispose of the by-products in various ways. Craft brewers tend to have a direct relationship with the by-product users. Even though they do not have all disposal options available to them which the large industrial breweries have, due to their small scale of by-product production, craft brewers appear to find alternative means of sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impact of Finings on the Perception of Beer
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 26; doi:10.3390/beverages3020026
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, a number of commentators have suggested that the use of finings to clarify beer can impair the flavour, because of the removal of key volatile aromatic molecules from the drink. However, are such claims necessarily correct? Unaware of any previous
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In recent years, a number of commentators have suggested that the use of finings to clarify beer can impair the flavour, because of the removal of key volatile aromatic molecules from the drink. However, are such claims necessarily correct? Unaware of any previous attempt to address this question empirically, we conducted both a blind and a sighted taste test. The test made use of two beers from the same batch, one made using finings and the other made without. In neither experiment did the use of finings affect flavour or liking ratings amongst the social drinkers (N = 235) tested. Thus, the present results clearly suggest that the use of finings does not necessarily impact either the sensory-discriminative or hedonic ratings of beer, despite its influence on the clarity of the finished product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Soluble Coffees
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 27; doi:10.3390/beverages3020027
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
A product of easy preparation and high added value, soluble/instant coffee is obtained by drying the aqueous extract of roasted coffee and presents a high amount of bioactive compounds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 33 Brazilian
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A product of easy preparation and high added value, soluble/instant coffee is obtained by drying the aqueous extract of roasted coffee and presents a high amount of bioactive compounds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 33 Brazilian commercial soluble coffees considering the radical scavenging activity (via the ABTS method) and the reducing capacity (via the Folin–Ciocalteu method). Soluble coffees of several brands and types (regular, gourmet, and decaffeinated), subjected to different drying processes (agglomeration, atomization, and freeze-drying) (n = 85), were evaluated. In general, regular and decaffeinated soluble coffees presented high antioxidant activity. The reducing capacity ranged from 9.9 to 15.4 g of gallic acid per 100 g, while the radical scavenging activity ranged from 20.4 to 37.0 g of Trolox per 100 g. Good repeatability—with coefficients of variation of 2.4% for Folin–Ciocalteu and of 5.2% for ABTS—and high correlations between the values of antioxidant activity obtained by both methods (r = 0.66) were observed. Gourmet coffees presented less antioxidant activity compared to the regular samples. No correlation was verified between drying processes and antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Powder)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Gushing Experience—A Quick Overview
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 25; doi:10.3390/beverages3020025
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
Beer lovers all over the world like to get their drink with a certain volume of stabile foam, which mainly depends on the beer style. However, sometimes this foam comes in form of a sudden, eruptive, and uncontrolled over-foaming (gushing) of beer. Gushing
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Beer lovers all over the world like to get their drink with a certain volume of stabile foam, which mainly depends on the beer style. However, sometimes this foam comes in form of a sudden, eruptive, and uncontrolled over-foaming (gushing) of beer. Gushing occurs after the bottle has been opened, without previously being treated inappropriately (exposure to high temperatures, shaking, or any other kind of agitation). According to recent scientific and professional literature, gushing may be induced by many factors, but fungal proteins are directly connected to this phenomenon. Gushing caused by fungal proteins—hydrophobins—is called primary gushing, and depends solely on raw material quality. Other reasons for extensive foaming after the bottle has been opened can be of chemical or technological nature in the course of the brewing process. This is called secondary gushing, which can be influenced and reduced by applying good manufacturing practice protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
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