Open AccessTechnical Note
Merging Real-Time Channel Sensor Networks with Continental-Scale Hydrologic Models: A Data Assimilation Approach for Improving Accuracy in Flood Depth Predictions
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010009 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This study proposes a framework that (i) uses data assimilation as a post processing technique to increase the accuracy of water depth prediction, (ii) updates streamflow generated by the National Water Model (NWM), and (iii) proposes a scope for updating the initial condition
[...] Read more.
This study proposes a framework that (i) uses data assimilation as a post processing technique to increase the accuracy of water depth prediction, (ii) updates streamflow generated by the National Water Model (NWM), and (iii) proposes a scope for updating the initial condition of continental-scale hydrologic models. Predicted flows by the NWM for each stream were converted to the water depth using the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) method. The water level measurements from the Iowa Flood Inundation System (a test bed sensor network in this study) were converted to water depths and then assimilated into the HAND model using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The results showed that after assimilating the water depth using the EnKF, for a flood event during 2015, the normalized root mean square error was reduced by 0.50 m (51%) for training tributaries. Comparison of the updated modeled water stage values with observations at testing locations showed that the proposed methodology was also effective on the tributaries with no observations. The overall error reduced from 0.89 m to 0.44 m for testing tributaries. The updated depths were then converted to streamflow using rating curves generated by the HAND model. The error between updated flows and observations at United States Geological Survey (USGS) station at Squaw Creek decreased by 35%. For future work, updated streamflows could also be used to dynamically update initial conditions in the continental-scale National Water Model. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Characterizing Total Phosphorus in Current and Geologic Utah Lake Sediments: Implications for Water Quality Management Issues
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010008 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Utah Lake is highly eutrophic with large phosphorous inflows and a large internal phosphorous reservoir in the sediment. There are debates over whether this phosphorous is from geologic or more recent anthropologic sources. This study characterizes total phosphorous in geologic and current lake
[...] Read more.
Utah Lake is highly eutrophic with large phosphorous inflows and a large internal phosphorous reservoir in the sediment. There are debates over whether this phosphorous is from geologic or more recent anthropologic sources. This study characterizes total phosphorous in geologic and current lake sediments to attempt to address that question. The average total phosphorous concentrations in the lake sediment were 666 ppm, with most samples in the 600 to 800 ppm range with a few larger values. Concentrations in historic geologic sediments were not statistically different from lake sediments. A spatial analysis showed that phosphorous distributions appeared continuous from the lake to the shore and that high and low values could be attributed to areas of seeps and springs (low) or feed lots and waste water discharge (high). These results indicate that geologic sediments without anthropogenic impacts are not statistically different than current lake sediments. The high values indicate that internal natural phosphorous loadings could be significant and the impaired state may be relatively insensitive to external anthropogenic loadings. If this is the case, then mitigation efforts to address anthropogenic sources may have minimal impacts. This case study presents an impaired water body where non-anthropogenic nutrient sources are significant and shows that reservoir management decisions should consider these non-anthropogenic phosphorous sources relative to anthropogenic sources. This study can serve as a template for evaluating the importance of geologic phosphorous sources for management decisions. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010007 -
Abstract
Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to
[...] Read more.
Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Hydrology in 2017
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010006 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Hydrology maintains high quality standards for its published papers. In 2017, a total of 62 papers were published in the journal.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Generation of Spatially Heterogeneous Flood Events in an Alpine Region—Adaptation and Application of a Multivariate Modelling Procedure
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010005 -
Abstract
Flooding often has a negative impact on society. In particular, widespread flood events can cause a lot of damage. These events are often spatially and temporally heterogeneous and should be duly considered for an appropriate analysis of flooding. Therefore, a conditional multivariate approach
[...] Read more.
Flooding often has a negative impact on society. In particular, widespread flood events can cause a lot of damage. These events are often spatially and temporally heterogeneous and should be duly considered for an appropriate analysis of flooding. Therefore, a conditional multivariate approach is adapted and applied in order to (i) contribute to a better understanding of the spatial characteristics of fluvial floods and (ii) to deliver sets of synthetically generated flood events. The present paper focuses on a simulation procedure consisting of careful data preparation and selection and the application of a conditional multivariate approach. The conditional approach is adapted to account for the seasonality of runoff data. Model checks attuned to the model are presented to ensure the consistence of simulated and observed data. The Austrian Province Vorarlberg was chosen as the study area. A thorough data analysis of runoff time series showed that the hydrological behaviour is characterized by a strong seasonality that was considered within the applied modelling procedure. The analysis of the spatial dependence of high river flows identified regions where floods likely occur simultaneously and regions with low spatial dependence. The main result of the modelling procedure, a large set of widespread flood events, was successfully generated. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Observation Errors on the Timing of the Most Informative Isotope Samples for Event-Based Model Calibration
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010004 -
Abstract
Many studies have shown that isotope data are valuable for hydrological model calibration. Recent developments have made isotope analyses more accessible but event sampling still involves significant time and financial costs. Therefore, it is worth to study how many isotope samples are needed
[...] Read more.
Many studies have shown that isotope data are valuable for hydrological model calibration. Recent developments have made isotope analyses more accessible but event sampling still involves significant time and financial costs. Therefore, it is worth to study how many isotope samples are needed for hydrological model calibration and what the most informative sampling times are. In this study, we used synthetic data to investigate how systematic errors in the precipitation, streamflow and the isotopic composition of precipitation affect the information content of stream isotope samples for model calibration. The results show that model performance improves significantly when two or three isotope samples are used for calibration and that the most informative samples are taken on the falling limb. However, when there are errors in the rainfall isotopic composition, rising limb samples are more informative. Data errors caused the most informative samples to be more clustered and to occur earlier in the event compared to error free data. These results provide guidance on when to sample events for model calibration and thus help to reduce the cost and effort in obtaining useful data for model calibration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reassessing Hydrological Processes That Control Stable Isotope Tracers in Groundwater of the Atacama Desert (Northern Chile)
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010003 -
Abstract
A collection of 514 stable isotope water samples from the Atacama Desert is being reassessed geostatistically. The evaluation reveals that adjacent Andean catchments can exhibit distinct δ18O and δ2H value ranges in meteoric waters, despite similar sample altitudes of
[...] Read more.
A collection of 514 stable isotope water samples from the Atacama Desert is being reassessed geostatistically. The evaluation reveals that adjacent Andean catchments can exhibit distinct δ18O and δ2H value ranges in meteoric waters, despite similar sample altitudes of up to 4000 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is proposed that the individual topographic features of each catchment at the western Andean Precordillera either inhibit or facilitate vapor mixing processes of easterly and westerly air masses with different isotopic compositions. This process likely causes catchment-specific isotope value ranges in precipitations (between −7‰ and −19‰ δ18O) that are being consistently reflected in the isotope values of groundwater and surface waters of these catchments. Further, due to evaporation-driven isotopic fractionation and subsurface water mixing, isotope samples of the regional Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer plot collectively parallel to the local meteoric water line. Besides, there is no evidence for hydrothermal isotopic water-rock interactions. Overall, the observed catchment-dependent isotope characteristics allow for using δ18O and δ2H as tracers to delineate regionally distinct groundwater compartments and associated recharge areas. In this context, δ18O, δ2H and 3H data of shallow groundwater at three alluvial fans challenge the established idea of recharge from alluvial fans after flash floods. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Regional Mapping of Groundwater Resources in Data-Scarce Regions: The Case of Laos
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010002 -
Abstract
This study focuses on Laos, a landlocked nation located in South-East Asia with sub-tropical climate and highly seasonal rainfall distribution. Laos is one of the world’s least developed countries, and currently witnesses an unprecedented level of development that is highly reliant on its
[...] Read more.
This study focuses on Laos, a landlocked nation located in South-East Asia with sub-tropical climate and highly seasonal rainfall distribution. Laos is one of the world’s least developed countries, and currently witnesses an unprecedented level of development that is highly reliant on its natural resources, including groundwater. There is currently very limited data and no nationwide assessment of shallow (<30 m) groundwater resources to support sustainable management. This study provides a first step towards addressing this issue by (i) identifying the major aquifer units of the country; (ii) integrating localized data and regional maps into an assessment of the groundwater potential; and (iii) producing quantitative maps of key hydrogeological indicators. Eight aquifer units have been described and evaluated: (i) Basement aquifers, (ii) Volcanic aquifers, (iii) Schists, (iv) Paleozoic sedimentary, (v) Karsts, (vi) Limestones, (vii) Mesozoic sedimentary and (viii) Alluvial sediments. The Mesozoic sandstones and the Alluvial aquifers are the most extensive and productive hydrogeological systems in the country. The Volcanic and Karstic aquifers, although poorly known, might also have important potential. This assessment, along with the maps of quantitative aquifer indicators, provide a significant improvement in both spatial resolution and accuracy compared to previously available information. It will likely support improved management plans and the identification of areas with higher potential for groundwater development. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Changes in Extremes of Temperature, Precipitation, and Runoff in California’s Central Valley During 1949–2010
Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/hydrology5010001 -
Abstract
This study presents a comprehensive trend analysis of precipitation, temperature, and runoff extremes in the Central Valley of California from an operational perspective. California is prone to those extremes of which any changes could have long-lasting adverse impacts on the society, economy, and
[...] Read more.
This study presents a comprehensive trend analysis of precipitation, temperature, and runoff extremes in the Central Valley of California from an operational perspective. California is prone to those extremes of which any changes could have long-lasting adverse impacts on the society, economy, and environment of the State. Available long-term operational datasets of 176 forecasting basins in six forecasting groups and inflow to 12 major water supply reservoirs are employed. A suite of nine precipitation indices and nine temperature indices derived from historical (water year 1949–2010) six-hourly precipitation and temperature data for these basins are investigated, along with nine indices based on daily unimpaired inflow to those 12 reservoirs in a slightly shorter period. Those indices include daily maximum precipitation, temperature, runoff, snowmelt, and others that are critical in informing decision making in water resources management. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend test is applied with a trend-free pre-whitening procedure in identifying trends in these indices. Changes in empirical probability distributions of individual study indices in two equal sub-periods are also investigated. The results show decreasing number of cold nights, increasing number of warm nights, increasing maximum temperature, and increasing annual mean minimum temperature at about 60% of the study area. Changes in cold extremes are generally more pronounced than their counterparts in warm extremes, contributing to decreasing diurnal temperature ranges. In general, the driest and coldest Tulare forecasting group observes the most consistent changes among all six groups. Analysis of probability distributions of temperature indices in two sub-periods yields similar results. In contrast, changes in precipitation extremes are less consistent spatially and less significant in terms of change rate. Only four indices exhibit statistically significant changes in less than 10% of the study area. On the regional scale, only the American forecasting group shows significant decreasing trends in two indices including maximum six-hourly precipitation and simple daily intensity index. On the other hand, runoff exhibits strong resilience to the changes noticed in temperature and precipitation extremes. Only the most southern reservoir (Lake Isabella) shows significant earlier peak timing of snowmelt. Additional analysis on runoff indices using different trend analysis methods and different analysis periods also indicates limited changes in these runoff indices. Overall, these findings are meaningful in guiding reservoir operations and water resources planning and management practices. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
River and Submarine Groundwater Discharge Effects on Diatom Phytoplankton Abundance in the Gulf of Alaska
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 61; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040061 -
Abstract
The Gulf of Alaska is a highly productive ecosystem that supports fisheries and subsistence harvesting of marine resources. The highly productive summer season begins with a bloom that is dominated by diatoms. Both river and submarine groundwater discharge have been recognized as substantial
[...] Read more.
The Gulf of Alaska is a highly productive ecosystem that supports fisheries and subsistence harvesting of marine resources. The highly productive summer season begins with a bloom that is dominated by diatoms. Both river and submarine groundwater discharge have been recognized as substantial terrestrial nutrient (nitrate and silicate) sources to the Gulf’s coastal waters. Here, the response of in-situ phytoplankton to groundwater and river water additions was evaluated via a bioassay incubation experiment. Special attention was given to diatom genera, as previous studies have shown that submarine groundwater discharge preferentially induces growth of diatoms. The abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Chaetoceros spp., and Leptocylindrus spp. increased significantly in groundwater and river water containing treatments. Although groundwater and river water are both rich in nitrate and silicate, groundwater treatments with a higher salinity favored a higher relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Conversely, in the highest river water concentration treatments with lower salinity, relative abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. decreased, while Chaetoceros spp. and Leptocylindrus spp. increased. Total abundances of all three genera increased in the lower salinity treatments. These findings could portend changes in the phytoplankton community composition in the Gulf of Alaska as the climate warms and river discharge increases in the coming decades. Furthermore, the findings support previous assertions that submarine groundwater discharge, with higher salinity than river water, is a preferable source of nutrients to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Regional Assessment of Groundwater Recharge in the Lower Mekong Basin
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 60; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040060 -
Abstract
Groundwater recharge remains almost totally unknown across the Mekong River Basin, hindering the evaluation of groundwater potential for irrigation. A regional regression model was developed to map groundwater recharge across the Lower Mekong Basin where agricultural water demand is increasing, especially during the
[...] Read more.
Groundwater recharge remains almost totally unknown across the Mekong River Basin, hindering the evaluation of groundwater potential for irrigation. A regional regression model was developed to map groundwater recharge across the Lower Mekong Basin where agricultural water demand is increasing, especially during the dry season. The model was calibrated with baseflow computed with the local-minimum flow separation method applied to streamflow recorded in 65 unregulated sub-catchments since 1951. Our results, in agreement with previous local studies, indicate that spatial variations in groundwater recharge are predominantly controlled by the climate (rainfall and evapotranspiration) while aquifer characteristics seem to play a secondary role at this regional scale. While this analysis suggests large scope for expanding agricultural groundwater use, the map derived from this study provides a simple way to assess the limits of groundwater-fed irrigation development. Further data measurements to capture local variations in hydrogeology will be required to refine the evaluation of recharge rates to support practical implementations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Conceptual Hydrological Models in Data Scarce Region of the Upper Blue Nile Basin: Case of the Upper Guder Catchment
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 59; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040059 -
Abstract
The prediction of dominant hydrological processes is imperative with the available information in data scarce regions by means of the lumped hydrological models for the purpose of water resource management. This study is aims at an intercomparison of the performances of the conceptual
[...] Read more.
The prediction of dominant hydrological processes is imperative with the available information in data scarce regions by means of the lumped hydrological models for the purpose of water resource management. This study is aims at an intercomparison of the performances of the conceptual hydrological models in predicting streamflow. The Veralgemeend Conceptueel Hydrologisch (VHM) and NedborAfstromnings Model (NAM) lumped rainfall–runoff models were manually calibrated and validated for periods of 1 January 1990–31 December 2000 and 1 January 2001–31 December 2005, respectively. Some of the parameters of the models (i.e., recession constants of subflow components) were estimated from the preprocessing of the streamflow data using the Water Engineering Time Series PROcessing tool (WETSPRO). These parameters were used for the initial model setup and subjected to slight adjustments during calibration. The performances of the models were evaluated by graphical and statistical means. The results depicted that the models reproduced the streamflow in a good way and that the overall shape of the hydrograph was properly captured. A Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.71 and 0.67 were obtained during calibration, whereas, for the validation period, NSE of 0.6 and 0.58 were obtained for VHM and NAM, respectively. The water balance discrepancy (WBD) of −0.1% and −13.7% were achieved for calibration, while −17% and −9% were acquired during validation for VHM and NAM, respectively. Though the models underestimated the high flows, the low flows were relatively well simulated. From the overall evaluation of the models, it is noted that the NAM model performed better than the VHM model in predicting the flow. In conclusion, the models can be used for water resource management and planning with precautions for extreme flow. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Contribution Rate of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activity to Runoff Variation in Nenjiang Basin, China
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 58; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040058 -
Abstract
The Pettitt abrupt change test method based on ArcGIS was used to undertake change-point analysis on climatic (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration; 39 meteorological stations) and runoff data (27 hydrological stations) from 1954–2015 in the Nenjiang basin. The hydrological sensitivity analysis method was also
[...] Read more.
The Pettitt abrupt change test method based on ArcGIS was used to undertake change-point analysis on climatic (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration; 39 meteorological stations) and runoff data (27 hydrological stations) from 1954–2015 in the Nenjiang basin. The hydrological sensitivity analysis method was also used to calculate the influential component of climate change upstream, mid-stream, and downstream of the Nenjiang basin, as well as the effect of anthropogenic activities on runoff. Our results show that the upstream area has the highest contribution rate of climate change, followed by the mid-stream area; the downstream area has the lowest contribution rate. Studying climate change contribution rates in various sites in the Nenjiang basin, in addition to anthropogenic activities affecting runoff, can provide the foundation for the protection and utilization of basin water resources, as well as the conservation and restoration of wetlands. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Spatial Distribution of Soil Hydrological Properties in the Kilombero Floodplain, Tanzania
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 57; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040057 -
Abstract
Analysis and interpretation of soil properties dynamics is a keystone in understanding the hydrologic responses and yield potential of floodplain wetlands. This study characterizes the distribution and spatial trends of selected soil physical properties in the Kilombero floodplain, Tanzania. A total of 76
[...] Read more.
Analysis and interpretation of soil properties dynamics is a keystone in understanding the hydrologic responses and yield potential of floodplain wetlands. This study characterizes the distribution and spatial trends of selected soil physical properties in the Kilombero floodplain, Tanzania. A total of 76 composite soil samples were taken from 0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm depth in a regular grid design across three hydrological zones, related to flooding intensity defined as fringe, middle, and riparian during the rainy season of 2015. The samples were analyzed for soil texture, bulk density, organic carbon, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Seasonal soil moisture content was monitored at depths of 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, using 17 frequency domain reflectometry profile probes type PR2, installed at each hydrological zone for 18 months (March 2015–August 2016). Data were subjected to classical statistical and geostatistical analyses. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) differences in bulk density, texture, soil organic carbon (SOC), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) across the hydrological zones. Bulk density showed a clear increasing trend towards the fringe zone. Mean Ksat was highest at the riparian zone (69.15 cm·d−1), and clay was higher in the riparian (20.3%) and middle (28.7%) zones, whereas fringe had the highest percentage of sand (33.7–35.9%). Geostatistical spatial results indicated that bulk density, silt, and SOC at 0–20 cm had intermediate dependence, whereas other soil properties at both depths had high spatial dependence. Soil moisture content showed a significant (p < 0.05) difference across the hydrological zones. The riparian zone retained the highest soil moisture content compared to the middle and fringe zone. The temporal soil moisture pattern corresponded to rainfall seasonality and at the riparian zone, soil moisture exhibited a convex shape of sloping curve, whereas a concave sloping curve for topsoil and for the middle zone at the subsoil was observed during the start of the dry season. Our results are seen to contribute to a better understanding of the spatial distribution of soil properties and as a reference for soil and water management planning in the floodplain. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Geochemical Tracing of Potential Hydraulic Connections between Groundwater and Run-Off Water in Northeastern Kansas, USA
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 56; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040056 -
Abstract
This study is focused on establishing the extent of potential hydraulic connections of local lowland aquifers with the run-off waters of a nearby creek and two major rivers in and around Fort Riley in northeastern Kansas, USA. It is based on collective evidence
[...] Read more.
This study is focused on establishing the extent of potential hydraulic connections of local lowland aquifers with the run-off waters of a nearby creek and two major rivers in and around Fort Riley in northeastern Kansas, USA. It is based on collective evidence by combining the contents of several major and trace elements of the waters with their oxygen, hydrogen and Sr isotopic compositions. The area of investigation is located a few miles to the west of the Kansas Konza Prairie, which is a United States designated site for regular monitoring of ecological and environmental configurations. The δ18O and δD of the run-off waters from the two rivers and the creek, and of the ground waters from local aquifers are almost identical. Relative to the General Meteoric Water Line, the δ18O-δD data have a tendency to deviate towards relatively lower δ18O values, as do generally the sub-surface waters of intra-continental basins. The observed stable isotope compositions for these waters preclude any significant impact by either an evapo-transpiration process by the vegetation, or an interaction with immediate mineral-rock matrices. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the aquifer waters collected from wells close to the Kansas River were markedly different from those of the river waters, confirming a lack of hydraulic interactions between the aquifers and the river. On the contrary, ground waters from wells at a relative distance from the Kansas River have 87Sr/86Sr ratios, Sr contents and Sr/Ca ratios that are similar to those of the river water, suggesting a hydraulic connection between these aquifers and the river, as well as a lack of any impact of the vegetation. An underground water supply from nearby Summer Hill located to the north of the study area has also been detected, except for its western border where no interactions occurred apparently between the aquifer waters and the reservoir rocks, or with the creek and river waters. The 87Sr/86Sr signatures of the ground waters suggest also a major east-west flow system in the study area that can be divided into three entities, together with a supplementary north-south trend along the Threemile creek towards the Kansas River. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
RCP8.5-Based Future Flood Hazard Analysis for the Lower Mekong River Basin
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 55; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040055 -
Abstract
Climatic variations caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases are likely to change the patterns of precipitation, runoff processes, and water storage of river basins. Various studies have been conducted based on precipitation outputs of the global scale climatic models under different
[...] Read more.
Climatic variations caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases are likely to change the patterns of precipitation, runoff processes, and water storage of river basins. Various studies have been conducted based on precipitation outputs of the global scale climatic models under different emission scenarios. However, there is a limitation in regional- and local-scale hydrological analysis on extreme floods with the combined application of high-resolution atmospheric general circulation models’ (AGCM) outputs and physically-based hydrological models (PBHM). This study has taken an effort to overcome that limitation in hydrological analysis. The present and future precipitation, river runoff, and inundation distributions for the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) were analyzed to understand hydrological changes in the LMB under the RCP8.5 scenario. The downstream area beyond the Kratie gauging station, located in the Cambodia and Vietnam flood plains was considered as the LMB in this study. The bias-corrected precipitation outputs of the Japan Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model (MRI-AGCM3.2S) with 20 km horizontal resolution were utilized as the precipitation inputs for basin-scale hydrological simulations. The present climate (1979–2003) was represented by the AMIP-type simulations while the future (2075–2099) climatic conditions were obtained based on the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas scenario. The entire hydrological system of the Mekong basin was modelled by the block-wise TOPMODEL (BTOP) hydrological model with 20 km resolution, while the LMB area was modelled by the rainfall-runoff-inundation (RRI) model with 2 km resolution, specifically to analyze floods under the aforementioned climatic conditions. The comparison of present and future river runoffs, inundation distributions and inundation volume changes were the outcomes of the study, which can be supportive information for the LMB flood management, water policy, and water resources development. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Three-Dimensional Imaging of Soil Resistivity for Assessment of Moisture Distribution for Intelligent Irrigation
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 54; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040054 -
Abstract
An affordable standalone sensor that can provide volumetric information on soil moisture distribution in real time was developed and tested for potential application in irrigation control systems. The moisture content of soil is reconstructed tomographically from electrical resistivity measured between multiple pairs of
[...] Read more.
An affordable standalone sensor that can provide volumetric information on soil moisture distribution in real time was developed and tested for potential application in irrigation control systems. The moisture content of soil is reconstructed tomographically from electrical resistivity measured between multiple pairs of electrodes, which are installed on two opposite sides of the soil volume. The measurement of relative moisture content reconstructed from the measured resistance values demonstrated in this paper requires a simple, in-situ, two-point calibration (for dry and wet soil conditions) after electrodes are installed in place. This calibration has to be repeated once the soil conditions, such as salinity or fertilizer content, are altered as the season progresses. Historical data collected over a 12-month period can be stored locally or transferred over a wireless network at given intervals or in real time. Although existing single-point sensors can provide more accurate measurements of soil moisture, knowledge on the three-dimensional distribution of moisture around plant roots should allow substantial savings of precious fresh water resources and more intelligent multi-channel irrigation systems. The same system can possibly be extended to estimation of fertilizer distribution. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Gridded Precipitation Data Products for Hydrological Applications in Complex Topography
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 53; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040053 -
Abstract
Accurate spatial and temporal representation of precipitation is of utmost importance for hydrological applications. Uncertainties in available data sets increase with spatial resolution due to small-scale processes over complex terrain. As previous studies revealed high regional differences in the performance of gridded precipitation
[...] Read more.
Accurate spatial and temporal representation of precipitation is of utmost importance for hydrological applications. Uncertainties in available data sets increase with spatial resolution due to small-scale processes over complex terrain. As previous studies revealed high regional differences in the performance of gridded precipitation data sets, it is important to assess the related uncertainties at the catchment scale, where these data sets are typically applied, e.g., for hydrological modeling. In this study, the uncertainty of eight gridded precipitation data sets from various sources is investigated over an alpine catchment. A high resolution reference data set is constructed from station data and applied to quantify the contribution of spatial resolution to the overall uncertainty. While the results demonstrate that the data sets reasonably capture inter-annual variability, they show large seasonal differences. These increase for daily indicators assessing dry and wet spells as well as heavy precipitation. Although the higher resolution data sets, independent of their source, show a better agreement, the coarser data sets showed great potential especially in the representation of the overall climatology. To bridge the gaps in data scarce areas and to overcome the issues with observational data sets (e.g., undercatch and station density) it is important to include a variety of data sets and select an ensemble for a robust representation of catchment precipitation. However, the study highlights the importance of a thorough assessment and a careful selection of the data sets, which should be tailored to the desired application. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Farmers’ Responses to Changing Hydrological Trends in the Niger Basin Parts of Benin
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 52; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040052 -
Abstract
Sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to climate change given its low capacities of resilience to the enormous challenges climate change will pose. Research aimed at evaluating changes in hydrological trends and methods of adaptation was conducted in the Niger Basin parts of Benin
[...] Read more.
Sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to climate change given its low capacities of resilience to the enormous challenges climate change will pose. Research aimed at evaluating changes in hydrological trends and methods of adaptation was conducted in the Niger Basin parts of Benin at the peak of the rainy season in the year 2012. Rainfall and river discharge were analyzed from 1950–2010 in order to generate patterns of changes in the region. Structured questionnaires were used to evaluate the perceptions of 14 farming communities on climate-related issues and their methods of adaptations. Mann-Kendall and Pettit trend analyses were conducted for rainfall and river discharge. The findings indicated that significant decreases characterized rainfall and river discharge in the period of study. Flash flood was considered the major challenge faced in the region according to more than 90% of crop, animal, and fish farmers. Aside from that, decrease in water availability was identified as an additional challenge. Irrigation, diversification, water treatment, drainage, small dams, and dikes were reported as the common adaptation mechanisms in the catchments. This study will help in designing sustainable adaptation mechanisms to abrupt changes in the hydrology of the region. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Future Water Resources Availability under Climate Change Scenarios in the Mékrou Basin, Benin
Hydrology 2017, 4(4), 51; doi:10.3390/hydrology4040051 -
Abstract
This work aims to evaluate future water availability in the Mékrou catchment under climate change scenarios. To reach this goal, data from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) were used as the input for four rainfall-runoff models which are ModHyPMA (Hydrological Model based on Least
[...] Read more.
This work aims to evaluate future water availability in the Mékrou catchment under climate change scenarios. To reach this goal, data from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) were used as the input for four rainfall-runoff models which are ModHyPMA (Hydrological Model based on Least Action Principe), HBV (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning), AWBM (Australian Water Balance Model), and SimHyd (Simplified Hydrolog). Then the mean values of the hydro-meteorological data of three different projected periods (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) were compared to their values in the baseline period. The results of calibration and validation of these models show that the meteorological data from RCMs give performances that are as good as performances obtained with the observed meteorological data in the baseline period. The comparison of the mean values of the hydro-meteorological data of the baseline period to their values for the different projected periods indicates that for PET there is a significantly increase until 2100 for both Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and RCP8.5 scenarios. Therefore, the rate’s increase of potential evapotranspiration (PET) under the RCP8.5 scenario is higher than that obtained under the RCP8.5 scenario. Changes in rainfall amounts depend on the scenario of climate change and the projected periods. For the RCP4.5 scenario, there is a little increase in the annual rainfall amounts over the period from 2011 to 2040, while there is a decrease in the rainfall amounts over the other two projected periods. According to the RCP8.5 scenario, the contrary of changes observed with the RCP4.5 scenario are observed. At a monthly scale, the rainfall amounts will increase for August and September and decrease for July and October. These changes in rainfall amounts greatly affect yearly and monthly discharge at the catchment outlet. Over the three projected periods and for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, the mean annual discharge will significantly increase related to the baseline periods. However, the magnitude of increases will depend on the projected period and the RCP scenario. At a monthly scale, it was found that runoff increases significantly from August to November for all projected periods and the climate change scenario. Full article
Figures

Figure 1