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Vision, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Vision
Vision 2017, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/vision1010001
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract Vision is a new open-access journal covering all aspects of experimental vision research and clinical science. We particularly want to create a forum for the development of a dialogue between fundamental laboratory-based research and clinical research practice [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle The Demands of Geometry on Color Vision
Vision 2017, 1(1), 9; doi:10.3390/vision1010009
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
While studies of human color vision have made enormous strides, an overarching rationale for the circular sense of color relationships generated by two classes of color opponent neurons and three cone types is still lacking. Here we suggest that color circularity, color opponency
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While studies of human color vision have made enormous strides, an overarching rationale for the circular sense of color relationships generated by two classes of color opponent neurons and three cone types is still lacking. Here we suggest that color circularity, color opponency and trichromacy may have arisen, at least in part, because of the geometrical requirements needed to unambiguously distinguish all possible spectrally different regions on a plane. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multifocal Electroretinography in the Presence of Temporal and Spatial Correlations and Eye Movements
Vision 2017, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/vision1010003
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 3 May 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
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Abstract
Releasing patients from the fixation task, and permitting them to view natural stimuli such as movies, would provide increased comfort, and potentially additional signs of retinal function, when recording multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs). Techniques must be developed to handle the difficulties that arise from
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Releasing patients from the fixation task, and permitting them to view natural stimuli such as movies, would provide increased comfort, and potentially additional signs of retinal function, when recording multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs). Techniques must be developed to handle the difficulties that arise from these alternative stimulation strategies. Multifocal stimuli were presented to volunteer human subjects with and without fixation. Retinocentric analyses were performed to deal with shifts of the stimulus across the retina in the presence of eye movements. Artificial scotomas that moved with the eyes to simulate local retinal defects were presented to assess whether such defects might be detectable in the presence of eye movements. Temporal and spatial correlations in the stimulus can be discounted, permitting retinal kernels to be measured in response to natural stimuli. Responses to temporally natural stimuli tend to have slightly stronger amplitudes because of the presence of low temporal frequencies in these stimuli. The effects of eye movement artifacts can be reduced, permitting similar kernels to be obtained in the absence and presence of eye movements. Convergence to stable kernels took slightly longer in the presence of temporal correlations or eye movements. Artificial scotomas can be localized with these methods. It may be possible to perform multifocal ERG recordings in the clinic using more flexible, natural techniques. However, work is needed to achieve results comparable to those routinely obtained with conventional methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Surface Tension of Aqueous Humor in Anterior Segment Ocular Pathologies
Vision 2017, 1(1), 6; doi:10.3390/vision1010006
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify and determine differences in surface tension (ST) of aqueous humor (AH) in patients with cataract, glaucoma and Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED). Two hundred and two samples of AH were analyzed (control n = 22; cataract
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The aim of this study was to identify and determine differences in surface tension (ST) of aqueous humor (AH) in patients with cataract, glaucoma and Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED). Two hundred and two samples of AH were analyzed (control n = 22; cataract n = 56; glaucoma n = 81; and n = FED 43). Patients with previous history of anterior segment surgery, anterior segment pathology or intraocular injections were excluded from the study. Different types of glaucoma were identified, cataracts were graded using total phaco time data during surgery and clinical severity of FED was assessed by clinical examination. Around 150 microliters AH were obtained during the first step of a surgical procedure, lensectomy, phacoemulsification, nonpenetrating deep sclerotomy (NPDE) and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). A pendant drop-based optical goniometer OCA-15 (Dataphysics, Filderstadt, Germany) was used to measure surface tension. Mean ST was 65.74 ± 3.76 mN/m, 63.59 ± 5.50 mN/m, 64.35 ± 6.99 mN/m, and 60.89 ± 3.73 mN/m in control, cataract, glaucoma and FED patients respectively. Statistically significant differences between FED and control group were found (p < 0.001). Lens condition, cataract maturity, age, and gender did not show influence in ST. ST of AH is significantly decreased in FED patients independently from age and lens condition. These findings may aid to the understanding of the physiopathology of the disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Model of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Induced with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in Rabbits
Vision 2017, 1(1), 10; doi:10.3390/vision1010010
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
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Abstract
A novel meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) model induced by the injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in rabbits was developed to facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology of MGD with meibomitis. In addition, we sought to evaluate treatment with steroid eye drops in
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A novel meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) model induced by the injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in rabbits was developed to facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology of MGD with meibomitis. In addition, we sought to evaluate treatment with steroid eye drops in this model. Male Japanese white rabbits were subcutaneously injected with CFA into the upper eyelid margin. The eyelid margins of the rabbits were chronologically observed through slit lamp examination. The development of meibomitis was assessed through histopathology. We evaluated the effects of topically applied tobramycin/dexamethasone (Tob/Dex) eye drops on the plugged orifices and telangiectasia. After the injection of CFA, slit lamp examination revealed markedly plugged orifices, telangiectasia around the orifices and a toothpaste-like meibum, as compared with the normal eyelids. Histopathology revealed granulation tissue with infiltration of inflammatory cells, hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium, and cystic dilatation of ducts in the meibomian gland. The orifices were plugged with a proteinaceous substance. Tob/Dex eye drops significantly suppressed the plugging and telangiectasia around the orifices. Through the injection of CFA, we successfully established a novel rabbit MGD that mimics the symptoms observed in humans meibomitis. This model should be useful in the evaluation of the efficacy of drug candidates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparing Macular Thickness Measurements in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema with the Optos Spectral OCT/SLO and Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT
Vision 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/vision1010002
Received: 5 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare measurements of macular thickness, obtained from patients with diabetic macular edema, using two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) devices. These were the Spectralis Heidelberg Retina Angiograph + Optical Coherence Tomography (HRA + OCT) (Heidelberg Engineering),
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The aim of this study was to compare measurements of macular thickness, obtained from patients with diabetic macular edema, using two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) devices. These were the Spectralis Heidelberg Retina Angiograph + Optical Coherence Tomography (HRA + OCT) (Heidelberg Engineering), which is often considered the gold-standard for OCT measurement, and the Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography/Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (OCT/SLO) (Optos plc), which can additionally perform microperimetry, a useful measure of visual function. In this prospective observational study, each eye had SD-OCT performed with both devices on the same day by the same investigator. Mean retinal thickness was calculated, and compared between the devices, for central and parafoveal zones within 3 mm of the fovea. 62 eyes were included. In the central, superior, temporal, inferior and nasal zones respectively, mean retinal thickness with Spectralis HRA+OCT was (in microns) 310, 343, 344, 332 and 340; measurements with Spectral OCT/SLO were 237, 298, 297, 289 and 290. Pearson correlations between the devices were 0.752, 0.85, 0.928, 0.839, and 0.823 (p < 0.0001). Although absolute measurements between the devices were significantly different and therefore not interchangeable, the correlation between the devices was over 75% and statistically significant in all zones. Thus, the Spectral OCT/SLO could reliably be used for SD-OCT in patients who may also require microperimetry assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Insights into the Inter-Individual Variability in Perspective Taking
Vision 2017, 1(1), 8; doi:10.3390/vision1010008
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to test whether individual differences in perspective taking could be explained with two underpinning cognitive dimensions: The ability to handle the conflict between our egocentric perspective and another person’s perspective and the relative attentional focus during processing on the egocentric
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This study aimed to test whether individual differences in perspective taking could be explained with two underpinning cognitive dimensions: The ability to handle the conflict between our egocentric perspective and another person’s perspective and the relative attentional focus during processing on the egocentric perspective versus another person’s perspective. We conducted cluster analyses on 346 participants who completed a visual perspective-taking task assessing performance on these two cognitive dimensions. Individual differences were best reduced by forming four clusters, or profiles, of perspective-takers. This partition reflected a high heterogeneity along both dimensions. In addition, deconstructing the perspective-taking performance into two distinct cognitive dimensions better predicted participants’ self-reported everyday life perspective-taking tendencies. Altogether, considering attentional focus and conflict handling as two potential sources of variability allows forming a two-dimensional space that enriches our understanding of the individual differences in perspective taking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reflexive Shifts in Visual Attention)
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Open AccessArticle The Development and Aging of the Magnocellular and Parvocellular Visual Pathways as Indicated by VEP Recordings between 5 and 84 Years of Age
Vision 2017, 1(1), 7; doi:10.3390/vision1010007
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
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Abstract
It is well known that pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are age-sensitive. Through the use of this technique, it is possible to assess both of the major visual pathways (i.e., the magnocellular and parvocellular ones) in terms of function and development. What
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It is well known that pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are age-sensitive. Through the use of this technique, it is possible to assess both of the major visual pathways (i.e., the magnocellular and parvocellular ones) in terms of function and development. What developmental path these pathways follow, and if they develop/age in parallel across the human lifespan is a matter of ongoing debate, yet, only a few VEP studies have dealt with this issue. This cross-sectional study examined a sample of 115 healthy volunteers aged 5 to 84 years. Beyond the standard checkerboard pattern reversal stimulation at 97% contrast, we recorded pattern-reversal VEPs at 6% contrast to selectively stimulate the M pathway and isoluminant red and green checkerboard stimulation was also used to selectively stimulate the P pathway. Our results do not support the developmental advantage of any of the pathways. The development of both pathways appear to take a remarkably long time (well into the 30s), and the signs of aging become marked over 50 years of age, especially in the case of the magnocellular pathway. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Comparative Anatomy of the Trabecular Meshwork, the Optic Nerve Head and the Inner Retina in Rodent and Primate Models Used for Glaucoma Research
Vision 2017, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/vision1010004
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 26 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 18 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of ocular disorders with a multi-faceted etiology. Although numerous studies on glaucoma using different animal models have been published, it is unwise to simply generalize the results of one model to all glaucomatous situations because of the differences
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Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of ocular disorders with a multi-faceted etiology. Although numerous studies on glaucoma using different animal models have been published, it is unwise to simply generalize the results of one model to all glaucomatous situations because of the differences in the anatomy and morphology of animal eyes in comparison with humans’. In this review, we highlight the differences in the trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue, lamina cribrosa (LC) region, optic nerve head (ONH) and the inner layer of the retina in mice, rats and monkeys. In comparison with humans, non-human primates show TM, retina and ONH that are anatomically almost identical. The rat model shows many similarities in the aqueous outflow pathway compared to humans. The mouse ONH lacks collagenous LC, and this finding is observed across different mouse strains. The tissue structure of the ONH in rodents is similar to that in humans, although the blood supply shows differences. The number of cells in the ganglion layer depends on the rodent strain. Despite some differences from humans, rodents are a good choice for studying different types of glaucoma, and the modeling method should be selected based on the experimental needs and the hypothesis being tested. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Increased Short-Term Fluctuation in Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow in a Case of Normal-Tension Glaucoma by the Use of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy
Vision 2017, 1(1), 5; doi:10.3390/vision1010005
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
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Abstract
An 80-year-old woman with normal-tension glaucoma was transferred to our clinic 9 years ago. She exhibited progressive visual field defect despite intraocular pressure in both eyes remaining stable in the low teens after treatment with prostaglandin-derivative eye drops. Increased short-term fluctuation in optic
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An 80-year-old woman with normal-tension glaucoma was transferred to our clinic 9 years ago. She exhibited progressive visual field defect despite intraocular pressure in both eyes remaining stable in the low teens after treatment with prostaglandin-derivative eye drops. Increased short-term fluctuation in optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow was detected using laser speckle flowgraphy. After the patient was administered kallidinogenase tablets, the fluctuation was reduced and her visual field defect was ameliorated. However, the fluctuation increased and the visual field defect deteriorated after the patient discontinued the medication. The increased short-term fluctuation in ONH blood flow seemed to be associated with the development of glaucomatous visual field defect in this case. Full article
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