Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Infrastructures, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Three Asphalt Pavement Layers
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020016
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
PDF Full-text (3891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, a new approach to the installation of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in three asphalt pavement layers (the surface layer and both base layers) was implemented for the first time in Belgium. Fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) are diagnostic
[...] Read more.
In the present study, a new approach to the installation of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in three asphalt pavement layers (the surface layer and both base layers) was implemented for the first time in Belgium. Fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) are diagnostic tools that accurately and efficiently monitor in situ structural behavior. However, nowadays, this technology is not commonly used in asphalt due to its application restrictions under installation and service conditions. FBGs are fragile and break easily under loading. Therefore, there is a need for suitable protection of FBG sensors if they are to be installed during the rough construction process and exposed to heavy-duty loading afterwards. The main objective of the present study is to show the FBG results only for the initial construction process, and, if successful, to continue studying this FBG monitoring system and to plan the next research step by adjusting the system for its application in heavy-duty pavements. Two approaches to FBG installation in three asphalt layers (placed at the bottom of each layer) were tested in the present study: (1) installation of FBGs in prefabricated asphalt specimens in the base layer, directly on the base, and (2) installation of FBGs on the surface of the previously constructed asphalt layer. Both innovative approaches allow the implementation of FBGs without sawing the whole layer into two parts. The obtained results proved a survival rate of 100% for the FBGs. It can be concluded that these new described methods of FBG installation—using a cross-section configuration to carry out strain measurements in two directions (transverse and longitudinal)—can be applied for the monitoring of heavy-duty pavements, while providing the possibility to further re-evaluate current pavement design methods used in Flanders (Belgium). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation Infrastructures)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A Coupled CFD–DEM Simulation of Slurry Infiltration and Filter Cake Formation during Slurry Shield Tunneling
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020015
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
PDF Full-text (3306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tunneling in highly permeable ground using a slurry shield machine can be challenging because it is difficult to form the so-called filter cake on the tunnel face to transport the support pressure. Consequently, destructive accidents might happen, such as face instability and water
[...] Read more.
Tunneling in highly permeable ground using a slurry shield machine can be challenging because it is difficult to form the so-called filter cake on the tunnel face to transport the support pressure. Consequently, destructive accidents might happen, such as face instability and water inrush. How to form an efficient filter cake in time is crucial during engineering practice, especially in ground with high permeability. Various theoretical and experimental analyses regarding the formation of filter cakes have been conducted. However, due to the complexity of this problem, which has to incorporate the mechanical and hydraulic behaviors of the fluid–solid mixture system, few numerical simulations are found in the literature. In this paper, with the aid of a newly developed numerical tool, a coupled CFD (computational fluid dynamics)–DEM (discrete element method) simulation is established to study the slurry infiltration and filter cake formation during slurry shield tunneling. The slurry infiltration process is simulated by modelling the scheme of the infiltration column test, in which sedimentation behaviors of slurry particles are captured and compared with experimental results. The results show that the sedimentation behaviors of the slurry particles and filter cake formation phenomenon are well captured by simulations and in accordance with the experiments, which indicates the robustness of the coupled CFD–DEM simulation used in present work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Infrastructures in the Smart City)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Impact of Pavement Surface Condition on Roadway Departure Crash Risk in Iowa
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020014
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Safety performance is a crucial component of highway network performance evaluation. Besides their devastating impact on roadway users, traffic crashes lead to substantial economic losses on both personal and societal levels. Due to the complexity of crash events and the unique conditions in
[...] Read more.
Safety performance is a crucial component of highway network performance evaluation. Besides their devastating impact on roadway users, traffic crashes lead to substantial economic losses on both personal and societal levels. Due to the complexity of crash events and the unique conditions in each country and state, empirical local calibration for the correlation between attributes of interest and the safety performance is always recommended. Limited studies have established a procedure to analyze the impact of pavement condition on traffic safety in a risk analysis scheme. This study presents a thorough analysis of some roadway departure crashes which occurred in Iowa between 2006 and 2016. All crash records were mapped onto one-mile segments with known traffic volume (i.e., AADT), posted speed limits (SL), skid numbers (SN), ride qualities (IRI), and rut depths (RD) in a geographic information system (GIS) database. The crash records were correlated to the pavement surface condition (i.e., SN, IRI, and RD) using negative binomial regression models. Moreover, a novel risk analysis framework is introduced to perform crash risk assessment and evaluate the possible consequences for a given combination of events. The analysis shows a significant impact of pavement skid resistance on roadway-departure crashes under all accident conditions and severities. Risk analysis will facilitate coordination between the pavement management system and safety management system in the future, which will help with optimizing the overall highway network performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation Infrastructures)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A 5D Building Information Model (BIM) for Potential Cost-Benefit Housing: A Case of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020013
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 10 June 2018
PDF Full-text (5389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Saudi construction industry is going through a process of acclimatizing to a shifting fiscal environment. Due to recent fluctuations in oil prices, the Saudi construction sector decided to adjust to current trade-market demands and rigorous constitutional regulations because of competitive pressures. This
[...] Read more.
The Saudi construction industry is going through a process of acclimatizing to a shifting fiscal environment. Due to recent fluctuations in oil prices, the Saudi construction sector decided to adjust to current trade-market demands and rigorous constitutional regulations because of competitive pressures. This quantitative study assesses and compares existing flat design vs. mid-terrace housing through cost estimation and design criteria that takes family privacy into consideration and meets the needs of Saudi Arabian families (on average consisting of seven members). Five pilot surveys were undertaken to evaluate the property preference type of Saudi families. However, Existing models did not satisfy the medium range family needs and accordingly a 5D (3D + Time + Cost) Building Information Modelling (BIM) is proposed for cost benefiting houses. Research results revealed that mid-terrace housing was the best option, as it reduced land usage and construction costs. While, 5D BIM led to estimate accurate Bill of Quantities (BOQ) and the appraisal of construction costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Information Modelling for Civil Infrastructures)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dynamic Amplification Factor of Continuous versus Simply Supported Bridges Due to the Action of a Moving Vehicle
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020012
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research to date on Dynamic Amplification Factors (DAFs) caused by traffic loading, mostly focused on simply supported bridges, is extended here to multiple-span continuous bridges. Emphasis is placed upon assessing the DAF of hogging bending moments, which has not been sufficiently addressed in
[...] Read more.
Research to date on Dynamic Amplification Factors (DAFs) caused by traffic loading, mostly focused on simply supported bridges, is extended here to multiple-span continuous bridges. Emphasis is placed upon assessing the DAF of hogging bending moments, which has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. Vehicle-bridge interaction simulations are employed to analyze the response of a finite element discretized beam subjected to the crossing of two vehicle types: a 2-axle-truck and a 5-axle truck-trailer. Road irregularities are randomly generated for two ISO roughness classes. Noticeable differences appear between DAF of mid-span moment in a simply supported beam, and DAFs of the mid-span sagging moment and of the hogging moment over the internal support in a continuous multiple-span beam. Although the critical location of the maximum static moment over the internal support may indicate that DAF of hogging moment would have to be relatively small, this paper provides evidence that this is not always the case, and that DAFs of hogging moments can be as significant as DAF of sagging moments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Integrated Dynamical Modeling Perspective for Infrastructure Resilience
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020011
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
PDF Full-text (4487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper considers a dynamical way to connect resilience outcomes and processes by nesting process-based approaches inside a controlled dynamical system under resource constraints. To illustrate this, we use a dynamical model of electric power generation to show the complementary aspects of outcome,
[...] Read more.
This paper considers a dynamical way to connect resilience outcomes and processes by nesting process-based approaches inside a controlled dynamical system under resource constraints. To illustrate this, we use a dynamical model of electric power generation to show the complementary aspects of outcome, resources, and process-based approaches for analyzing infrastructure resilience. The results of this stylized model show that adaptation is the most influential process and that for monitoring to be efficient it must account for associated costs. Beyond these specific results, we suggest that nesting outcome- and process-based approaches within a dynamical controlled framework can be very useful and complementary for infrastructure managers and designers tasked with effectively allocating resources for enhancing system resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Infrastructure Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Adaptation Becoming Business as Usual: A Framework for Climate-Change-Ready Transport Infrastructure
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020010
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
PDF Full-text (6761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extreme weather damages and disrupts transport infrastructure in a multitude of ways. Heavy rainfall and ensuing landslides or flooding may lead to road or rail closures; extreme heat can damage road surfaces, or cause tracks, signalling or electronic equipment to overheat, or thermal
[...] Read more.
Extreme weather damages and disrupts transport infrastructure in a multitude of ways. Heavy rainfall and ensuing landslides or flooding may lead to road or rail closures; extreme heat can damage road surfaces, or cause tracks, signalling or electronic equipment to overheat, or thermal discomfort for passengers. As extreme weather is expected to occur more frequently in the future, transport infrastructure owners and operators must increase their preparedness in order to reduce weather-related service disruption and the associated financial costs. This article presents a two-sided framework for use by any organisation to develop climate-change-ready transport infrastructure, regardless of their current level of knowledge or preparedness for climate change. The framework is composed of an adaptation strategy and an implementation plan, and has the overarching ambition to embed climate change adaptation within organisational procedures so it becomes a normal function of business. It advocates adaptation pathways, i.e., sequential adaptive actions that do not compromise future actions. The circular, iterative structure ensures new knowledge, or socio-economic changes may be incorporated, and that previous adaptations are evaluated. Moreover, the framework aligns with existing asset management procedures (e.g., ISO standards) or governmental or organisational approaches to climate change adaptation. By adopting this framework, organisations can self-identify their own level of adaptation readiness and seek to enhance it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Railway Infrastructure Engineering)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020009
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
PDF Full-text (5053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different
[...] Read more.
Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry injected into sand and sandy soil were explored. The investigated parameters were the dry density, wet density, moisture content, internal friction angle, and cohesion force. The results show that the consolidation effect of superfine cement is better than that of Portland cement due to the small size of superfine cement particles. The superfine cement can diffuse into the sand by infiltration, extrusion, and splitting. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is less than 2:1 grouting into loose sand, the dry and wet density decrease with the increase in the water–cement ratio, while the moisture content and cohesive force gradually increase. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is 1:1 grouting into loose sand and sandy soil, the dry density, wet density, and cohesive force of loose sand are larger than those of sandy soil. The results of the experiment may be relevant for engineering applications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Novelties in Material Development for Massive Concrete Structures: Reduction in Heat of Hydration Observed in Ternary Replacement Mixtures
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020008
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash
[...] Read more.
As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash on the rate and amount of heat generated in concrete mixtures are investigated. Twenty three binary and ternary mixtures with a water-to-cementitious binder ratio of 0.43 are evaluated. Between 15% and 45% cement replacement by weight is considered. Results indicate that binary mixtures containing metakaolin or silica fume offer no advantage in reducing the amount of heat but increase compressive strength by 20%. On contrary, ternary mixtures, including two pozzolanic materials, provide 15% reduction in the amount of heat evolution without compromising strength. This reduction is observed regardless of alumina (Al) or silica (Si) content in pozzolanic materials when 45% cement is replaced with a combination of slag and metakaolin, or slag and silica fume. Furthermore, the effect of increased calcium (Ca) content is investigated. It is concluded that ternary mixtures with decreased Ca/(Al+Si) ratio reduce internal temperature in mass concrete structures and are less likely to be exposed to the threshold temperature for delayed ettringite formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top