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Cryptography, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Cryptography: A New Open Access Journal
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010001
Received: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
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Abstract
Cryptography has very long history, from ancient ciphers, such as Ceaser cipher, machine (or rotor) cipherx during WWI and WWII, and modern ciphers, which play a fundamental role in providing Confidentiality, Integrity, and Authentication services during transmission, processing, and storage of the sensitive
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Cryptography has very long history, from ancient ciphers, such as Ceaser cipher, machine (or rotor) cipherx during WWI and WWII, and modern ciphers, which play a fundamental role in providing Confidentiality, Integrity, and Authentication services during transmission, processing, and storage of the sensitive data over the open or public networks. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Balanced Permutations Even–Mansour Ciphers
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010002
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
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Abstract
The r-rounds Even–Mansour block cipher is a generalization of the well known Even–Mansour block cipher to r iterations. Attacks on this construction were described by Nikolić et al. and Dinur et al. for r=2,3. These attacks are
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The r-rounds Even–Mansour block cipher is a generalization of the well known Even–Mansour block cipher to r iterations. Attacks on this construction were described by Nikolić et al. and Dinur et al. for r = 2 , 3 . These attacks are only marginally better than brute force but are based on an interesting observation (due to Nikolić et al.): for a “typical” permutation P, the distribution of P ( x ) x is not uniform. This naturally raises the following question. Let us call permutations for which the distribution of P ( x ) x is uniformly “balanced” — is there a sufficiently large family of balanced permutations, and what is the security of the resulting Even–Mansour block cipher? We show how to generate families of balanced permutations from the Luby–Rackoff construction and use them to define a 2 n -bit block cipher from the 2-round Even–Mansour scheme. We prove that this cipher is indistinguishable from a random permutation of { 0 , 1 } 2 n , for any adversary who has oracle access to the public permutations and to an encryption/decryption oracle, as long as the number of queries is o ( 2 n / 2 ) . As a practical example, we discuss the properties and the performance of a 256-bit block cipher that is based on our construction, and uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), with a fixed key, as the public permutation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Privacy-Preserving, Mutual PUF-Based Authentication Protocol
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010003
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
This paper describes an authentication protocol using a Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF called HELP. HELP derives randomness from within-die path delay variations that occur along the paths within a hardware implementation of a cryptographic primitive, such as AES or SHA-3. The digitized timing values
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This paper describes an authentication protocol using a Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF called HELP. HELP derives randomness from within-die path delay variations that occur along the paths within a hardware implementation of a cryptographic primitive, such as AES or SHA-3. The digitized timing values which represent the path delays are stored in a database on a secure server (verifier) as an alternative to storing PUF response bitstrings. This enables the development of an efficient authentication protocol that provides both privacy and mutual authentication. The security properties of the protocol are analyzed using data collected from a set of Xilinx Zynq FPGAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Security in a Cryptographic Enviroment)
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Open AccessArticle Garbled Quantum Computation
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 6; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010006
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The universal blind quantum computation protocol (UBQC) enables an almost classical client to delegate a quantum computation to an untrusted quantum server (in the form of a garbled quantum circuit) while the security for the client is unconditional. In this contribution, we explore
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The universal blind quantum computation protocol (UBQC) enables an almost classical client to delegate a quantum computation to an untrusted quantum server (in the form of a garbled quantum circuit) while the security for the client is unconditional. In this contribution, we explore the possibility of extending the verifiable UBQC, to achieve further functionalities following the analogous research for classical circuits (Yao 1986). First, exploring the asymmetric nature of UBQC (the client preparing only single qubits, while the server runs the entire quantum computation), we present a “Yao”-type protocol for secure two-party quantum computation. Similar to the classical setting, our quantum Yao protocol is secure against a specious (quantum honest-but-curious) garbler, but in our case, against a (fully) malicious evaluator. Unlike the previous work on quantum two-party computation of Dupuis et al., 2010, we do not require any online-quantum communication between the garbler and the evaluator and, thus, no extra cryptographic primitive. This feature will allow us to construct a simple universal one-time compiler for any quantum computation using one-time memory, in a similar way to the classical work of Goldwasser et al., 2008, while more efficiently than the previous work of Broadbent et al., 2013. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum-Safe Cryptography)
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Open AccessArticle Maximum-Order Complexity and Correlation Measures
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 7; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010007
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
We estimate the maximum-order complexity of a binary sequence in terms of its correlation measures. Roughly speaking, we show that any sequence with small correlation measure up to a sufficiently large order k cannot have very small maximum-order complexity. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Analysis of Entropy in a Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 8; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010008
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
The magnitude of the information content associated with a particular implementation of a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is critically important for security and trust in emerging Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Authentication, in particular, requires the PUF to produce a very large number
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The magnitude of the information content associated with a particular implementation of a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is critically important for security and trust in emerging Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Authentication, in particular, requires the PUF to produce a very large number of challenge-response-pairs (CRPs) and, of even greater importance, requires the PUF to be resistant to adversarial attacks that attempt to model and clone the PUF (model-building attacks). Entropy is critically important to the model-building resistance of the PUF. A variety of metrics have been proposed for reporting Entropy, each measuring the randomness of information embedded within PUF-generated bitstrings. In this paper, we report the Entropy, MinEntropy, conditional MinEntropy, Interchip hamming distance and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test results using bitstrings generated by a Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF called HELP. The bitstrings are generated from data collected in hardware experiments on 500 copies of HELP implemented on a set of Xilinx Zynq 7020 SoC Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) subjected to industrial-level temperature and voltage conditions. Special test cases are constructed which purposely create worst case correlations for bitstring generation. Our results show that the processes proposed within HELP to generate bitstrings add significantly to their Entropy, and show that classical re-use of PUF components, e.g., path delays, does not result in large Entropy losses commonly reported for other PUF architectures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PUF-Based Authentication)
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Open AccessArticle Cryptanalysis and Improvement of ECC Based Authentication and Key Exchanging Protocols
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 9; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010009
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 29 May 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is extensively used in various multifactor authentication protocols. In this work, various recent ECC-based authentication and key exchange protocols are subjected to threat modeling and static analysis to detect vulnerabilities and to enhance them to be more secure against
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Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is extensively used in various multifactor authentication protocols. In this work, various recent ECC-based authentication and key exchange protocols are subjected to threat modeling and static analysis to detect vulnerabilities and to enhance them to be more secure against threats. This work demonstrates how currently-used ECC-based protocols are vulnerable to attacks. If protocols are vulnerable, damage could include critical data loss and elevated privacy concerns. The protocols considered in this work differ in their usage of security factors (e.g., passwords, pins and biometrics), encryption and timestamps. The threat model considers various kinds of attacks including denial of service, man in the middle, weak authentication and SQL injection. Countermeasures to reduce or prevent such attacks are suggested. Beyond cryptanalysis of current schemes and the proposal of new schemes, the proposed adversary model and criteria set forth provide a benchmark for the systematic evaluation of future two-factor authentication proposals. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Cryptography in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: A Survey and Research Directions
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010004
Received: 27 November 2016 / Revised: 17 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
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Abstract
Wireless multimedia sensor networks will play a central role in the Internet of Things world, providing content-rich information for an uncountable number of monitoring and control scenarios. As more applications rely on multimedia data, security concerns gain attention, and new approaches arise to
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Wireless multimedia sensor networks will play a central role in the Internet of Things world, providing content-rich information for an uncountable number of monitoring and control scenarios. As more applications rely on multimedia data, security concerns gain attention, and new approaches arise to provide security for such networks. However, the usual resource constraints of processing, memory and the energy of multimedia-based sensors have brought different challenges for data encryption, which have driven the development of different security approaches. In this context, this article presents the state-of-the-art of cryptography in wireless multimedia sensor networks, surveying innovative works in this area and discussing promising research directions. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessBook Review Privacy in a Digital, Networked World: Technologies, Implications and Solutions. By Sherali Zeadally and Mohamad Badra. Springer International Publishing: 418 pp.; $51.89; ISBN-10: 3319084690, ISBN-13: 978-3319084695
Cryptography 2017, 1(1), 5; doi:10.3390/cryptography1010005
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
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