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Beverages 2017, 3(4), 54; doi:10.3390/beverages3040054

Raw and Heat-Treated Milk: From Public Health Risks to Nutritional Quality

1
Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellis snc, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy
2
CREA Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, I-00178 Roma, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Durazzo
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [351 KB, uploaded 7 November 2017]

Abstract

Consumers have recently shown a preference for natural food products and ingredients and within that framework, their interest in consuming raw drinking milk has been highlighted, claiming nutritional, organoleptic and health benefits. However, a public debate has simultaneously emerged about the actual risks and benefits of direct human consumption of raw milk. This paper compares the microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of raw and heat-treated milk, to evaluate the real risks and benefits of its consumption. In detail, it provides an updated overview of the main microbiological risks of raw milk consumption, especially related to the presence of pathogens and the main outputs of risk assessment models are reported. After introducing the key aspects of most commonly used milk heat-treatments, the paper also discusses the effects such technologies have on the microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of milk. An insight into the scientific evidence behind the claimed protective effects of raw milk consumption in lactose-intolerant subjects and against the onset of asthma and allergy disorders in children is provided. The emergence of novel milk processing technologies, such as ohmic heating, microwave heating, high pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound and microfiltration is also presented as an alternative to common thermal treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: raw drinking milk; heat-treated milk; microbiological hazards; risk assessment; lactose intolerance; allergies; milk nutritional quality raw drinking milk; heat-treated milk; microbiological hazards; risk assessment; lactose intolerance; allergies; milk nutritional quality
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Melini, F.; Melini, V.; Luziatelli, F.; Ruzzi, M. Raw and Heat-Treated Milk: From Public Health Risks to Nutritional Quality. Beverages 2017, 3, 54.

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