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Fishes, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2016), Pages 1-76

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Welcome to the New Journal Fishes
Fishes 2016, 1(1), 16-17; doi:10.3390/fishes1010016
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
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Abstract Most of life’s evolutionary history has been played out in the water.[...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Assessment of the in Vitro Antithrombotic Properties of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Fillet Lipids and Cod Liver Oil
Fishes 2016, 1(1), 1-15; doi:10.3390/fishes1010001
Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 28 September 2015
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Abstract
The aim of the current study was to compare the biological activities of total polar lipids (TPL) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) polar lipid fractions of sardine fillet and cod liver oil against atherogenesis. TPL and TLC polar lipid fractions obtained from these two
[...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to compare the biological activities of total polar lipids (TPL) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) polar lipid fractions of sardine fillet and cod liver oil against atherogenesis. TPL and TLC polar lipid fractions obtained from these two sources were assessed for their ability to inhibit the platelet-activating-factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation (PAF-antagonists) or to induce platelet aggregation (PAF-agonists), since PAF plays a crucial role in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. This study focused on the polar lipids since previous studies have underlined that the antithrombotic properties of foodstuffs are mainly attributed to polar lipid micro-constituents. TPL of sardine fillet induced platelet aggregation, while TPL of cod liver had a bimodal effect on platelets. TLC polar lipid fractions of both samples exhibited in vitro aggregatory and inhibitory activity towards platelets. However, TLC sardine polar lipid fractions showed stronger in vitro antithrombotic activities than the cod liver oil ones. These data constitute evidence of the putative contribution of fish polar lipids against cardiovascular diseases, underling firstly the beneficial effect of fish and fish lipids as functional foodstuffs against atherogenesis and secondly the more important role of sardine polar lipids as opposed to cod liver oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Taxonomy, Distribution and Evolution of Trisopterine Gadidae by Means of Otoliths and Other Characteristics
Fishes 2016, 1(1), 18-51; doi:10.3390/fishes1010018
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 2 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
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Abstract
In a greater study of the recent fossil Gadidae, the object of this paper is to better define the trisopterine species and their relationships. The taxonomy of the four recent species usually included in the genus Trisopterus is further elaborated by means of
[...] Read more.
In a greater study of the recent fossil Gadidae, the object of this paper is to better define the trisopterine species and their relationships. The taxonomy of the four recent species usually included in the genus Trisopterus is further elaborated by means of published and new data on their otoliths, by published data on general external features and meristics of the fishes, and their genetics. Fossil otoliths, from the beginning of the Oligocene up to the present, reveal much of their evolution and throw more light on their relationships. Several succeeding and partly overlapping lineages representing different genera are recognized during this time interval. The genus Neocolliolus Gaemers, 1976, for Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson, 1855), is more firmly based. A new genus, Allotrisopterus, is introduced for Trisopterus minutus (Linnaeus, 1758). The similarity with Trisopterus capelanus (Lacepède, 1800) is an example of convergent evolution. The tribe Trisopterini Endo (2002) should only contain Trisopterus, Allotrisopterus and Neocolliolus as recent genera. Correct identification of otoliths from fisheries research and from sea bottom samples extends the knowledge of the present day geographical distribution of T. capelanus and T. luscus (Linnaeus, 1758). T. capelanus is also living along the Atlantic coast of Portugal and at least up to and including the Ría de Arosa, Galicia, Spain. There it can easily be mistaken for A. minutus that is also living there. Otoliths of T. luscus have been identified from the Evvoïkós Channel between Euboia and the mainland of Greece, thus it must live also in the Aegean Sea. Otoliths prove to be a powerful tool in taxonomy, biogeography and evolution of teleosts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fortification of an Aquafeed with Potassium Chloride Does Not Improve Survival of Juvenile Australian Snapper Pagrus auratus Reared in Potassium Deficient Saline Groundwater
Fishes 2016, 1(1), 52-64; doi:10.3390/fishes1010052
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
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Abstract
This study was done to determine if fortification of a commercial aquafeed with KCl could improve the survival of juvenile Australian snapper Pagrus auratus reared in K+ deficient saline groundwater (KDSGW; <5 mg K+ L−1). Experiment 1 (Exp. 1)
[...] Read more.
This study was done to determine if fortification of a commercial aquafeed with KCl could improve the survival of juvenile Australian snapper Pagrus auratus reared in K+ deficient saline groundwater (KDSGW; <5 mg K+ L−1). Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) tested whether feeding an aquafeed fortified with zero, 25, or 50 g KCl kg−1 for 6 days affected feed intake and survival of fish transferred immediately from estuarine water to KDSGW of the equivalent salinity (20 g·L−1). Experiment 2 (Exp. 2) investigated whether an aquafeed fortified with zero, 10, or 25 g KCl kg−1 affected survival, feed intake, and growth rate (SGR) of snapper reared in KDSGW fortified to have 40% or 100% the [K+] of equivalent salinity estuarine water (20 g·L−1). The results of Exp. 1 demonstrated there was no benefit of fortifying aquafeed with KCl; fish transferred into KDSGW stopped feeding and developed symptoms akin to tetany. Some individuals also died and others became moribund. Exp. 1 was terminated according to animal care and ethics guidelines. The results of Exp. 2 indicated the amount of KCl added to the aquafeed did not affect survival, feed intake, or food conversion ratio (FCR) of snapper, irrespective of water treatment. However, SGR and FCR was better when fish were reared in normal estuarine water and KDSGW fortified to have 100% the [K+] of equivalent salinity estuarine water. Our results demonstrated that juvenile snapper were unable to utilize the KCl added to the aquafeed and were probably reliant on sequestering K+ ions from the water column in order to maintain functions involving hydromineral homeostasis. Fortification of aquafeeds with KCl does not ameliorate the negative effects of KDSWG on the survival of juvenile snapper. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lipids and Fatty Acids of the White Sea Herring Clupea pallasi marisalbi Berg (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) from Different Habitats of the White Sea
Fishes 2016, 1(1), 65-76; doi:10.3390/fishes1010065
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
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Abstract
Habitation conditions significantly affect the physiological and biochemical state of aquatic organisms, including the balance of lipids that performs important functions in cellular metabolism. The lipid and fatty acid profiles of White Sea herring in Dvina, Kandalaksha, and Onega bays, and in the
[...] Read more.
Habitation conditions significantly affect the physiological and biochemical state of aquatic organisms, including the balance of lipids that performs important functions in cellular metabolism. The lipid and fatty acid profiles of White Sea herring in Dvina, Kandalaksha, and Onega bays, and in the waters of Tersky Shore (the mouth of the Varzuga River) in autumn (after the fattening period) were studied. Different methods—thin-layer, high-performance liquid and gas chromatography—were used for this purpose. Determined heterogeneity on studied parameters of lipid metabolism of fish from different habitats is associated with differences in trophic and hydrological conditions in these bays. Variations of lipid compositions of herring groups can be a reflection of qualitative and quantitative strategies of biochemical adaptations, aimed at compensating the lipid metabolism of fish under different trophic–ecological conditions of habitation in the White Sea. Full article
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