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Batteries, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries 2016
Batteries 2016, 2(4), 31; doi:10.3390/batteries2040031
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 26 September 2016 / Published: 2 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nineteen papers focusing on recent research investigations in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have been selected for this Special Issue of Batteries. These papers summarize the joint efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, the National Institute of
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Nineteen papers focusing on recent research investigations in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have been selected for this Special Issue of Batteries. These papers summarize the joint efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Michigan State University, and FDK during 2015–2016 through reviews of basic operational concepts, previous academic publications, issued US Patent and filed Japan Patent Applications, descriptions of current research results in advanced components and cell constructions, and projections of future works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle Charge-Discharge Properties of the Surface-Modified ZrNi Alloy Electrode with Different Degrees of Boiling Alkaline Treatment
Batteries 2016, 2(4), 30; doi:10.3390/batteries2040030
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
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Abstract
Charge-discharge properties of the surface-modified ZrNi negative electrodes with different degrees of boiling alkaline treatment were investigated. The boiling alkaline treatment was performed by immersing the ZrNi electrode in a boiling 6 M KOH aqueous solution for 2 h or 4 h. The
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Charge-discharge properties of the surface-modified ZrNi negative electrodes with different degrees of boiling alkaline treatment were investigated. The boiling alkaline treatment was performed by immersing the ZrNi electrode in a boiling 6 M KOH aqueous solution for 2 h or 4 h. The initial discharge capacity for the untreated ZrNi negative electrode was 21 mAh·g−1, but it was increased to 114 mAh·g−1 and 308 mAh·g−1 after the boiling alkaline treatments for 2 h and 4 h, respectively. The discharge capacity for the ZrNi negative electrode after the treatment for 2 h steadily increased with repeating charge-discharge cycles as well as that of the untreated electrode, whereas that for the ZrNi negative electrode after the 4 h treatment greatly decreased. The high rate of dischargeability was improved with an increase in the treatment period of time, and the charge-transfer resistance was drastically decreased. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated the ZrO2 passive layer on the ZrNi alloy surface was removed by the boiling alkaline treatment to form a porous morphology containing Ni(OH)2, which can be reduced to Ni during charging, leading to the reduction of a barrier for the charge-discharge reactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Analysis of a Fast Charging Technique for a High Power Lithium-Ion Cell
Batteries 2016, 2(4), 32; doi:10.3390/batteries2040032
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-constant voltage (CV))/fast discharge (4C) in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated with cell overpotential,
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The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-constant voltage (CV))/fast discharge (4C) in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated with cell overpotential, although evidence of the reversible component is also observed, associated with the heat related to entropy from the electrode reactions. The final charging stages (i.e., 1C-CV) significantly reduce heat generation and cell temperature during charge, resulting in a thermally safe charging protocol. Cell heat capacity was determined from cell-specific heats and the cell materials’ thickness. The model adjustment of the experimental data during the 2 min resting period between discharge and charge allowed us to calculate both the time constant of the relaxation process and the cell thermal resistance. The obtained values of these thermal parameters used in the proposed model are almost equal to those found in the literature for the same cell model, which suggests that the proposed model is suitable for its implementation in thermal management systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Fe-Substitution for Ni in Misch Metal-Based Superlattice Hydrogen Absorbing Alloys—Part 1. Structural, Hydrogen Storage, and Electrochemical Properties
Batteries 2016, 2(4), 34; doi:10.3390/batteries2040034
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
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Abstract
The effects of Fe partially replacing Ni in a misch metal-based superlattice hydrogen absorbing alloy (HAA) were studied. Addition of Fe increases the lattice constants and abundance of the main Ce2Ni7 phase, decreases the NdNi3 phase abundance, and increases
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The effects of Fe partially replacing Ni in a misch metal-based superlattice hydrogen absorbing alloy (HAA) were studied. Addition of Fe increases the lattice constants and abundance of the main Ce2Ni7 phase, decreases the NdNi3 phase abundance, and increases the CaCu5 phase when the Fe content is above 2.3 at%. For the gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage), Fe incorporation does not change the storage capacity or equilibrium pressure, but it does decrease the change in both entropy and enthalpy. With regard to electrochemistry, >2.3 at% Fe decreases both the full and high-rate discharge capacities due to the deterioration in both bulk transport (caused by decreased secondary phase abundance and consequent lower synergetic effect) and surface electrochemical reaction (caused by the lower volume of the surface metallic Ni inclusions). In a low-temperature environment (−40 °C), although Fe increases the reactive surface area, it also severely hinders the ability of the surface catalytic, leading to a net increase in surface charge-transfer resistance. Even though Fe increases the abundance of the beneficial Ce2Ni7 phase with a trade-off for the relatively unfavorable NdNi3 phase, it also deteriorates the electrochemical performance due to a less active surface. Therefore, further surface treatment methods that are able to increase the surface catalytic ability in Fe-containing superlattice alloys and potentially reveal the positive contributions that Fe provides structurally are worth investigating in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries for Stationary Applications
Batteries 2016, 2(4), 35; doi:10.3390/batteries2040035
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
A series of 250–350 μm-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode
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A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48%) exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48%) showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Electrolyte Additive Concentration for Maximum Energy Storage in Lead-Acid Batteries
Batteries 2016, 2(4), 36; doi:10.3390/batteries2040036
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a method to assess the effect of electrolyte additives on the energy capacity of Pb-acid batteries. The method applies to additives of various kinds, including suspensions and gels. The approach is based on thermodynamics and leads to the definition of
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This paper presents a method to assess the effect of electrolyte additives on the energy capacity of Pb-acid batteries. The method applies to additives of various kinds, including suspensions and gels. The approach is based on thermodynamics and leads to the definition of a region of admissible concentrations—the battery’s admissible range—where the battery can operate without suffering irreversible changes. An experimental procedure to determine this range is presented. The obtained results provide a way to assess the potential of electrolyte additives to improve the energy capacity of Pb-acid batteries. They also provide a means to determine the additive concentration that produces the maximum energy capacity increase of the battery. The paper closes with an example of the application of the proposed approach to a practical case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rechargeable Battery Technologies--From Materials to Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Generalized Characterization Methodology for Performance Modelling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2016, 2(4), 37; doi:10.3390/batteries2040037
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are complex energy storage devices with their performance behavior highly dependent on the operating conditions (i.e., temperature, load current, and state-of-charge (SOC)). Thus, in order to evaluate their techno-economic viability for a certain application, detailed information about Li-ion
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Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are complex energy storage devices with their performance behavior highly dependent on the operating conditions (i.e., temperature, load current, and state-of-charge (SOC)). Thus, in order to evaluate their techno-economic viability for a certain application, detailed information about Li-ion battery performance behavior becomes necessary. This paper proposes a comprehensive seven-step methodology for laboratory characterization of Li-ion batteries, in which the battery’s performance parameters (i.e., capacity, open-circuit voltage (OCV), and impedance) are determined and their dependence on the operating conditions are obtained. Furthermore, this paper proposes a novel hybrid procedure for parameterizing the batteries’ equivalent electrical circuit (EEC), which is used to emulate the batteries’ dynamic behavior. Based on this novel parameterization procedure, the performance model of the studied Li-ion battery is developed and its accuracy is successfully verified (maximum error lower than 5% and a mean error below 8.5 mV) for various load profiles (including a real application profile), thus validating the proposed seven-step characterization methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Development of Carbonaceous Materials for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries
Batteries 2016, 2(4), 33; doi:10.3390/batteries2040033
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions,
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The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, it is obvious that more environmentally friendly sources of power are required. Technologies such as solar and wind power are constantly being improved through research; however, as these technologies are often sporadic in their power generation, efforts must be made to establish ways to store this sustainable energy when conditions for generation are not ideal. Battery storage is one possible supplement to these renewable energy technologies; however, as current Li-ion technology is reaching its theoretical capacity, new battery technology must be investigated. Lithium–sulphur (Li–S) batteries are receiving much attention as a potential replacement for Li-ion batteries due to their superior capacity, and also their abundant and environmentally benign active materials. In the spirit of environmental harm minimization, efforts have been made to use sustainable carbonaceous materials for applications as carbon–sulphur (C–S) composite cathodes, carbon interlayers, and carbon-modified separators. This work reports on the various applications of carbonaceous materials applied to Li–S batteries, and provides perspectives for the future development of Li–S batteries with the aim of preparing a high energy density, environmentally friendly, and sustainable sulphur-based cathode with long cycle life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rechargeable Battery Technologies--From Materials to Applications)
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