Special Issue "Healthy Benefits of Nutraceutical, Phytochemicals in Agricultural Products"

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A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David D. Kitts

Food Science Program, Food Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Phone: Tel.: + 1 604 822 5560; fax: + 1 604 822 5143.
Fax: +1 604 822 6394
Interests: food chemistry; functional foods; bioactive food components; lipids; antioxidants; health
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sherry A. Tanumihardjo

Nutritional Sciences Building, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 608-265-0792
Fax: +1 608 262 5860
Interests: anthocyanins; carotenoids; nutrition; phytochemicals; staple crops; vegetables

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functional foods and beverages, along with dietary supplements have received excellent growth in market share for North American, Asia Pacific and European food and natural health product companies. This success can be attributed mostly to the enhanced recognition by consumers on the importance of a healthy diet and the search for value-added food products which can offer potential health benefits.  In addition to the increased awareness on the link between human health and diet, other trend drivers influencing growth of the function food industry include aging consumer populations; government recognized pressures to reduce healthcare costs, scientific improvements on evaluating safety and efficacy of newly formulated products, and finally increased interest by manufactures to establish distinct differentiation in their products.

The role of Agriculture in meeting the challenges of identifying and securing globalization of functional ingredients for healthy human diets has evolved from the traditional production of raw food products and food processing.  The modernization of methods used to recover high quality food ingredients from traditional crop sources, combined with advances in novel food engineering technologies that ensure purity, functionality and thus efficacy for use in food formulations, underpin the activities required for new functional food products to establish regulatory approval and introduction of product-specific health claims.

This issue will bring together the interface between Agriculture and Human Health as it relates to the standards of evidence presently available for employing bioactive ingredients derived from stable agricultural crops, for use in functional food product development and enhanced human nutrition for today’s consumer.

Prof. Dr. David D. Kitts
Prof. Dr. Sherry A. Tanumihardjo
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • bioactive phytochemicals
  • healthy benefits
  • obesity
  • metabolic syndrome
  • antioxidant
  • antiinflammatory
  • anticancer
  • botanicals
  • nutrition

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Studies on Mitigating Lipid Oxidation Reactions in a Value-Added Dairy Product Using a Standardized Cranberry Extract
Agriculture 2013, 3(2), 236-252; doi:10.3390/agriculture3020236
Received: 8 February 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 10 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A standardized whole cranberry extract (WCE) was used to stabilize a model sunflower-casein emulsion prototype for future formulation activities with a fresh cream cheese product. The WCE contained total organic acids (20% w/w) and polyphenols (5%), the latter consisting of total anthocyanins (10%,
[...] Read more.
A standardized whole cranberry extract (WCE) was used to stabilize a model sunflower-casein emulsion prototype for future formulation activities with a fresh cream cheese product. The WCE contained total organic acids (20% w/w) and polyphenols (5%), the latter consisting of total anthocyanins (10%, w/w) and proanthocyanidins (12% w/w). Antioxidant capacity of the WCE was determined by ORAC, (hydrophilic ORAC = 348.31 ± 33.45 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g; lipophilic ORAC = 11.02 ± 0.85 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g). WCE was effective at stabilizing the model emulsion at a level of 0.375% (w/w), yielding a final pH of 5.6. Generation of initial lipid peroxidation products, hexanal and pentanal was inhibited by 92.4% ± 3.9% and 66.6% ± 5.3% (n = 3), respectively, when emulsions containing WCE were incubated at 50 °C for 90 h. This information was useful for formulating a fresh cream cheese product containing WCE to produce value-added potential and good self-life. The standardized WCE gave a final pH of 5.6 for the cheese premix and also significantly (P < 0.05) lowered both the PV and CD after 28 and 21 days at 4 °C storage, respectively, compared to untreated control. We conclude that there are important functional role(s) for cranberry constituents when presented as a standardized ingredient for producing value-added, stable fresh dairy products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antioxidants in Different Potato Genotypes: Effect of Drought and Wounding Stress
Agriculture 2013, 3(1), 131-146; doi:10.3390/agriculture3010131
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 16 February 2013 / Accepted: 17 February 2013 / Published: 28 February 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Potatoes are regarded as a significant antioxidant source in human nutrition. However, different types of environmental stress may affect the level of antioxidants in their tuber tissue. In this study, two purple breeding clones and the yellow fleshed cultivar (cv.) Agave were grown
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Potatoes are regarded as a significant antioxidant source in human nutrition. However, different types of environmental stress may affect the level of antioxidants in their tuber tissue. In this study, two purple breeding clones and the yellow fleshed cultivar (cv.) Agave were grown in the glasshouse under control with drought stress conditions for two consecutive years. After harvest, the tubers were analysed for concentrations of antioxidants measured as ascorbic acid equivalent (ACE) and trolox equivalent (TXE) in fresh tissue and after wounding. In addition, the peroxidase enzyme (POD) activities and total amounts of anthocyanins (Ac) were assayed. Drought stress caused a significant decrease in tuber yield but had no significant effect on Ac, POD, ACE and TXE. Wounding stress significantly induced the POD activity in control and drought stressed tubers of all genotypes. Also the ACE and TXE were notably increased by wounding in cv. Agave. This was less pronounced in the purple clones which in general displayed a higher level of antioxidants. The results revealed significant differences between genotypes and that the effect of drought stress on the level of antioxidants is smaller than that of wounding stress. Full article
Open AccessArticle Protein Hydrolysates from Agricultural Crops—Bioactivity and Potential for Functional Food Development
Agriculture 2013, 3(1), 112-130; doi:10.3390/agriculture3010112
Received: 4 November 2012 / Revised: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 17 February 2013 / Published: 25 February 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been an unprecedented demand for inexpensive plant-derived protein hydrolysates in recent years, owing to their potential nutritional applications. This review examines existing evidence regarding protein hydrolysates from agricultural crops such as wheat, soy, rapeseed, sunflower and barley. The bioactivity of these
[...] Read more.
There has been an unprecedented demand for inexpensive plant-derived protein hydrolysates in recent years, owing to their potential nutritional applications. This review examines existing evidence regarding protein hydrolysates from agricultural crops such as wheat, soy, rapeseed, sunflower and barley. The bioactivity of these protein hydrolysates, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities are discussed. In addition to evidence regarding their potential to enhance human nutrition, the effect of the hydrolysates on the techno-functional properties of foods will be reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biological Characterization of Cynara cardunculus L. Methanolic Extracts: Antioxidant, Anti-proliferative, Anti-migratory and Anti-angiogenic Activities
Agriculture 2012, 2(4), 472-492; doi:10.3390/agriculture2040472
Received: 12 October 2012 / Revised: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cynara cardunculus (Cc) is a multipurpose species; beyond its use in southwestern European cuisine, it is also used for the production of solid biofuel, seed oil, biodiesel, paper pulp and cheese, as well as animal feed. In addition, Cc has a long tradition
[...] Read more.
Cynara cardunculus (Cc) is a multipurpose species; beyond its use in southwestern European cuisine, it is also used for the production of solid biofuel, seed oil, biodiesel, paper pulp and cheese, as well as animal feed. In addition, Cc has a long tradition of use in folk medicine as a diuretic and liver protector. The value of this species as a source of bioactive compounds is known; however, pharmacological use would further increase its cultivation. The main goal of the current work was to evaluate the potential of Cc as source of anti-carcinogenic phytochemicals. Different methanolic extracts obtained from wild and cultivated plants were tested for antioxidant activity and effect on breast tumor cell viability. The most effective extract, both as antioxidant and inhibition of tumor cell viability, was tested for effects on angiogenesis and tumor cell migration capacity. All the extracts tested had high antioxidant activity; however, only green leaves and dry head extracts exhibit anti-proliferative activity. Green cultivated leaves (GCL) were the most effective extract both as antioxidant and inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells; it is equally active inhibiting tumor cell migration and in vivo angiogenesis. GCL extract is an effective inhibitor of several key points in tumor development and thus a promising source of anti-carcinogenic phytochemicals. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Enhanced Accumulation of Vitamins, Nutraceuticals and Minerals in Lettuces Associated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF): A Question of Interest for Both Vegetables and Humans
Agriculture 2013, 3(1), 188-209; doi:10.3390/agriculture3010188
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 1 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is extensively grown and is the most widely used food crop for the called “Fourth Range” of vegetables. Lettuce exhibits healthy properties mainly due to the presence of antioxidant compounds (vitamins C and E, carotenoids, polyphenols) alongside significant
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Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is extensively grown and is the most widely used food crop for the called “Fourth Range” of vegetables. Lettuce exhibits healthy properties mainly due to the presence of antioxidant compounds (vitamins C and E, carotenoids, polyphenols) alongside significant fibre content and useful amounts of certain minerals. Lettuce can establish a mutualistic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The establishment of the symbiosis involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts, which includes the activation of antioxidant, phenylpropanoid or carotenoid metabolic pathways. The presence of AMF colonizing roots of greenhouse-grown lettuces can induce an accumulation of secondary metabolites, vitamins and minerals in leaves that overcome the dilution effect due to the increased size of mycorrhizal plants. Therefore, AMF would allow the intake of minerals and compounds with antioxidant properties to be enhanced without increasing the consumption of lettuce in the diet. In addition, increased quantities of secondary metabolites may help lettuce plants to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses. Our review discusses the influence exerted by several environmental factors and agronomic practices on the ability of AMF for enhancing the levels of vitamins, nutraceuticals and minerals in leaves of green and red-leaf types of lettuces. Full article
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Open AccessReview Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption
Agriculture 2013, 3(1), 170-187; doi:10.3390/agriculture3010170
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 17 February 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest
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Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity. Full article
Open AccessReview Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health
Agriculture 2013, 3(1), 90-111; doi:10.3390/agriculture3010090
Received: 17 December 2012 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 29 January 2013 / Published: 22 February 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) contain
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Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides) that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans. Full article
Open AccessReview Elicitors: A Tool for Improving Fruit Phenolic Content
Agriculture 2013, 3(1), 33-52; doi:10.3390/agriculture3010033
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 11 January 2013 / Accepted: 12 January 2013 / Published: 25 January 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fruits are one of the most important sources of polyphenols for humans, whether they are consumed fresh or as processed products. To improve the phenolic content of fruits, a novel field of interest is based on results obtained using elicitors, agrochemicals which were
[...] Read more.
Fruits are one of the most important sources of polyphenols for humans, whether they are consumed fresh or as processed products. To improve the phenolic content of fruits, a novel field of interest is based on results obtained using elicitors, agrochemicals which were primarily designed to improve resistance to plant pathogens. Although elicitors do not kill pathogens, they trigger plant defense mechanisms, one of which is to increase the levels of phenolic compounds. Therefore, their application not only allows us to control plant disease but also to increase the phenolic content of plant foodstuffs. Pre- or post-harvest application of the most commonly used elicitors to several fruits is discussed in this review. Full article
Open AccessReview Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms
Agriculture 2012, 2(4), 452-471; doi:10.3390/agriculture2040452
Received: 19 October 2012 / Revised: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve
[...] Read more.
Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessShort Note Anti-Obesity Effect of Nepetae spica Extract in High-Fat Mice
Agriculture 2012, 2(3), 204-210; doi:10.3390/agriculture2030204
Received: 28 May 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, obesity is the most common metabolic disease emerging as a global problem especially in developed nations. The discovery of bioactive compounds from natural plant extracts is one possible way to control obesity and prevent or reduce the risks of getting
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In recent years, obesity is the most common metabolic disease emerging as a global problem especially in developed nations. The discovery of bioactive compounds from natural plant extracts is one possible way to control obesity and prevent or reduce the risks of getting various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we elucidated that Nepetae spica extract significantly reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Nepetae spica extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 1.5/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Nepetae spica extract-treated mice. In addition, in Nepetae spica extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 13% and 16%, respectively. These results suggest that Nepetae spica extract could be useful for prevention or treatment of obesity. Full article

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