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Designs, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Designs: A Multidisciplinary Open-Access Engineering Journal
Designs 2017, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/designs1010001
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Transmission Range Evaluations for Connected Vehicles at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings
Designs 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/designs1010002
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
This study evaluates the transmission range requirements of Connected Vehicles (CVs) at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (HRGCs) in terms of safety improvement. The safety improvement of HRGCs is evaluated by using a reliability-based risk analysis that calculates risk of collision for CVs and non-CVs.
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This study evaluates the transmission range requirements of Connected Vehicles (CVs) at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (HRGCs) in terms of safety improvement. The safety improvement of HRGCs is evaluated by using a reliability-based risk analysis that calculates risk of collision for CVs and non-CVs. Trains are assumed to have onboard units that transmit train location and speed information to CVs via vehicle to vehicle communications. The stopping distance and time to collision of a vehicle are the demand functions in reliability-based risk analysis. The demand functions consist of probability density functions of a vehicle’s initial speed, perception-reaction time, initial deceleration rate, final speed, and final deceleration rate. Train arrival time depending on the train speed and transmission range is the supply threshold for calculating the CV’s risk of collision at passive HRGCs. The transmission range’s projected highway distance is the supply threshold for CVs at active HRGCs. After deriving probability density functions of demand functions from the published data, Monte Carlo simulations generate the probabilities or risks that a CV would fail to stop within the transmission range or train arrival time. With the provision of a 600 m transmission range, the risk of collision for the CV is lower than that for the non-CV with a 300 m sight distance to the train at the passive HRGC. The CV’s risk of collision is lower than the non-CV’s with a 300 m transmission range at active HRGCs. The CV application at HRGCs can improve safety by reducing CVs’ risk of collision. A 600 m transmission range is desirable at passive HRGCs. A 300 m transmission is sufficient for CVs at active HRGCs. Overall, a 600 m transmission range is feasible to improve the safety at passive and active HRGCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Interest Manager for Networked Driving Simulation Based on High-Level Architecture
Designs 2017, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/designs1010003
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In networked driving simulation, two or more human drivers participate interactively within a shared virtual environment. Thereby, typical applications of driving simulation can be extended to consider multi-driver scenarios, where a much closer approximation of reality with its unpredictability is achieved. However, the
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In networked driving simulation, two or more human drivers participate interactively within a shared virtual environment. Thereby, typical applications of driving simulation can be extended to consider multi-driver scenarios, where a much closer approximation of reality with its unpredictability is achieved. However, the utilized network is typically prone to a considerable amount of message traffic. In addition to restricted system scalability, the resulting degradation of network performance leads to invalid simulation outcomes or unacceptable system behavior. High-Level Architecture (HLA) is the IEEE standard 1516 that provides specific guidelines for networked simulation. Data distribution management (DDM) is one of the service groups provided by the HLA standard. The aim of the DDM service is to reduce network traffic and to save effort required to process unnecessary received data. However, existing approaches for current DDM implementations show major drawbacks in terms of utilization complexity, inefficiency, and yet added network overhead. This paper presents a new concept of an interest manager that takes over the DDM functionality and avoids these drawbacks. Simulation data is exchanged between the participating driving simulators only when it is necessary according to the driving situations. The interest manager was implemented and its efficient functionality was validated by analyzing the network load of two driving maneuvers with and without the interest manager. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Free and Open Source 3-D Model Customizer for Websites to Democratize Design with OpenSCAD
Designs 2017, 1(1), 5; doi:10.3390/designs1010005
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
3-D printing has entered the consumer market because of recent radical price declines. Consumers can save substantial money by offsetting purchases with DIY pre-designed 3-D printed products. However, even more value can be obtained with distributed manufacturing using mass customization. Unfortunately, the average
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3-D printing has entered the consumer market because of recent radical price declines. Consumers can save substantial money by offsetting purchases with DIY pre-designed 3-D printed products. However, even more value can be obtained with distributed manufacturing using mass customization. Unfortunately, the average consumer is not technically sophisticated enough to easily design their own products. One solution to this is the use of an overlay on OpenSCAD parametric code, although current solutions force users to relinquish all rights to their own designs. There is thus a substantial need in the open source design community for a libre 3-D model customizer, which can be used in any design repository to democratize design. This study reports on the design, function, and validation of such software: the Free Open Source 3-D Customizer. It is demonstrated with a case study of the customization of 3-D printable external breast prosthetics. The results showed that novice users can adjust the available parameters according to their needs and save these to a new file on a website. This PHP (recursive acronym for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) library is free and open source and has potential for increasing the usefulness of online repositories to enable distributed manufacturing using consumer customized 3-D printable products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Application-Oriented Design Method for Networked Driving Simulation
Designs 2017, 1(1), 6; doi:10.3390/designs1010006
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
Autonomous and cooperative vehicle systems represent a key priority in the automotive realm. Networked driving simulation can be utilized as a safe, cost-effective experimental replica of real traffic environments in order to support and accelerate the development of such systems. In networked driving
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Autonomous and cooperative vehicle systems represent a key priority in the automotive realm. Networked driving simulation can be utilized as a safe, cost-effective experimental replica of real traffic environments in order to support and accelerate the development of such systems. In networked driving simulation, different independent systems collaborate to achieve a common task: multi-driver traffic scenario simulation. Yet distinct system complexity levels are necessary to fulfill the requirements of various application scenarios, such as development of vehicle systems, analysis of driving behavior, and training of drivers. With myriad alternatives of available systems and components, developers of networked driving simulation are typically confronted with high design complexity. There are no systematic approaches to date for the design of networked driving simulation in accordance with the specific requirements of the concerned application scenarios. This paper presents a novel design method for networked driving simulation. The method consists mainly of a procedure model that is accompanied by a configuration software. The procedure model includes the necessary phases for the systematic design of application-oriented platforms for networked driving simulation. The configuration software embeds supportive decision-making processes that enable developers to apply the design method and easily create different system models. The design method was validated by generating system models and developing platforms of networked driving simulation for three different application scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Classification via an Embedded Approach
Designs 2017, 1(1), 7; doi:10.3390/designs1010007
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents the results of an automated volatile organic compound (VOC) classification process implemented by embedding a machine learning algorithm into an Arduino Uno board. An electronic nose prototype is constructed to detect VOCs from three different fruits. The electronic nose is
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This paper presents the results of an automated volatile organic compound (VOC) classification process implemented by embedding a machine learning algorithm into an Arduino Uno board. An electronic nose prototype is constructed to detect VOCs from three different fruits. The electronic nose is constructed using an array of five tin dioxide (SnO2) gas sensors, an Arduino Uno board used as a data acquisition section, as well as an intelligent classification module by embedding an approach function which receives data signals from the electronic nose. For the intelligent classification module, a training algorithm is also implemented to create the base of a portable, automated, fast-response, and economical electronic nose device. This solution proposes a portable system to identify and classify VOCs without using a personal computer (PC). Results show an acceptable precision for the embedded approach in comparison with the performance of a toolbox used in a PC. This constitutes an embedded solution able to recognize VOCs in a reliable way to create application products for a wide variety of industries, which are able to classify data acquired by an electronic nose, as VOCs. With this proposed and implemented algorithm, a precision of 99% for classification was achieved into the embedded solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Intelligent Control and Filter Design)
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Figure 1

Review

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Open AccessReview Networked Driving Simulation: Applications, State of the Art, and Design Considerations
Designs 2017, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/designs1010004
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automotive manufacturers and suppliers develop new vehicle technologies to increase traffic safety and transportation efficiency. Autonomous and cooperative vehicle systems are crucial examples of such advanced technologies. The hustle to deploy these fascinating systems onto public roads increases as customer’s expectations rise. Networked
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Automotive manufacturers and suppliers develop new vehicle technologies to increase traffic safety and transportation efficiency. Autonomous and cooperative vehicle systems are crucial examples of such advanced technologies. The hustle to deploy these fascinating systems onto public roads increases as customer’s expectations rise. Networked driving simulation represents an effective virtual prototyping tool that can support the development, and hence, accelerate system deployment. In networked driving simulation, two or more human-driven virtual vehicles share the same environment and form a very close approximation of real-world traffic interactions. This emerged multi-interactive virtual environment can serve various applications related to the new vehicle technologies and the ever increasing traffic complexity. This paper introduces the promising applications of networked driving simulation and outlines the necessary system design requirements. In addition, the work presents an extensive literature review and evaluation of utilizations of networked driving simulation. Furthermore, three compelling systems of networked driving simulation are analyzed regarding their technical specifications and application scopes. The systems are compared and evaluated using the derived requirements. Finally, potential future work is revealed regarding the design of resilient networked driving simulation systems that can be tailored for possible changes of application requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
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