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Sinusitis, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2016), Pages 1-104

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Sinusitis, Why a New Journal Dedicated Just to Sinusitis You Ask?
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010001
Received: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
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Abstract
Sinusitis: a diagnosis that any patient you ask, will tell you that they have it. It is a very common condition, affecting 31 million patients annually in the United States [1]. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects 12.5% of people [2]. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of a Chitosan-Based Biodegradable Middle Meatal Dressing after Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 3-12; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010003
Received: 10 October 2015 / Accepted: 7 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
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Abstract
Introduction: The use of biomaterials to improve wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is not new. Many types of resorbable and non-resorbable materials have been tried as a middle meatal (MM) dressing, spacer, or stent to prevent lateralization of the middle turbinate,
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Introduction: The use of biomaterials to improve wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is not new. Many types of resorbable and non-resorbable materials have been tried as a middle meatal (MM) dressing, spacer, or stent to prevent lateralization of the middle turbinate, formation of synechia, granulation tissue, adhesions and scarring. The FDA has recently approved Chitosan-based nasal dressing/spacers which have optimal wound healing characteristics, including hemostatic and bacteriostatic properties. Herein, we compare a new chitosan-based biomaterial to a popular fully synthetic resorbable dressing in patients undergoing ESS. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled study was performed comparing a new Chitosan-based bioresorbable nasal dressing (Posi-Sep X) against a previously studied and well known fully synthetic polyurethane-based control (Nasopore). Post-operative outcome metrics included the degree of crusting, amount of retained implant, patient comfort, wound healing, epistaxis, and post-operative infection at two weeks. Results: Thirty-five patients were enrolled and a total seventy implants were placed (n = 70) at the completion of ESS. The results show a statistically significant difference between the Chitosan-based product and the control with respect to wound healing, degree of crusting, and resorption profile. In addition, the Chitosan-based dressing had a markedly lower requirement for post-operative debridement, and a lower incidence of epistaxis and infection, which corresponds to superior patient comfort. Conclusion: Our study is consistent with the biomaterials literature regarding the potential advantages of Chitosan-based MM dressings after ESS regarding improved wound healing, biocompatibility, and patient comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Clinical and Immunological Research)
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Open AccessArticle The Nasal Nitric Oxide Response to External Acoustic Energy: A Pilot Study of Sampling Dynamics
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 13-23; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010013
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
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Abstract
Background: The paranasal sinuses serve as a reservoir of nitric oxide (NO), contributing to baseline nasal NO (nNO) levels. nNO has also been shown to increase transiently with humming, a response that may be blunted in severe rhinosinusitis. Blunting of the acoustically-induced nNO
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Background: The paranasal sinuses serve as a reservoir of nitric oxide (NO), contributing to baseline nasal NO (nNO) levels. nNO has also been shown to increase transiently with humming, a response that may be blunted in severe rhinosinusitis. Blunting of the acoustically-induced nNO transient (“spike”) has been proposed as a screening test for osteomeatal complex (OMC) obstruction in sinusitis. Preparatory to conducting a clinical evaluation study, to eliminate variation in patient effort during this maneuver, we evaluated the use of external acoustic energy—in place of humming—to elicit nNO transients, documenting the effects of varying stimulus amplitude and gas sampling rates. Methods: Non-smoking, non-asthmatic subjects with no history of chronic sinusitis or nasal polyposis underwent nNO measurements in triplicate under: (1) control (quiet) conditions, and (2) with 128 Hz external acoustic energy. In Experiment 1, twelve subjects were exposed to two different intensities of external acoustic energy at 3 L/min sampling rate. In Experiment 2, a subset of nine subjects was sampled with and without acoustic stimulation at three different gas sampling rates (1, 2, and 3 L/min). Results: Experiment 1: Subjects, as a group, showed intensity-related increases in nNO with increasing acoustic amplitude (p < 0.01). Experiment 2: independently, both applied acoustic energy and lower nasal gas sampling rates increased measured nNO levels (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001). Longitudinally, baseline (quiet) nNO obtained on a repeated basis in the two experiments (n = 9) was highly reproducible (R2 = 0.84; p < 0.001), and acoustically-stimulated nNO was moderately so (R2 = 0.50; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Application of external acoustic energy is a practical alternative to humming for mobilizing NO from the paranasal sinuses, and could be more objectively applied in any future validation studies involving clinical sinusitis and/or OMC obstruction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: CPAP Reservoir Bacterial Colonization Is Not Associated with Sinus Culture Positivity
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 44-48; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010044
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 28 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are both highly prevalent chronic diseases in the United States. Association between culture positivity of CPAP machines and sinus samples has not been studied in patients with both disease states. Our objective was to compare
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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are both highly prevalent chronic diseases in the United States. Association between culture positivity of CPAP machines and sinus samples has not been studied in patients with both disease states. Our objective was to compare the microbes present in the sinus cavities and CPAP reservoirs of patients with both CRS and OSA. Patients from an academic tertiary care Rhinology practice were identified with both CRS and OSA and enrolled prospectively. Inclusion criteria included age over 18 years; diagnosis of OSA by sleep study; regular CPAP use; and an active diagnosis of CRS. Exclusion criteria included treatment with antibiotics or cleaning of the CPAP reservoir in the month prior. Cultures were taken from participants’ sinus cavities and CPAP reservoirs and resulting microbial growth was compared. The most common organisms on CPAP culture were Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumanii, whereas the most common on sinus culture were Staphyloccoccus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbial growth from the sinus cavities and the CPAP reservoirs were not concordant in any of our patients. There is no association between bacterial colonization of the CPAP reservoir and the sinus cavities of those with CRS and OSA based on microbiologic cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Clinical and Immunological Research)
Open AccessArticle Fatty Acid Composition of Cultured Fibroblasts Derived from Healthy Nasal Mucosa and Nasal Polyps
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 55-64; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010055
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
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Abstract
Background: Fibroblasts from nasal polyps (NP) of asthma patients have reduced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesized that the reported alterations are due to alterations in the availability of arachidonic acid (AA). Objective:
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Background: Fibroblasts from nasal polyps (NP) of asthma patients have reduced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesized that the reported alterations are due to alterations in the availability of arachidonic acid (AA). Objective: The objective was to determine the fatty acid composition of airway fibroblasts from healthy subjects and from asthma patients with and without aspirin intolerance. Methods: We analyzed the fatty acid composition of cultured fibroblasts from non-asthmatics (n = 6) and from aspirin-tolerant (n = 6) and aspirin-intolerant asthmatics (n = 6) by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Fibroblasts were stimulated with acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Results: The omega-6 fatty acids dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (C20:3) and AA (C20:4), and omega-3 fatty acids docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6) were significantly higher in NP fibroblasts than in fibroblasts derived from nasal mucosa. The percentage composition of the fatty acids palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) was significantly higher in fibroblasts from patients with NP and aspirin intolerance than in fibroblasts derived from the nasal NP of aspirin-tolerant patients. ASA did not cause changes in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions. Our data do not support the hypothesis that a reduced production of AA in NP fibroblasts can account for the reported low production of PGE2 in nasal polyps. Whether the increased proportion of omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to reduced PGE2 production in nasal polyps by competitively inhibiting COX-2 and reducing the amount of AA available to the COX-2 enzyme remains to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Clinical and Immunological Research)
Open AccessArticle LTD4 and TGF-β1 Induce the Expression of Metalloproteinase-1 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis via a Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor 1-Related Mechanism
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 65-75; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010065
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
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Abstract
Background: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling. The use of CysLTs receptor antagonists has been included in the management of asthma and rhinitis. However, despite the action of these compounds on leukotriene production has been
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Background: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling. The use of CysLTs receptor antagonists has been included in the management of asthma and rhinitis. However, despite the action of these compounds on leukotriene production has been well documented, their role in airway remodeling remains unclear. Objective: We aimed to investigate the capability of the leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast to inhibit MMPs release after CysLTs stimulation in nasal tissue fibroblasts. Methods: Fibroblasts were isolated from sinunasal tissue collected from five patients suffering of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis. Cells were cultured and stimulated first with LTC4 and LTD4 (10−10, 10−8, 10−6 M) using as pre-stimulus 10 ng/mL of: IL-4, IL-13, or TGF-beta1 and in presence or absence of Montelukast (10−10, 10−8, 10−6 M). To evaluate the regulation of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 we used enzyme immunoassays and to evaluate CysLT1 receptor we used real time PCR. Results: LTD4 but not LTC4 induced production of mRNA for CysLT1 receptor in a dose dependent manner and with an additive effect when the cells where primed with TGF-β1. TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-13 did not influence the expression of the receptor. Levels of MMP-1 but not of TIMP-1 were statistically enhanced in cells primed with TGF-β1 and stimulated with LTD4. Montelukast significantly decreased Cys-LT1 receptor and MMP-1 concentrations in a dose-dependent way in cells stimulated with LTD4 and TGF-β1 separately and when they were applied together. Conclusion: The leukotriene pathway may play an important role in extra-cellular matrix formation in an inflamed environment, such as chronic sinusitis and, consequently, leukotriene receptor antagonists such as Montelukast may be of great benefit in management of this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Clinical and Immunological Research)
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Open AccessArticle Sinusitis and Respiratory Disease at Pediatric Age
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 88-91; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010088
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
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Abstract
Here, we present a review of the development of paranasal sinuses and pathologies associated to them, allergic and/or infectious sinusitis, in children. A review of 200 medical records of children and adolescents affected with respiratory disease is carried out. 66 patients (33%) were
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Here, we present a review of the development of paranasal sinuses and pathologies associated to them, allergic and/or infectious sinusitis, in children. A review of 200 medical records of children and adolescents affected with respiratory disease is carried out. 66 patients (33%) were diagnosed with sinusitis, six of which did not present any other respiratory processes. Of the remainder, association with rhinitis, asthma, or wheezy bronchitis, and one case with immune deficiency, was found. Other associated pathologies, such as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and other processes described as associated with sinusitis, were not detected in any case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sinusitis and Lower Airways Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Are Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Paranasal Sinus Pneumatization Related?
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 92-98; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010092
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
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Abstract
The relationship between paranasal sinus pneumatization and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without cystic fibrosis is not well understood. Previous investigations have confirmed sinus hypoplasia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study compares paranasal sinus pneumatization of CRS patients to unaffected controls to determine if
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The relationship between paranasal sinus pneumatization and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without cystic fibrosis is not well understood. Previous investigations have confirmed sinus hypoplasia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study compares paranasal sinus pneumatization of CRS patients to unaffected controls to determine if there is an analogous effect to that seen in CF. 591 sinus computed tomography (CT) scans, comprised of 303 adolescents (age 13–18) and 288 adults (age > 18), were analyzed for Lund-MacKay and Assessment of Pneumatization of the Paranasal Sinuses (APPS) scores. The APPS score is validated for measuring the extent of sinus pneumatization. A diagnosis of CRS and CRS phenotype was determined from the medical record. The mean APPS score for patients with a diagnosis of CRS was 10.61 (n = 111) compared to 9.62 (n = 448) for unaffected controls (p = 0.001). This was significant in adult (p = 0.021) and adolescent subgroups (p = 0.035). Sinus pneumatization did not differ according to CRS phenotype (p = 0.699). This suggests that there is not analogous anatomical sinus variation between CRS and CF, and that the mechanisms underlying sinus hypoplasia in CF may not be universal in patients with other types of sinus inflammation. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Churg-Strauss Syndrome or Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 24-43; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010024
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
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Abstract
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss, EGPA) is a systemic small-to-medium-sized vasculitis associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Histologically EGPA presents tissue eosinophilia, necrotizing vasculitis, and granulomatous inflammation with eosinophil tissue infiltration. EGPA commonly involves the upper airway and lung parenchyma, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac disorders,
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Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss, EGPA) is a systemic small-to-medium-sized vasculitis associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Histologically EGPA presents tissue eosinophilia, necrotizing vasculitis, and granulomatous inflammation with eosinophil tissue infiltration. EGPA commonly involves the upper airway and lung parenchyma, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac disorders, and skin lesions. The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are positive in 40% of cases, especially in those patients with clinical signs of vasculitis. The pathogenesis of EGPA is multifactorial. The disease can be triggered by exposure to a variety of allergens and drugs, but a genetic background has also been described, particularly an association with HLA-DRB4. Th2 response is of special importance in the upregulation of different interleukins such as IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5. Th1 and Th17 responses are also of significance. Activated eosinophils have a prolonged survival and probably cause tissue damage by releasing eosinophil granule proteins, while their tissue recruitment can be regulated by chemokines such as eotaxin-3 and CCL17. Humoral immunity is also abnormally regulated, as demonstrated by excessive responses of IgG4 and IgE. EGPA has a good respond to glucocorticoids, although the combination of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants (e.g., cyclophosphamide, azathioprine) is needed in most of cases. Newer treatment options include anti-IL-5 antibodies (mepolizumab), whose efficacy has been described in clinical trials, and anti-CD-20, a B cell-depleting agent (rituximab), reported in several case series. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Medical Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Adults
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 76-87; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010076
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 28 May 2016
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Abstract
Chronic rhinosinusitis can be refractory and has detrimental effects not only on symptoms, but also on work absences, work productivity, annual productivity costs, and disease-specific quality of life measures. The pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis continues to evolve. There is evidence that it is
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Chronic rhinosinusitis can be refractory and has detrimental effects not only on symptoms, but also on work absences, work productivity, annual productivity costs, and disease-specific quality of life measures. The pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis continues to evolve. There is evidence that it is driven by various inflammatory pathways and host factors and is not merely an infectious problem, although pathogens, including bacterial biofilms, may certainly contribute to this inflammatory cascade and to treatment resistance. Given this, medical management should be tailored to the specific comorbidities and problems in an individual patient. In addition to treating acute exacerbations of chronic rhinosinusitis with amoxicillin-clavulanate, second or third generation cephalosporins, or fluoroquinolones, one must consider if nasal polyps are present, when symptoms and disease severity correlate to mucosal eosinophilia, and there is the best evidence for intranasal corticosteroids and saline irrigation. Asthma worsens severity of chronic rhinosinusitis and it is felt to be mediated by increased leukotrienes, when leukotriene antagonists may be utilized. Cystic fibrosis has a genetic defect and increased mucin, which are potential treatment targets with dornase alfa showing efficacy. Other comorbidities that may impact treatment include allergies, ciliary dyskinesia, immunodeficiency, and possibly allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Clinical and Immunological Research)

Other

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Open AccessCase Report Chronic Rhinosinusitis as a Crucial Symptom of Cystic Fibrosis—Case Report and Discussion on the Sinonasal Compartment as Site of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acquisition into CF Airways
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 49-54; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010049
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
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Abstract
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent congenital lethal disease in Caucasians. Impaired mucociliary clearance causes chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis in up to 62% of patients, and almost all patients exhibit sinonasal pathology in CT scans. Pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) chronically
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent congenital lethal disease in Caucasians. Impaired mucociliary clearance causes chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis in up to 62% of patients, and almost all patients exhibit sinonasal pathology in CT scans. Pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) chronically colonize about 70% of the CF adults’ lungs and are the major reason for pulmonary destruction and premature death. In our 34-year-old female CF patient, rhinosinusitis caused massive orbital hypertelorism despite three sinonasal operations. Her sputum samples had always been negative for P.a. Then, P.a. was primarily detected in her sputum and additionally in nasal lavage, which since then persisted in both, her upper and lower airways. The P.a. strains turned out to be genetically identical in both airway levels, indicating early colonization of the entire airway system with P.a. This first report on simultaneous primary P.a. detection in the sinonasal and pulmonary compartments highlights the need to include an assessment of upper airway colonization in the standards of CF care, particularly in patients without chronic P.a. colonization. Both airway levels need to be considered as one united system, and a strong cooperation between ENT and CF specialists should be established. Prospective longitudinal studies should assess the upper airways´ role in acquisition and persistence of pathogens and evaluate conservative and surgical therapeutic options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Clinical and Immunological Research)
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Open AccessCase Report Contralateral Orbital Mucocele as a Complication of Unilateral Nasal Polyposis
Sinusitis 2016, 1(1), 99-104; doi:10.3390/sinusitis1010099
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Mucocele is a rare complication of chronic rhinosinusitis that typically presents with delayed diagnosis and results in local erosion. We present the case of a symptomatic orbital mucocele arising from contralateral sinus disease that crossed the midline upon diversion by the effect of
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Mucocele is a rare complication of chronic rhinosinusitis that typically presents with delayed diagnosis and results in local erosion. We present the case of a symptomatic orbital mucocele arising from contralateral sinus disease that crossed the midline upon diversion by the effect of prior trauma. Effective treatment was provided by combined endoscopic surgery and external drainage. Full article
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