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Geriatrics, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Obesity, Physical Fitness and Inflammation in the Elderly
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 30; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040030
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Among the elderly, obesity is paradoxically associated with a lower mortality risk. Thus, this study describes fitness levels by Body Mass Index (BMI) category and the associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Vitamin D levels with muscle strength, in community-dwelling older adults.
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Among the elderly, obesity is paradoxically associated with a lower mortality risk. Thus, this study describes fitness levels by Body Mass Index (BMI) category and the associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Vitamin D levels with muscle strength, in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study, with 1338 subjects having mean age of 78.3 years, were assessed in anthropometrics, muscle strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness. In a sub-sample, blood samples were collected and objective markers of inflammation were provided: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Vitamin D (25(OH) D). Obese women (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) showed significantly better results for grip strength than normal weight group (BMI between 18.5–24.9 kg/m2): 22.3 (7.0) vs. 20.0 (6.8); p = 0.002. After adjustment, higher levels of hs-CRP were an independent predictor of lower levels of grip strength (β = −0.213, 95% CI: −0.424; −0.002) and Vitamin D levels were positively associated with higher levels of muscle strength (β = 0.098, 95% CI: 0.008–0.189). The multivariate analysis found a significant and positive association between 25(OH) D and grip strength: (β = 0.098, 95% CI: 0.008–0.189). A positive pattern of higher levels of absolute strength among obese older subjects could have an important impact on morbidity and mortality risk, through the inverse association with acute inflammation and an increase in Vitamin D profile. Full article
Open AccessArticle Prognostic Factors for the Survival of Elderly Patients Who Were Hospitalized in the Medical Ward of Our Hospital in Japan
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 32; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040032
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
It has been a long time since there were many elderly people in Japan. The medical care and costs for the elderly are enormous, and research to lower the mortality rate of the elderly is needed. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic factors for
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It has been a long time since there were many elderly people in Japan. The medical care and costs for the elderly are enormous, and research to lower the mortality rate of the elderly is needed. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic factors for the survival of elderly patients who were hospitalized in the medical ward of our hospital. In total, 277 patients who were hospitalized between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2017, were included in the retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate analyses of items (vital signs, laboratory data, and so on) were performed, and significant differences between the survival group and death group were subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Serum urea nitrogen levels and serum albumin levels provided a relatively high area under the curve (AUC). However, there was no item for which AUC exceeded 0.70, and setting the cutoff value in this study was difficult. For treating the elderly, it is important to carefully evaluate each patient’s prognostic factors, including the demented state, renal function, and nutritional state; personalized treatment of each patient is also important. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Drug-Disease Interactions and Their Association with Unplanned Hospital Readmission Utilizing STOPP Version 2 Criteria
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 33; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040033
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Early hospital readmission is a common problem among geriatric patients, as they are more susceptible to adverse drug events, which are associated with increased hospital admission. The objective is to examine the association between exposure to potentially inappropriate medications under selected STOPP version
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Early hospital readmission is a common problem among geriatric patients, as they are more susceptible to adverse drug events, which are associated with increased hospital admission. The objective is to examine the association between exposure to potentially inappropriate medications under selected STOPP version 2 criteria related to drug-disease interactions and unplanned early hospitalization within 28 days of index admission in elderly patients prescribed a potentially inappropriate medication. This retrospective single-center study reviewed patients 75 years of age or older that were discharged with 5 or more medications, including at least one selected medication listed in the STOPP version 2 criteria relating to drug-disease interactions. 182 patients, with a mean age of 83.5 years, were included in the study, with anticholinergics being the most common potentially inappropriate medications (22.4%). Potentially inappropriate medications (57.1% vs. 17.1%, p < 0.001), gout (31% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.003), and gastrointestinal disease (11.9% vs. 2.5%, p = 0.026) were shown to increase risk of 28-day readmission, whereas no other factors assessed correlated with readmission. A rapid evaluation of elderly patient discharge medications and concomitant disease states with the aid of the STOPP version 2 criteria could potentially reduce hospital readmissions or emergency department visits. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication A Continuing Mission to Optimize the Care of Older Women with Breast Cancer
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 37; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040037
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
The majority of cases of breast cancer occur in the older population who are often un-represented in clinical trials. Given the growing ageing population globally, it becomes urgent and important to identify an optimal approach so that older women with breast cancer are
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The majority of cases of breast cancer occur in the older population who are often un-represented in clinical trials. Given the growing ageing population globally, it becomes urgent and important to identify an optimal approach so that older women with breast cancer are neither under- or over-treated. An inter-disciplinary research program is ongoing to investigate differing tumor biology according to age, and the potential use of a geriatric assessment tool, aiming to help select older women with primary breast cancer for a personalized and optimal treatment. Full considerations of the biology of the patient’s cancer and the geriatric domains of the patient must be taken into account when making treatment decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncology Care and Research in the Elderly)
Open AccessArticle Cancer-Related Information Seeking and Scanning Behaviors among Older Chinese Adults: Examining the Roles of Fatalistic Beliefs and Fear
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 38; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040038
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017
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Abstract
Effective communication in health information plays an important role in health promotion and cancer prevention. Cancer-related information acquisition can happen via active and purposeful seeking, but may also happen less purposely via the routine use of media and interactions with other people (called
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Effective communication in health information plays an important role in health promotion and cancer prevention. Cancer-related information acquisition can happen via active and purposeful seeking, but may also happen less purposely via the routine use of media and interactions with other people (called scanning). We examined seeking and scanning behaviors regarding cancer prevention in older Chinese adults, identified commonly used sources of information of such behaviors, and examined their associations with fatalistic beliefs and cancer fear. A convenience sample of 224 community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 were recruited between May and July in 2013 in Hong Kong. Results suggested that cancer information scanning (79.5%) was more common than information seeking (30.4%) among our participants. Health professional was the most popular source for both scanning (78.7%) and seeking (58.8%) behaviors regarding cancer information. Fatalistic beliefs was significantly and negatively associated with seeking behaviors (OR = 0.50) but not scanning behaviors, and cancer fear showed no relationship with either behavior. This study shows that the cancer information seeking and scanning behaviors were still suboptimal in this age group and adds to the knowledge regarding the associations between fatalistic beliefs and fear with cancer information seeking and scanning behaviors among older Chinese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncology Care and Research in the Elderly)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Brain Atrophy Estimated from Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Marker of Large-Scale Network-Based Neurodegeneration in Aging and Stroke
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 34; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040034
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
Brain atrophy is a normal part of healthy aging, and stroke appears to have neurodegenerative effects, accelerating this atrophy to pathological levels. The distributed pattern of atrophy in healthy aging suggests that large-scale brain networks may be involved. At the same time, the
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Brain atrophy is a normal part of healthy aging, and stroke appears to have neurodegenerative effects, accelerating this atrophy to pathological levels. The distributed pattern of atrophy in healthy aging suggests that large-scale brain networks may be involved. At the same time, the network wide effects of stroke are beginning to be appreciated. There is now widespread use of network methods to understand the brain in terms of coordinated brain activity or white matter connectivity. Examining brain morphology on a network level presents a powerful method of understanding brain structure and has been successfully applied to charting the course of brain development. This review will introduce recent advances in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition and analyses that have allowed for reliable and reproducible estimates of atrophy in large-scale brain networks in aging and after stroke. These methods are currently underutilized despite their ease of acquisition and potential to clarify the progression of brain atrophy as a normal part of healthy aging and in the context of stroke. Understanding brain atrophy at the network level may be key to clarifying healthy aging processes and the pathway to neurodegeneration after stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke in Ageing)
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Open AccessReview The Gender Difference in Depression: Are Elderly Women at Greater Risk for Depression Than Elderly Men?
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 35; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040035
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
Numerous epidemiological reports have found that adolescent, young adult, and middle-aged adult girls and women are more likely to be diagnosed with unipolar depression and report greater symptoms of depression when compared to boys and men of similar ages. What is less well-known
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Numerous epidemiological reports have found that adolescent, young adult, and middle-aged adult girls and women are more likely to be diagnosed with unipolar depression and report greater symptoms of depression when compared to boys and men of similar ages. What is less well-known is whether this gender difference persists into late life. This literature review examines whether the well-known gender difference in unipolar depression continues into old age, and, if it does, whether the variables that are known to contribute to the gender difference in unipolar depression from adolescence through adulthood continue to contribute to the gender difference in the elderly, and/or whether there are new variables that arise in old age and contribute to the gender difference in the elderly. In this review of 85 empirical studies from every continent except for Antarctica, we find substantial support for the gender difference in depression in individuals who are 60 and older. More research is necessary to determine which factors are the strongest predictors of the gender difference in depression in late life, and particularly whether the factors that seem to be responsible for the gender difference in depression in earlier life stages continue to predict the gender difference in the elderly, and/or whether new factors come into play in late life. Longitudinal research, meta-analyses, and model-based investigations of predictors of the gender difference in depression are needed to provide insights into how and why the gender difference in depression persists in older age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Depressive Disorder in the Elderly)
Open AccessReview A Review of Frailty Syndrome and Its Physical, Cognitive and Emotional Domains in the Elderly
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 36; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040036
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Frailty, a very important complication of increasing age, is a well-recognised concept although it has not been accurately measured in the clinical setting. The aim of this literature review is to summarise commonly used frailty screening tools, and to describe how new
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Background: Frailty, a very important complication of increasing age, is a well-recognised concept although it has not been accurately measured in the clinical setting. The aim of this literature review is to summarise commonly used frailty screening tools, and to describe how new measurement methods have been developed recently. Methods: Several frailty measurement tools including the most cited and newly developed scales have been described in this review. We searched the MEDLINE using the search terms; “frailty score, scale, tool, instrument, index, phenotype” and then summarised selected tools for physical, cognitive, emotional and co-morbidity domains. Results: The most cited frailty measurement methods developed from 1999 to 2005 are primarily criteria for physical frailty (e.g., frailty phenotype). More recently developed tools (e.g., triad of impairment and multidimensional frailty score) consider cognitive and emotional domains in addition to physical deficit in measuring frailty. Co-morbidity has also been considered as a domain of frailty in several measurement tools. Conclusion: Although frailty tools have traditionally assessed physical capability, cognitive and emotional impairment often co-exist in older adults and may have shared origins. Therefore, newer tools which provide a composite measure of frailty may be more relevant for future use. Full article

Other

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Open AccessCase Report Healthcare Cost Reductions after Moving into a Wet Nursing Home Stay—A Case Series
Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 31; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040031
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Serious alcohol dependence is associated with high healthcare costs, especially when patients have chronic problems with alcohol, dementia and exhibit externalizing behavior. One option is to offer a wet nursing home for seriously ill patients for whom abstinence from alcohol is not a
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Serious alcohol dependence is associated with high healthcare costs, especially when patients have chronic problems with alcohol, dementia and exhibit externalizing behavior. One option is to offer a wet nursing home for seriously ill patients for whom abstinence from alcohol is not a feasible option. In this case series, we present the healthcare costs 18 months before moving into a “wet nursing home”, and in the first 18 months of their stay, for three cases, one with low needs of care, one with medium needs, and one with high needs. Results: for all three patients, hospital costs were reduced by between 83.7 and 97.9% for patients with dementia, externalizing behavior, and chronic alcohol problems, a wet nursing home can produce substantial cost reductions in other parts of the healthcare sector. Full article
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