Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Engineering in an Environmentally Sensitive Urban Area: Assessment, Landuse Change/Infrastructure Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 37; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030037 -
Abstract
A rise in the shallow unconfined groundwater at a site in Australia is causing water logging of the underground facility in the affected area. Realizing this problem, a study was conducted to identify the source of water that is causing the rise and
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A rise in the shallow unconfined groundwater at a site in Australia is causing water logging of the underground facility in the affected area. Realizing this problem, a study was conducted to identify the source of water that is causing the rise and to develop an implementation and operation plan of the mitigation (dewatering system). Modelling was undertaken using MODFLOW-SURFACT code, within the framework of Visual MODFLOW, to assess the spatial and temporal groundwater level at the site. The study undertaken incorporates compilation and assessment of available data, including a list of factual information reviewed, development of a conceptual groundwater model for the site and modelling of the pre and post development conditions. The outcomes of the assessment indicate water level rises due to the construction of the embankment are likely less than 0.12 m and changes in land, such as affected area burial, may change aquifer characteristics more significantly than the embankment. It is concluded that the elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are most likely a result of above average rainfall since 2007 and long term cumulative land use changes. The embankment construction is just one of many land use changes that have occurred both within and surrounding the affected area and likely only a minor contributor to the elevated water levels. Greater contribution may be attributed to re-direction of the natural flow paths the railway culvert weir reducing the overland flow gradient and ongoing changes (burial) within the affected area and including the embankment. The model findings gives answers on what factors may be/are causing/contributing to, the higher than usual groundwater levels in the study area. A combination of drainage and/or pumping (dewatering system) is suggested as a solution to overcome the problem of rising groundwater levels at the site. Further, the model output can aid in assessing mitigation options, including horizontal drainage networks and pumping to control for the rising water table conditions in the area, depending on the level of treatment and pathogenic criteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extreme Precipitation Indices Trend Assessment over the Upper Oueme River Valley-(Benin)
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 36; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030036 -
Abstract
This study analyzed trends in extreme precipitation based on daily rainfall data provided by Bénin Méteo Agency for the Upper Ouémé valley in Benin over the period 1951–2014. Eleven indices divided into two groups were considered. The first group consists of frequency indices:
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This study analyzed trends in extreme precipitation based on daily rainfall data provided by Bénin Méteo Agency for the Upper Ouémé valley in Benin over the period 1951–2014. Eleven indices divided into two groups were considered. The first group consists of frequency indices: number of heavy rainfall days, very heavy rainfall days and extremely heavy rainfall days; and maximum number of Consecutive dry days and wet days. The second group concerns intensity: daily maximum rainfall (RX1day), maximum five-day rainfall (RX5day), annual total wet-day rainfall (PRCPTOT), simple daily intensity index (SDII), very wet day (R95P) and extremely wet day rainfall (R99P). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to assess trends in those indices. The results show that only 30% of the stations experienced decreasing trends for the number of heavy rainfall days (R10mm) and daily maximum rainfall (RX1day). For the annual total wet-day rainfall (PRCPTOT), the simple daily intensity index (SDII) and the very wet day rainfall (R95P), 20% of stations faced significant negative trends. In addition, the decreasing trends are observed for 10% stations considering the number of very heavy rainfall days (R20mm), the maximum five-day rainfall (RX5day) and the extremely wet day rainfall (R99P). About the increasing trend, 10% stations are identified for the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), very heavy rainfall days (R20mm), the daily maximum rainfall (RX1day), the simple daily intensity index, and the extremely wet day rainfall (R99P). These results show the absence of clear trend of climate indices evolution in almost all stations. Consequently, uncertainties in the evolution of rainfall indices must be taken into account in the definition of adaptation strategies for flood or drought risks. Similarly, these results show a slight drop in the dry sequences of the 1970s and 1980s revealed in the region by previous studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Cape Fear”—A Hybrid Hillslope Plot for Monitoring Hydrological Processes
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 35; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030035 -
Abstract
Innovative experimental field designs and methods are instrumental for dissecting hydrological processes in hillslopes. However, experimental studies at the catchment scale are rarely affordable to most research groups, and laboratory flumes are oversimplified to reproduce natural phenomena. In this work, we present the
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Innovative experimental field designs and methods are instrumental for dissecting hydrological processes in hillslopes. However, experimental studies at the catchment scale are rarely affordable to most research groups, and laboratory flumes are oversimplified to reproduce natural phenomena. In this work, we present the innovative “hybrid” experimental plot of Cape Fear, which features controllable water fluxes and boundary conditions, but it is directly exposed to external atmospheric agents. We demonstrate the suitability of Cape Fear to study hydrological phenomena through a feasibility test, whereby the response of the plot to a natural storm is in line with the well-known hydrological response of natural hillslopes. Future studies will address the influence of the plot geometry parameters on rill formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Variations in Frequency of Landslide Events Affecting Pyroclastic Covers in Campania Region under the Effect of Climate Changes
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 34; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030034 -
Abstract
In recent years, pyroclastic covers mantling slopes in the Campania region of southern Italy have frequently been affected by flowslides. Due to high exposure and demographic pressure in these areas, assessment of the potential effects of climate change on the frequency of such
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In recent years, pyroclastic covers mantling slopes in the Campania region of southern Italy have frequently been affected by flowslides. Due to high exposure and demographic pressure in these areas, assessment of the potential effects of climate change on the frequency of such events has become a crucial issue. In this regard, our paper proposes a simulation chain comprising three main elements: (i) climate simulation at the highest horizontal resolution available for Italy (8 km); (ii) a bias correction procedure in an attempt to remove systematic errors in the entire weather forcing probability distribution; (iii) the data obtained used as input for an interpretative tool estimating the evolution of soil pore water pressure and water storage (bulk water content) by means of a well-calibrated coupled thermo-hydraulic approach able to adequately take into account soil-atmosphere interaction dynamics. The predictive ability of the geotechnical model to reproduce failure conditions was tested by forcing it with temperature and precipitation observations. Subsequently, the performance of the entire modeling chain was evaluated for a period from 1981 to 2010. Lastly, variations in landslide occurrence were assessed up to 2100 under two concentration scenarios. An increase with different features was estimated under both scenarios depending on the time horizon and the severity of the concentration scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Tests of the Lookup Table Method in Solving Richards’ Equation for Infiltration and Drainage in Heterogeneous Soils
Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 33; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030033 -
Abstract
The lookup table option, as an alternative to analytical calculation for evaluating the nonlinear heterogeneous soil characteristics, is introduced and compared for both the Picard and Newton iterative schemes in the numerical solution of Richards’ equation. The lookup table method can be a
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The lookup table option, as an alternative to analytical calculation for evaluating the nonlinear heterogeneous soil characteristics, is introduced and compared for both the Picard and Newton iterative schemes in the numerical solution of Richards’ equation. The lookup table method can be a cost-effective alternative to analytical evaluation in the case of heterogeneous soils, but it has not been examined in detail in the hydrological modeling literature. Three layered soil test problems are considered, and the robustness and accuracy of the lookup table approach are assessed for uniform and non-uniform distributions of lookup points in the soil moisture retention curves. Results from the three one-dimensional test simulations show that the uniform distributed option gives improved convergence and robustness for the drainage problem compared to the non-uniform strategy. On the other hand, the non-uniform technique can be chosen for test problems involving flow into initially dry layered soils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Studying Water Quality Using Socio-Environmental Synthesis Approach: A Case Study in Baltimore’s Watershed
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 32; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020032 -
Abstract
While almost 87% of the world’s population now has access to an improved drinking water source, the risk of water pollution remains, often due to environmental factors such as increasing urbanization and industrialization. Last year, as the country watched the tragic Flint, Michigan
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While almost 87% of the world’s population now has access to an improved drinking water source, the risk of water pollution remains, often due to environmental factors such as increasing urbanization and industrialization. Last year, as the country watched the tragic Flint, Michigan tap water quality deterioration unfold, the issue was brought closer to home: How good is Baltimore’s water system? Baltimore’s water source is primarily surface water, which feeds into the Liberty, Loch Raven and Prettyboy reservoirs. The Socio-Environmental Synthesis (SES) approach was used to investigate the factors that contribute to water quality impairment. SES is a research method that integrates existing knowledge and data from natural and social sciences to advance understanding of socio-environmental systems. The study found out that while the quality of the drinking water is generally good, there is a growing concern with the quality of water in the watersheds. The high levels of nitrate-nitrogen and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide are especially alarming. The high levels of Biological Oxygen Demand are also good indicators of the intensity of agriculture and urbanization in the watersheds. This study believes that maximizing the current watershed conservation and restoration efforts would reduce the treatment costs and safeguard the urban water supplies. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Flood Response System—A Case Study
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 30; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020030 -
Abstract
Flood Response System (FRS) is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to
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Flood Response System (FRS) is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to flood, like displaying spatial maps of area affected, inundated roads, etc., and maintains a steady flow of information at all levels with different access rights depending upon the criticality of the information. It is designed to facilitate users in managing information related to flooding during critical flood seasons and analyzing the extent of damage. The inputs to FRS are provided using two components: (1) a semi-automated application developed indigenously, to delineate inundated areas for Near-Real Time Flood Monitoring using Active Microwave Remote Sensing data and (2) a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic river model generated outputs for water depth and velocity in flooded areas for an embankment breach scenario. The 2D Hydrodynamic model, CCHE2D (Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering Two-Dimensional model), was used to simulate an area of 600 km2 in the flood-prone zone of the Brahmaputra basin. The resultant inundated area from the model was found to be 85% accurate when validated with post-flood optical satellite data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advancing Understanding of the Surface Water Quality Regime of Contemporary Mixed-Land-Use Watersheds: An Application of the Experimental Watershed Method
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 31; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020031 -
Abstract
A representative watershed was instrumented with five gauging sites (n = 5), partitioning the catchment into five nested-scale sub-watersheds. Four physiochemical variables were monitored: water temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and dissolved oxygen (DO). Data were collected four days per week
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A representative watershed was instrumented with five gauging sites (n = 5), partitioning the catchment into five nested-scale sub-watersheds. Four physiochemical variables were monitored: water temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and dissolved oxygen (DO). Data were collected four days per week from October 2010–May 2014 at each gauging site. Statistical analyses indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between nearly every monitoring site pairing for each physiochemical variable. The water temperature regime displayed a threshold/step-change condition, with an upshifted and more variable regime attributable to the impacts of urban land uses. TDS, pH, and DO displayed similar spatiotemporal trends, with increasing median concentrations from site #1 (agriculture) to #3 (mixed-use urban) and decreasing median concentrations from site #3 to #5 (suburban). Decreasing concentrations and increasing streamflow volume with stream distance, suggest the contribution of dilution processes to the physiochemical regime of the creek below urban site #3. DO concentrations exceeded water quality standards on an average of 31% of observation days. Results showed seasonal trends for each physiochemical parameter, with higher TDS, pH, and DO during the cold season (November–April) relative to the warm season (May–October). Multivariate modeling results emphasize the importance of the pH/DO relationship in these systems, and demonstrate the potential utility of a simple two factor model (water temperature and pH) in accurately predicting DO. Collectively, results highlight the interacting influences of natural (autotrophic photosynthesis, organic detritus loading) and anthropogenic (road salt application) factors on the physiochemical regime of mixed-land-use watersheds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Precipitation and Drought Data in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 29; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020029 -
Abstract
Precipitation data from nine meteorological stations in arid oases of Hexi Corridor, northwest China during 1970–2012 were analyzed to detect trends in precipitation and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at multiple time scales using linear regression, Mann–Kendall and Spearman’s Rho tests. The results found
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Precipitation data from nine meteorological stations in arid oases of Hexi Corridor, northwest China during 1970–2012 were analyzed to detect trends in precipitation and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at multiple time scales using linear regression, Mann–Kendall and Spearman’s Rho tests. The results found that annual precipitation in the observed stations was rare and fell into the arid region category according to the aridity index analysis. The monthly analysis of precipitation found that three stations showed significant increasing trends in different months, while on the annual level, only Yongchang station had a significant increasing trend. The analysis of SPI-12 found three main drought intervals, i.e., 1984–1987, 1991–1992 and 2008–2011, and an extremely dry year among the stations was recorded in 1986; the southeast and middle portions of the study area are expected to have more precipitation and less dry conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Effects of Parameter Uncertainty on Temporal Dynamics of Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 28; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020028 -
Abstract
This study presents the understanding of temporal dynamics of groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction due to parameter uncertainty by using a physically-based and distributed gridded surface subsurface hydrologic analysis (GSSHA) model combined with a Monte Carlo simulation. A study area along the main stem
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This study presents the understanding of temporal dynamics of groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction due to parameter uncertainty by using a physically-based and distributed gridded surface subsurface hydrologic analysis (GSSHA) model combined with a Monte Carlo simulation. A study area along the main stem of the Kiskatinaw River of the Kiskatinaw River watershed, Northeast British Columbia, Canada, was used as a case study. Two different greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios (i.e., A2: heterogeneous world with self-reliance and preservation of local identities, and B1: a more integrated and environmental-friendly world) of the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for 2013 were used as case scenarios. Before conducting uncertainty analysis, a sensitivity analysis was performed to find the most sensitive parameters to the model output (i.e., mean monthly groundwater contribution to stream flow). Then, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to conduct the uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty analysis results under both case scenarios revealed that the pattern of the cumulative relative frequency distribution of the mean monthly and annual groundwater contributions to stream flow varied monthly and annually, respectively, due to the uncertainties of the sensitive model parameters. In addition, the pattern of the cumulative relative frequency distribution of a particular month’s groundwater contribution to the stream flow differed significantly between both scenarios. These results indicated the complexities and uncertainties in the GW-SW interaction system. Therefore, it is of necessity to use such uncertainty analysis results rather than the point estimates for better water resources management decision-making. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of SWAT and GSSHA for High Time Resolution Prediction of Stream Flow and Sediment Concentration in a Small Agricultural Watershed
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 27; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020027 -
Abstract
In this study, two hydrologic models, the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were applied to predict stream flow and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in a small agricultural watershed in Ishigaki Island, Japan, in which
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In this study, two hydrologic models, the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were applied to predict stream flow and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in a small agricultural watershed in Ishigaki Island, Japan, in which the typical time scale of flood event was several hours. The performances of these two models were compared in order to select the right model for the study watershed. Both models were calibrated and validated against hourly stream flow and SSC for half-month periods of 15 to 31 May 2011 and 17 March to 7 April 2013, respectively. The results showed that both models successfully estimated hourly stream flow and SSC in a satisfactory way. For the short-term simulations, the GSSHA model performed slightly better in simulating stream flow as compared to SWAT during both calibration and validation periods. GSSHA only gave better accuracy when predicting SSC during calibration, while SWAT performed slightly better during validation. For long-term simulations, both models yielded comparable results for long-term stream flow and SSC with acceptable agreement. However, SWAT predicted the overall variation of long-term SSC better than GSSHA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of a Standardized Precipitation Index for Meteorological Drought Analysis of the Semi-Arid Climate Influence in Minas Gerais, Brazil
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 26; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020026 -
Abstract
In recent years, the Southeast region in Brazil has suffered from the effects of drought events. Analyzing the history of drought events is fundamental to establish potential risks of the occurrence of droughts in the future. One of the many ways to prevent
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In recent years, the Southeast region in Brazil has suffered from the effects of drought events. Analyzing the history of drought events is fundamental to establish potential risks of the occurrence of droughts in the future. One of the many ways to prevent substantial impacts and evaluate a drought risk assessment is through analysis of severity, duration and frequency characteristics of these events. In this context, the current study developed Severity-Duration-Frequency curves and derived an isohyetal map for the area influenced by the semi-arid climate in the state of Minas Gerais, through the analysis of 17 rainfall stations. The drought events identification and the analysis of its conditions were assessed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for a 12-month time scale. The SDF curves were developed using the minimum cumulative 12-month precipitation values fitted to the Gamma distribution for 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month drought durations. The computed SDF curves for each station were further regionalized in order to obtain a general result for the study area. It can be observed that for a return period of 100 years, the estimated cumulative 12-month precipitation varies from 353 mm in a 1-month drought duration to 458 mm in a 12-month drought duration. The derived isohyetal map provides a more accurate local application of the results. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Development of Flood Warning System and Flood Inundation Mapping Using Field Survey and LiDAR Data for the Grand River near the City of Painesville, Ohio
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 24; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020024 -
Abstract
Abstract: Flooding is one of the most frequent natural disasters across the world, which damages properties and may take the lives of people. Flood warning systems can play a significant role in minimizing those effects by helping to evacuate people from the
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Abstract: Flooding is one of the most frequent natural disasters across the world, which damages properties and may take the lives of people. Flood warning systems can play a significant role in minimizing those effects by helping to evacuate people from the probable affected areas during peak flash flood times. Therefore, a conceptual approach of an automated flood warning system is presented in this research to protect several houses, roads, and infrastructures along the Grand River, which are vulnerable to flooding during a 500 year return period flash flood. The Grand River is a tributary of Lake Erie, which lies in the Grand River watershed in the northeastern region of the United States and has a humid continental climate and receives lake-effect precipitation. The flood warning system for the Grand River was developed specifically during high flow conditions by calculating flood travel time and generating the inundation mapping for 12 different selected flood stages, which were approximately 2 to 500 years in recurrence interval, ranging from 10 ft. to 21 ft. at gage station 04212100, near the City of Painesville, OH. A Hydraulic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) was utilized for hydraulic modeling. Geospatial data required for HEC-RAS was obtained using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) datasets, which were pre-processed and post-processed in HEC-GeoRAS to produce flood inundation maps. The flood travel time and flood inundation maps were generated by integrating LiDAR data with field verified survey results in order to provide the evacuation lead time needed for the people of probable affected areas, which is different from earlier studies. The generated inundation maps estimate the aerial extent of flooding along the Grand River corresponding to the various flood stages at the gage station near the City of Painesville and Harpersfield. The inundation maps were overlaid on digital orthographic maps to visualize its aerial extents, which can be uploaded online to provide a real-time inundation warning to the public when the flood occurs in the river. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Groundwater Resources Assessment and Impact Analysis Using a Conceptual Water Balance Model and Time Series Data Analysis: Case of Decision Making Tool
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020025 -
Abstract
The allocation of groundwater resources has been a challenge for many years due to its unforeseen side effect and lag time issues, which are often overlooked. The full impact of groundwater utilization/abstraction takes time to realize its effect at its full. In this
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The allocation of groundwater resources has been a challenge for many years due to its unforeseen side effect and lag time issues, which are often overlooked. The full impact of groundwater utilization/abstraction takes time to realize its effect at its full. In this paper, long-term effects and groundwater dynamics were assessed using a water balance model and a time series analysis, respectively. Undeveloped groundwater systems are commonly found in a state of equilibrium, where, on average, equal amounts of water are recharged and discharged. A water budget is a static accounting of the state of the system at a given time, often before the system is developed. Water balance analysis was carried out together with the groundwater through flow, hydrograph, and surface-groundwater interaction analysis (base flow index) to develop a conceptual water balance model, which is a very basic representation of a complex natural aquifer system and is instrumental to constrain and build a robust numerical model that can be readily justified and updated. A noble approach was employed to assess and constrain the discharge coming out of the model area to sustain the lake level, located to the north of the study area, using the whole lake catchment and lake water balance analysis. Based on the lake water balance, there is a deficit between input and output computation, and hence there should be a groundwater input to sustain the historical lake area. The analysis showed that the model area contributes 40% of the lake catchment, and hence the portion of the groundwater inflow feeding the lake was computed. This is one of the means to constrain the discharge, which adds more confidence to the recharge estimation. This is very important because the size of a sustainable groundwater development usually depends on how much of the discharge from the system can be captured by the development. Capture is independent of the recharge. Instead, it depends on the dynamic response of the aquifer system to the development. The idea that knowing the recharge is important in determining the size of a sustainable groundwater development is a myth and has no basis. The important entity in determining how a groundwater system reaches a new equilibrium is capture. How capture occurs in an aquifer system is a dynamic process. Following this study, lake water balance assessment was indirectly considered as prior information for the numerical model calibration of the discharge from the model area using a conductance parameter. Conductance is a key parameter to estimate the discharge volume together with the change in the simulated hydraulic head between time steps. The water balance error highlights which one is more sensitive, and this could help to assist in planning for future data collection/field work and where to invest the money. The water balance computation helps to figure out the degree of surface-groundwater interaction, uncertainty, sensitive parameter, helps in the decision to invest time and money, and operates as a cross check with other analytical or numerical modelling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Importance of Rocks and Their Weathering Products on Groundwater Quality in Central-East Cameroon
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 23; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020023 -
Abstract
The present work highlights the influence of lithology on water quality in Méiganga and its surroundings. The main geological formations in this region include gneiss, granite and amphibolite. The soils developed on these rocks are of ABC type, which are acidic to slightly
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The present work highlights the influence of lithology on water quality in Méiganga and its surroundings. The main geological formations in this region include gneiss, granite and amphibolite. The soils developed on these rocks are of ABC type, which are acidic to slightly acidic. Electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter, total nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, sulfate, chloride, phosphorus and exchangeable base values were low to very low in the soil samples. Groundwater samples were investigated for their physicochemical characteristics. The wide ranges of EC values (15.1–436 µS/cm) and total dissolved solids (9–249 mg/L) revealed the heterogeneous distribution of hydrochemical processes within the groundwater of the area. The relative abundance of major dissolved species (mg/L) was Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations and HCO3 >> NO3 > Cl > SO42 for anions. All the groundwater samples were soft, with total hardness values (2.54–136.65 mg/L) below the maximum permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The majority of water samples (67%) were classified as mixed CaMg-HCO3 type. Alkaline earth metal contents dominated those of alkali metals in 66.66% of samples. Thus, for the studied groundwater, Mg2+ and Ca2+ ion adsorption by clay minerals was almost nonexistent; this implies their release into the solution, which accounts for their high concentrations compared to alkali metals. Ion geochemistry revealed that water-rock interactions (silicate weathering) and ion exchange processes regulated the groundwater chemistry. One water sample points towards the evaporation domain of this diagram, indicating that groundwater probably does not originate from a deeper system. Kaolinite is the most stable secondary phase in the waters in the study area, in accordance with the geochemical process of monosiallitization, which predominated in the humid tropical zone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates for an Extreme Rainfall Event over Uttarakhand, Western Himalayas
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 22; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020022 -
Abstract
The extreme rainfall event during June 2013 in the Western Himalayas caused widespread flash floods, which triggered landslides, a lake-outburst, and debris flow. For the hydrological study of such an unexpected extreme event, it is essential to have reliable and accurate rainfall predictions
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The extreme rainfall event during June 2013 in the Western Himalayas caused widespread flash floods, which triggered landslides, a lake-outburst, and debris flow. For the hydrological study of such an unexpected extreme event, it is essential to have reliable and accurate rainfall predictions based on satellite observations. The mountainous state of Uttarakhand is covered by complex topography, and this state has few, unevenly distributed, rain gauge networks. This unique study was conducted to evaluate three satellite based rainfall products (i.e., TMPA-3B42, Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), and NOAA CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH)) against the observed rain gauge-based India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded dataset for this rainfall episode. The results from this comprehensive study confirmed that the magnitude of precipitation and peak rainfall intensity were underestimated in TMPA-3B42 and CMORPH against gauge-based IMD data, while GSMaP showed dual trends with under- and over-predictions. From the results of the statistical approach on the determination of error statistic metrics (MAE (mean absolute error), NRMSE (normalized root mean square error), PBIAS (percent bias), and NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency)) of respective satellite products, it was revealed that TMPA-3B42 predictions were more relevant and accurate compared to predictions from the other two satellite products for this major event. The TMPA-3B42-based rainfall was negatively biased by 18%. Despite these caveats, this study concludes that TMPA-3B42 rainfall was useful for monitoring extreme rainfall event in the region, where rain-gauges are sparse. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Predictability of the Hydrological Response of Mountain Catchments to Heavy Rain on Snow Events: A Case Study in the Spanish Pyrenees
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020020 -
Abstract
From 18 to 19 June 2013, the Ésera river in the Pyrenees, Northern Spain, caused widespread damage due to flooding as a result of torrential rains and sustained snowmelt. We estimate the contribution of snow melt to total discharge applying a snow energy
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From 18 to 19 June 2013, the Ésera river in the Pyrenees, Northern Spain, caused widespread damage due to flooding as a result of torrential rains and sustained snowmelt. We estimate the contribution of snow melt to total discharge applying a snow energy balance to the catchment. Precipitation is derived from sparse local measurements and the WRF-ARW model over three nested domains, down to a grid cell size of 2 km. Temperature profiles, precipitation and precipitation gradient are well simulated, although with a possible displacement regarding the observations. Snowpack melting was correctly reproduced and verified in three instrumented sites, and according to satellite images. We found that the hydrological simulations agree well with measured discharge. Snowmelt represented 33% of total runoff during the main flood event and 23% at peak flow. The snow energy balance model indicates that most of the energy for snow melt during the day of maximum precipitation came from turbulent fluxes. This approach forecast correctly peak flow and discharge during normal conditions at least 24 h in advance and could give an early warning of the extreme event 2.5 days before. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Field Analysis of Stepwise Effective Thermal Conductivity along a Borehole Heat Exchanger under Artificial Conditions of Groundwater Flow
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020021 -
Abstract
Heat advection caused by groundwater flow can potentially improve the performance of a borehole heat exchanger. However, the required flow velocity is not achieved under most natural conditions. This study focuses on artificial groundwater flow generated by pumping and investigates the associated effect
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Heat advection caused by groundwater flow can potentially improve the performance of a borehole heat exchanger. However, the required flow velocity is not achieved under most natural conditions. This study focuses on artificial groundwater flow generated by pumping and investigates the associated effect in a lowland area near the Toyohira River alluvial fan, Sapporo, Japan. Thermal response test results are compared under natural and artificial groundwater flow conditions. A pumping well is constructed one meter from the borehole. Temperature profiles are measured in the U-tube during testing, using a pair of optic fiber distributed temperature sensors. The effective thermal conductivity is calculated from the profiles obtained in each 10-m sub-layer; this thermal conductivity is termed the stepwise thermal conductivity. Additionally, the upward flow velocity in the pumping well is measured to estimate the mean groundwater flow velocity at the borehole. The results show that effective thermal conductivity increases at depths less than 50 m, where the pumping creates mean velocities greater than 0.1 m d−1 in each sub-layer (1.5 md−1 on average). Thus, a borehole length of 50 m is more reasonable at the test site for its efficiency in a ground source heat pump system coupled with the pumping well than that used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Due to Irrigation Practice: Case of Wastewater Reuse Engineering Design
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020019 -
Abstract
Mounding often occurs beneath engineering structures designed to infiltrate reuse water. AQTESOLV software and a spreadsheet solution for Hantush, together with soil moisture water balance (SWAGMAN farm model), were used for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding underground to assess
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Mounding often occurs beneath engineering structures designed to infiltrate reuse water. AQTESOLV software and a spreadsheet solution for Hantush, together with soil moisture water balance (SWAGMAN farm model), were used for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding underground to assess the groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from a hypothetical irrigation site. Horizontal and vertical permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, and basin geometry are among the aquifer and recharge properties inputs. For 2.2 ha sites, the maximum heights of the simulated groundwater mound ranges up to 0.29 m. The maximum areal extent of groundwater mounding measured from the edge of the infiltration basins of 0.24 m ranges from 0 to 75 m. Additionally, the simulated height and extent of the groundwater mounding associated with a hypothetical irrigation infiltration basin for 2.2 ha development may be applicable to sites of different sizes, using the recharge rate estimated from the SWAGMAN farm model. For example, for a 2.2 ha site with a 0.0002 m/day recharge rate, the irrigation infiltration basin design capacity (and associated groundwater mound) would be the same as for a 1.1 ha site with a 0.0004 m/day recharge rate if the physical characteristics of the aquifer are unchanged. The study claimed that the present modelling approach overcomes the complications of solving the Hantush equation for transient flow. The approach utilised in this study can be applied for other purposes such as measuring the feasibility of infiltrating water, attenuation zone, risk mitigation essential for decision-makers and planning regulators in terms of environmental effects and water use efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change and Its Impacts on Water Resources in the Bandama Basin, Côte D’ivoire
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010018 -
Abstract
This study aims to assess future trends in monthly rainfall and temperature and its impacts on surface and groundwater resources in the Bandama basin. The Bandama river is one of the four major rivers of Côte d’Ivoire. Historical data from 14 meteorological and
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This study aims to assess future trends in monthly rainfall and temperature and its impacts on surface and groundwater resources in the Bandama basin. The Bandama river is one of the four major rivers of Côte d’Ivoire. Historical data from 14 meteorological and three hydrological stations were used. Simulation results for future climate from HadGEM2-ES model under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios indicate that the annual temperature may increase from 1.2 °C to 3 °C. These increases will be greater in the north than in the south of the basin. The monthly rainfall may decrease from December to April in the future. During this period, it is projected to decrease by 3% to 42% at all horizons under RCP 4.5 and by 5% to 47% under RCP 8.5. These variations will have cause an increase in surface and groundwater resources during the three periods (2006–2035; 2041–2060; 2066–2085) under the RCP 4.5 scenario. On the other side, these water resources may decrease for all horizons under RCP 8.5 in the Bandama basin. Full article
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