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C, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of C in 2016
C 2017, 3(1), 2; doi:10.3390/c3010002
Received: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract The editors of C would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials
C 2017, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/c3010001
Received: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 9 January 2017
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Abstract We welcome readers to this Special Issue of C. From the standpoint of economics of energy storage, carbon electrodes offer the practicality of large-scale applications with the promise of improved performance.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)

Research

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Open AccessArticle More Energy-Efficient CO2 Capture from IGCC GE Flue Gases
C 2017, 3(1), 7; doi:10.3390/c3010007
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are one of the main reasons for the increase in greenhouse gasses in the earth’s atmosphere and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is known as an effective method to reduce CO2 emissions on a larger scale,
[...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are one of the main reasons for the increase in greenhouse gasses in the earth’s atmosphere and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is known as an effective method to reduce CO2 emissions on a larger scale, such as for fossil energy utilization systems. In this paper, the feasibility of capturing CO2 using cryogenic liquefaction and improving the capture rate by expansion will be discussed. The main aim was to design an energy-saving scheme for an IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) power plant with CO2 cryogenic liquefaction capture. The experimental results provided by the authors, using the feed gas specification of a 740 MW IGCC General Electric (GE) combustion power plant, demonstrated that using an orifice for further expanding the vent gas after cryogenic capture from 57 bar to 24 bar gave an experimentally observed capture rate up to 65%. The energy-saving scheme can improve the overall CO2 capture rate, and hence save energy. The capture process has also been simulated using Aspen HYSYS simulation software to evaluate its energy penalty. The results show that a 92% overall capture rate can be achieved by using an orifice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle High-Bandwidth and Sensitive Air Flow Sensing Based on Resonance Properties of CNT-on-Fiber Hairs
C 2017, 3(1), 6; doi:10.3390/c3010006
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Artificial hair flow sensors were fabricated using piezoresistive, radially grown carbon nanotube arrays on glass fibers and investigated for their dynamic aerodynamic response as measured within an instrumented plane-wave tube. The sensors were experimentally observed to provide both a large bandwidth of operation
[...] Read more.
Artificial hair flow sensors were fabricated using piezoresistive, radially grown carbon nanotube arrays on glass fibers and investigated for their dynamic aerodynamic response as measured within an instrumented plane-wave tube. The sensors were experimentally observed to provide both a large bandwidth of operation below first resonance and a strong resonance response at selected frequencies above first resonance. The frequency of first resonance was easily tunable by adjusting the length of the exposed hair and could be made to vary from a few hundred hertz to over 13 kHz. Higher frequency bands were accessible for a given hair length using higher-order resonance modes, up to five of which were observed. All of the responses were understood and modeled using a vibrating Euler-Bernoulli beam analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Temperature on Vibrational Frequency of Graphene Sheet Used as Nano-Scale Sensing
C 2017, 3(1), 4; doi:10.3390/c3010004
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the vibrational properties of single- and double-layer graphene sheets (GSs) with attached nanoparticles are analyzed based on the nonlocal elasticity theory. The potential applications of atomic-scale mass sensing are presented using GSs with simply supported boundary condition. The frequency equation
[...] Read more.
In this study, the vibrational properties of single- and double-layer graphene sheets (GSs) with attached nanoparticles are analyzed based on the nonlocal elasticity theory. The potential applications of atomic-scale mass sensing are presented using GSs with simply supported boundary condition. The frequency equation for GSs with an attached nanoparticle is derived to investigate the vibration frequency of the GSs under thermal environment. Using the proposed model, the relationship between the frequency shifts of graphene-based mass sensor and the attached nanoparticles is obtained. The nonlocal effect and the temperature dependence on the variation of frequency shifts with the attached nanomass and the positions on the GS are investigated and discussed in detail. The obtained results show that the nanomass can be easily detected by using GS resonator which provides a highly sensitive nanomechanical element in sensor systems. The vibrational frequency shift of GS increases with increasing the temperature dependence. The double-layer GSs (DLGSs) have higher sensitivity than the single-layer GSs (SLGSs) due to high frequency shifts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrode Surface Composition of Dual-Intercalation, All-Graphite Batteries
C 2017, 3(1), 5; doi:10.3390/c3010005
Received: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
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Abstract
Dual-intercalation batteries implement graphite electrodes as both cathodes and anodes and offer high specific energy, inexpensive and environmentally sustainable materials, and high operating voltages. Our research investigated the influence of surface composition on capacities and cycling efficiencies of chemically functionalized all-graphite battery electrodes.
[...] Read more.
Dual-intercalation batteries implement graphite electrodes as both cathodes and anodes and offer high specific energy, inexpensive and environmentally sustainable materials, and high operating voltages. Our research investigated the influence of surface composition on capacities and cycling efficiencies of chemically functionalized all-graphite battery electrodes. We subjected coreshell spherical particles and synthetic graphite flakes to high-temperature air oxidation, and hydrogenation to introduce, respectively, –OH, and –H surface functional groups. We identified noticeable influences of electrode surface chemistry on first-cycle efficiencies and charge storage densities of anion and cation intercalation into graphite electrodes. We matched oxidized cathodes and hydrogenated anodes in dual-ion batteries and improved their overall performance. Our approach provides novel fundamental insight into the anion intercalation process and suggests inexpensive and environmentally sustainable methods to improve performance of these grid-scale energy storage systems Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Biosensors Based on Lipid Modified Graphene Microelectrodes
C 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/c3010009
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Graphene is one of the new materials which has shown a large impact on the electronic industry due to its versatile properties, such as high specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, and large spectrum of electrochemical properties. The graphene material-based electronic
[...] Read more.
Graphene is one of the new materials which has shown a large impact on the electronic industry due to its versatile properties, such as high specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, and large spectrum of electrochemical properties. The graphene material-based electronic industry has provided flexible devices which are inexpensive, simple and low power-consuming sensor tools, therefore opening an outstanding new door in the field of portable electronic devices. All these attractive advantages of graphene give a platform for the development of a new generation of devices in both food and environmental applications. Lipid-based sensors have proven to be a good route to the construction of novel devices with improved characteristics, such as fast response times, increased sensitivity and selectivity, and the possibility of miniaturization for the construction of portable biosensors. Therefore, the incorporation of a lipid substrate on graphene electrodes has provided a route to the construction of a highly sensitive and selective class of biosensors with fast response times and portability of field applications for the rapid detection of toxicants in the environment and food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Carbon Nanostructures for Tagging in Electrochemical Biosensing: A Review
C 2017, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/c3010003
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 16 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growing demand for developing ultrasensitive electrochemical bioassays has led to the design of numerous signal amplification strategies. In this context, carbon-based nanomaterials have been demonstrated to be excellent tags for greatly amplifying the transduction of recognition events and simplifying the protocols used in
[...] Read more.
Growing demand for developing ultrasensitive electrochemical bioassays has led to the design of numerous signal amplification strategies. In this context, carbon-based nanomaterials have been demonstrated to be excellent tags for greatly amplifying the transduction of recognition events and simplifying the protocols used in electrochemical biosensing. This relevant role is due to the carbon-nanomaterials’ large surface area, excellent biological compatibility and ease functionalization and, in some cases, intrinsic electrochemistry. These carbon-based nanomaterials involve well-known carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene as well as the more recent use of other carbon nanoforms. This paper briefly discusses the advantages of using carbon nanostructures and their hybrid nanocomposites for amplification through tagging in electrochemical biosensing platforms and provides an updated overview of some selected examples making use of labels involving carbon nanomaterials, acting both as carriers for signal elements and as electrochemical tracers, applied to the electrochemical biosensing of relevant (bio)markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview An Overview of Pesticide Monitoring at Environmental Samples Using Carbon Nanotubes-Based Electrochemical Sensors
C 2017, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/c3010008
Received: 4 February 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Carbon nanotubes have received enormous attention in the development of electrochemical sensors by promoting electron transfer reactions, decreasing the work overpotential within great surface areas. The growing concerns about environmental health emphasized the necessity of continuous monitoring of pollutants. Pesticides have been successfully
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes have received enormous attention in the development of electrochemical sensors by promoting electron transfer reactions, decreasing the work overpotential within great surface areas. The growing concerns about environmental health emphasized the necessity of continuous monitoring of pollutants. Pesticides have been successfully used to control agricultural and public health pests; however, intense use can cause a number of damages for biodiversity and human health. In this sense, carbon nanotubes-based electrochemical sensors have been proposed for pesticide monitoring combining different electrode modification strategies and electroanalytical techniques. In this paper, we provide a review of the recent advances in the use of carbon nanotubes for the construction of electrochemical sensors dedicated to the environmental monitoring of pesticides. Future directions, perspectives, and challenges are also commented. Full article
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