Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Development of Flood Warning System and Flood Inundation Mapping Using Field Survey and LiDAR Data for the Grand River near the City of Painesville, Ohio
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 24; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020024 -
Abstract
Abstract: Flooding is one of the most frequent natural disasters across the world, which damages properties and may take the lives of people. Flood warning systems can play a significant role in minimizing those effects by helping to evacuate people from the
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Abstract: Flooding is one of the most frequent natural disasters across the world, which damages properties and may take the lives of people. Flood warning systems can play a significant role in minimizing those effects by helping to evacuate people from the probable affected areas during peak flash flood times. Therefore, a conceptual approach of an automated flood warning system is presented in this research to protect several houses, roads, and infrastructures along the Grand River, which are vulnerable to flooding during a 500 year return period flash flood. The Grand River is a tributary of Lake Erie, which lies in the Grand River watershed in the northeastern region of the United States and has a humid continental climate and receives lake-effect precipitation. The flood warning system for the Grand River was developed specifically during high flow conditions by calculating flood travel time and generating the inundation mapping for 12 different selected flood stages, which were approximately 2 to 500 years in recurrence interval, ranging from 10 ft. to 21 ft. at gage station 04212100, near the City of Painesville, OH. A Hydraulic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) was utilized for hydraulic modeling. Geospatial data required for HEC-RAS was obtained using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) datasets, which were pre-processed and post-processed in HEC-GeoRAS to produce flood inundation maps. The flood travel time and flood inundation maps were generated by integrating LiDAR data with field verified survey results in order to provide the evacuation lead time needed for the people of probable affected areas, which is different from earlier studies. The generated inundation maps estimate the aerial extent of flooding along the Grand River corresponding to the various flood stages at the gage station near the City of Painesville and Harpersfield. The inundation maps were overlaid on digital orthographic maps to visualize its aerial extents, which can be uploaded online to provide a real-time inundation warning to the public when the flood occurs in the river. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Groundwater Resources Assessment and Impact Analysis Using a Conceptual Water Balance Model and Time Series Data Analysis: Case of Decision Making Tool
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020025 -
Abstract
The allocation of groundwater resources has been a challenge for many years due to its unforeseen side effect and lag time issues, which are often overlooked. The full impact of groundwater utilization/abstraction takes time to realize its effect at its full. In this
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The allocation of groundwater resources has been a challenge for many years due to its unforeseen side effect and lag time issues, which are often overlooked. The full impact of groundwater utilization/abstraction takes time to realize its effect at its full. In this paper, long-term effects and groundwater dynamics were assessed using a water balance model and a time series analysis, respectively. Undeveloped groundwater systems are commonly found in a state of equilibrium, where, on average, equal amounts of water are recharged and discharged. A water budget is a static accounting of the state of the system at a given time, often before the system is developed. Water balance analysis was carried out together with the groundwater through flow, hydrograph, and surface-groundwater interaction analysis (base flow index) to develop a conceptual water balance model, which is a very basic representation of a complex natural aquifer system and is instrumental to constrain and build a robust numerical model that can be readily justified and updated. A noble approach was employed to assess and constrain the discharge coming out of the model area to sustain the lake level, located to the north of the study area, using the whole lake catchment and lake water balance analysis. Based on the lake water balance, there is a deficit between input and output computation, and hence there should be a groundwater input to sustain the historical lake area. The analysis showed that the model area contributes 40% of the lake catchment, and hence the portion of the groundwater inflow feeding the lake was computed. This is one of the means to constrain the discharge, which adds more confidence to the recharge estimation. This is very important because the size of a sustainable groundwater development usually depends on how much of the discharge from the system can be captured by the development. Capture is independent of the recharge. Instead, it depends on the dynamic response of the aquifer system to the development. The idea that knowing the recharge is important in determining the size of a sustainable groundwater development is a myth and has no basis. The important entity in determining how a groundwater system reaches a new equilibrium is capture. How capture occurs in an aquifer system is a dynamic process. Following this study, lake water balance assessment was indirectly considered as prior information for the numerical model calibration of the discharge from the model area using a conductance parameter. Conductance is a key parameter to estimate the discharge volume together with the change in the simulated hydraulic head between time steps. The water balance error highlights which one is more sensitive, and this could help to assist in planning for future data collection/field work and where to invest the money. The water balance computation helps to figure out the degree of surface-groundwater interaction, uncertainty, sensitive parameter, helps in the decision to invest time and money, and operates as a cross check with other analytical or numerical modelling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Importance of Rocks and Their Weathering Products on Groundwater Quality in Central-East Cameroon
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 23; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020023 -
Abstract
The present work highlights the influence of lithology on water quality in Méiganga and its surroundings. The main geological formations in this region include gneiss, granite and amphibolite. The soils developed on these rocks are of ABC type, which are acidic to slightly
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The present work highlights the influence of lithology on water quality in Méiganga and its surroundings. The main geological formations in this region include gneiss, granite and amphibolite. The soils developed on these rocks are of ABC type, which are acidic to slightly acidic. Electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter, total nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, sulfate, chloride, phosphorus and exchangeable base values were low to very low in the soil samples. Groundwater samples were investigated for their physicochemical characteristics. The wide ranges of EC values (15.1–436 µS/cm) and total dissolved solids (9–249 mg/L) revealed the heterogeneous distribution of hydrochemical processes within the groundwater of the area. The relative abundance of major dissolved species (mg/L) was Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations and HCO3 >> NO3 > Cl > SO42 for anions. All the groundwater samples were soft, with total hardness values (2.54–136.65 mg/L) below the maximum permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The majority of water samples (67%) were classified as mixed CaMg-HCO3 type. Alkaline earth metal contents dominated those of alkali metals in 66.66% of samples. Thus, for the studied groundwater, Mg2+ and Ca2+ ion adsorption by clay minerals was almost nonexistent; this implies their release into the solution, which accounts for their high concentrations compared to alkali metals. Ion geochemistry revealed that water-rock interactions (silicate weathering) and ion exchange processes regulated the groundwater chemistry. One water sample points towards the evaporation domain of this diagram, indicating that groundwater probably does not originate from a deeper system. Kaolinite is the most stable secondary phase in the waters in the study area, in accordance with the geochemical process of monosiallitization, which predominated in the humid tropical zone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates for an Extreme Rainfall Event over Uttarakhand, Western Himalayas
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 22; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020022 -
Abstract
The extreme rainfall event during June 2013 in the Western Himalayas caused widespread flash floods, which triggered landslides, a lake-outburst, and debris flow. For the hydrological study of such an unexpected extreme event, it is essential to have reliable and accurate rainfall predictions
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The extreme rainfall event during June 2013 in the Western Himalayas caused widespread flash floods, which triggered landslides, a lake-outburst, and debris flow. For the hydrological study of such an unexpected extreme event, it is essential to have reliable and accurate rainfall predictions based on satellite observations. The mountainous state of Uttarakhand is covered by complex topography, and this state has few, unevenly distributed, rain gauge networks. This unique study was conducted to evaluate three satellite based rainfall products (i.e., TMPA-3B42, Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), and NOAA CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH)) against the observed rain gauge-based India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded dataset for this rainfall episode. The results from this comprehensive study confirmed that the magnitude of precipitation and peak rainfall intensity were underestimated in TMPA-3B42 and CMORPH against gauge-based IMD data, while GSMaP showed dual trends with under- and over-predictions. From the results of the statistical approach on the determination of error statistic metrics (MAE (mean absolute error), NRMSE (normalized root mean square error), PBIAS (percent bias), and NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency)) of respective satellite products, it was revealed that TMPA-3B42 predictions were more relevant and accurate compared to predictions from the other two satellite products for this major event. The TMPA-3B42-based rainfall was negatively biased by 18%. Despite these caveats, this study concludes that TMPA-3B42 rainfall was useful for monitoring extreme rainfall event in the region, where rain-gauges are sparse. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Predictability of the Hydrological Response of Mountain Catchments to Heavy Rain on Snow Events: A Case Study in the Spanish Pyrenees
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020020 -
Abstract
From 18 to 19 June 2013, the Ésera river in the Pyrenees, Northern Spain, caused widespread damage due to flooding as a result of torrential rains and sustained snowmelt. We estimate the contribution of snow melt to total discharge applying a snow energy
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From 18 to 19 June 2013, the Ésera river in the Pyrenees, Northern Spain, caused widespread damage due to flooding as a result of torrential rains and sustained snowmelt. We estimate the contribution of snow melt to total discharge applying a snow energy balance to the catchment. Precipitation is derived from sparse local measurements and the WRF-ARW model over three nested domains, down to a grid cell size of 2 km. Temperature profiles, precipitation and precipitation gradient are well simulated, although with a possible displacement regarding the observations. Snowpack melting was correctly reproduced and verified in three instrumented sites, and according to satellite images. We found that the hydrological simulations agree well with measured discharge. Snowmelt represented 33% of total runoff during the main flood event and 23% at peak flow. The snow energy balance model indicates that most of the energy for snow melt during the day of maximum precipitation came from turbulent fluxes. This approach forecast correctly peak flow and discharge during normal conditions at least 24 h in advance and could give an early warning of the extreme event 2.5 days before. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Field Analysis of Stepwise Effective Thermal Conductivity along a Borehole Heat Exchanger under Artificial Conditions of Groundwater Flow
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020021 -
Abstract
Heat advection caused by groundwater flow can potentially improve the performance of a borehole heat exchanger. However, the required flow velocity is not achieved under most natural conditions. This study focuses on artificial groundwater flow generated by pumping and investigates the associated effect
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Heat advection caused by groundwater flow can potentially improve the performance of a borehole heat exchanger. However, the required flow velocity is not achieved under most natural conditions. This study focuses on artificial groundwater flow generated by pumping and investigates the associated effect in a lowland area near the Toyohira River alluvial fan, Sapporo, Japan. Thermal response test results are compared under natural and artificial groundwater flow conditions. A pumping well is constructed one meter from the borehole. Temperature profiles are measured in the U-tube during testing, using a pair of optic fiber distributed temperature sensors. The effective thermal conductivity is calculated from the profiles obtained in each 10-m sub-layer; this thermal conductivity is termed the stepwise thermal conductivity. Additionally, the upward flow velocity in the pumping well is measured to estimate the mean groundwater flow velocity at the borehole. The results show that effective thermal conductivity increases at depths less than 50 m, where the pumping creates mean velocities greater than 0.1 m d−1 in each sub-layer (1.5 md−1 on average). Thus, a borehole length of 50 m is more reasonable at the test site for its efficiency in a ground source heat pump system coupled with the pumping well than that used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Due to Irrigation Practice: Case of Wastewater Reuse Engineering Design
Hydrology 2017, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/hydrology4020019 -
Abstract
Mounding often occurs beneath engineering structures designed to infiltrate reuse water. AQTESOLV software and a spreadsheet solution for Hantush, together with soil moisture water balance (SWAGMAN farm model), were used for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding underground to assess
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Mounding often occurs beneath engineering structures designed to infiltrate reuse water. AQTESOLV software and a spreadsheet solution for Hantush, together with soil moisture water balance (SWAGMAN farm model), were used for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding underground to assess the groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from a hypothetical irrigation site. Horizontal and vertical permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, and basin geometry are among the aquifer and recharge properties inputs. For 2.2 ha sites, the maximum heights of the simulated groundwater mound ranges up to 0.29 m. The maximum areal extent of groundwater mounding measured from the edge of the infiltration basins of 0.24 m ranges from 0 to 75 m. Additionally, the simulated height and extent of the groundwater mounding associated with a hypothetical irrigation infiltration basin for 2.2 ha development may be applicable to sites of different sizes, using the recharge rate estimated from the SWAGMAN farm model. For example, for a 2.2 ha site with a 0.0002 m/day recharge rate, the irrigation infiltration basin design capacity (and associated groundwater mound) would be the same as for a 1.1 ha site with a 0.0004 m/day recharge rate if the physical characteristics of the aquifer are unchanged. The study claimed that the present modelling approach overcomes the complications of solving the Hantush equation for transient flow. The approach utilised in this study can be applied for other purposes such as measuring the feasibility of infiltrating water, attenuation zone, risk mitigation essential for decision-makers and planning regulators in terms of environmental effects and water use efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change and Its Impacts on Water Resources in the Bandama Basin, Côte D’ivoire
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010018 -
Abstract
This study aims to assess future trends in monthly rainfall and temperature and its impacts on surface and groundwater resources in the Bandama basin. The Bandama river is one of the four major rivers of Côte d’Ivoire. Historical data from 14 meteorological and
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This study aims to assess future trends in monthly rainfall and temperature and its impacts on surface and groundwater resources in the Bandama basin. The Bandama river is one of the four major rivers of Côte d’Ivoire. Historical data from 14 meteorological and three hydrological stations were used. Simulation results for future climate from HadGEM2-ES model under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios indicate that the annual temperature may increase from 1.2 °C to 3 °C. These increases will be greater in the north than in the south of the basin. The monthly rainfall may decrease from December to April in the future. During this period, it is projected to decrease by 3% to 42% at all horizons under RCP 4.5 and by 5% to 47% under RCP 8.5. These variations will have cause an increase in surface and groundwater resources during the three periods (2006–2035; 2041–2060; 2066–2085) under the RCP 4.5 scenario. On the other side, these water resources may decrease for all horizons under RCP 8.5 in the Bandama basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrological Modelling Using a Rainfall Simulator over an Experimental Hillslope Plot
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 17; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010017 -
Abstract
Hydrological processes are complex to compute in hilly areas when compared to plain areas. The governing processes behind runoff generation on hillslopes are subsurface storm flow, saturation excess flow, overland flow, return flow and pipe storage. The simulations of the above processes in
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Hydrological processes are complex to compute in hilly areas when compared to plain areas. The governing processes behind runoff generation on hillslopes are subsurface storm flow, saturation excess flow, overland flow, return flow and pipe storage. The simulations of the above processes in the soil matrix require detailed hillslope hydrological modelling. In the present study, a hillslope experimental plot has been designed to study the runoff generation processes on the plot scale. The setup is designed keeping in view the natural hillslope conditions prevailing in the Northwestern Himalayas, India where high intensity rainfall events occur frequently. A rainfall simulator was installed over the experimental hillslope plot to generate rainfall with an intensity of 100 mm/h, which represents the dominating rainfall intensity range in the region. Soil moisture sensors were also installed at variable depths from 100 to 1000 mm at different locations of the plot to observe the soil moisture regime. From the experimental observations it was found that once the soil is saturated, it remains at field capacity for the next 24–36 h. Such antecedent moisture conditions are most favorable for the generation of rapid stormflow from hillslopes. A dye infiltration test was performed on the undisturbed soil column to observe the macropore fraction variability over the vegetated hillslopes. The estimated macropore fractions are used as essential input for the hillslope hydrological model. The main objective of the present study was to develop and test a method for estimating runoff responses from natural rainfall over hillslopes of the Northwestern Himalayas using a portable rainfall simulator. Using the experimental data and the developed conceptual model, the overland flow and the subsurface flow through a macropore-dominated area have been estimated/analyzed. The surface and subsurface runoff estimated using the developed hillslope hydrological model compared well with the observed surface runoff for a rainfall intensity of 100 mm/h. The surface runoff hydrograph was very well predicted by the model, with correlation coefficient (R2) and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (E) as 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. The observed soil/macropore storage component was estimated with the help of water balance equation and compared with the model predicted macropore storage. The error in computing the soil/macropore storage was estimated as 0.38 mm i.e., 13%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrological Modeling and Runoff Mitigation in an Ungauged Basin of Central Vietnam Using SWAT Model
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 16; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010016 -
Abstract
The A-Luoi district in Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam is under extreme pressure from natural and anthropogenic factors. The area is ungauged and suffering from data scarcity. To evaluate the water resources availability and water management, we used Soil and Water Assessment
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The A-Luoi district in Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam is under extreme pressure from natural and anthropogenic factors. The area is ungauged and suffering from data scarcity. To evaluate the water resources availability and water management, we used Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT). A multi-approach technique was used to calibrate the hydrological model. The model was calibrated in three time scales: daily, monthly and yearly by river discharge, actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and crop yield, respectively. The model was calibrated with Nash-Sutcliffe and R2 coefficients greater than 0.7, in daily and monthly scales, respectively. In the yearly scale, the crop yield inside the model was calibrated and validated with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) less than 2.4 ton/ha. The water resource components were mapped temporally and spatially. The outcomes showed that the highest mean monthly surface runoff, 323 to 369 mm, between September and November, resulted in extreme soil erosion and sedimentation. The monthly average of actual evapotranspiration was the highest in May and lowest in December. Furthermore, installing “Best Management Practices” (BMPs) reduced surface runoff in agricultural lands. However, using event-based hydrological and hydraulic models in the prediction and simulation of flooding events is recommended in further studies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Catchment Hydrology during Winter and Spring and the Link to Soil Erosion: A Case Study in Norway
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 15; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010015 -
Abstract
In the Nordic countries, soil erosion rates in winter and early spring can exceed those at other times of the year. In particular, snowmelt, combined with rain and soil frost, leads to severe soil erosion, even, e.g., in low risk areas in Norway.
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In the Nordic countries, soil erosion rates in winter and early spring can exceed those at other times of the year. In particular, snowmelt, combined with rain and soil frost, leads to severe soil erosion, even, e.g., in low risk areas in Norway. In southern Norway, previous attempts to predict soil erosion during winter and spring have not been very accurate owing to a lack of catchment-based data, resulting in a poor understanding of hydrological processes during winter. Therefore, a field study was carried out over three consecutive winters (2013, 2014 and 2015) to gather relevant data. In parallel, the development of the snow cover, soil temperature and ice content during these three winters was simulated with the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model for two different soils (sand, clay). The field observations carried out in winter revealed high complexity and diversity in the hydrological processes occurring in the catchment. Major soil erosion was caused by a small rain event on frozen ground before snow cover was established, while snowmelt played no significant role in terms of soil erosion in the study period. Four factors that determine the extent of runoff and erosion were of particular importance: (1) soil water content at freezing; (2) whether soil is frozen or unfrozen at a particular moment; (3) the state of the snow pack; and (4) tillage practices prior to winter. SHAW performed well in this application and proved that it is a valuable tool for investigating and simulating snow cover development, soil temperature and extent of freezing in soil profiles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Change in Future Rainfall Characteristics in the Mekrou Catchment (Benin), from an Ensemble of 3 RCMs (MPI-REMO, DMI-HIRHAM5 and SMHI-RCA4)
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 14; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010014 -
Abstract
This study analyzes the impact of climate change on several characteristics of rainfall in the Mekrou catchment for the twenty-first century. To this end, a multi-model ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used.
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This study analyzes the impact of climate change on several characteristics of rainfall in the Mekrou catchment for the twenty-first century. To this end, a multi-model ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used. The results indicate a wider range of precipitation uncertainty (roughly between −10% and 10%), a decrease in the number of wet days (about 10%), an increase (about 10%) of the total intensity of precipitation for very wet days, and changes in the length of the dry spell period, as well as the onset and end of the rainy season. The maximum rainfall amounts of consecutive 24 h, 48 h and 72 h will experience increases of about 50% of the reference period. This change in rate compared to the reference period may cause an exacerbation of extreme events (droughts and floods) in the Mekrou basin, especially at the end of the century and under the RCP8.5 scenario. To cope with the challenges posed by the projected climate change for the Mekrou watershed, strong governmental policies are needed to help design response options. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Global Reanalysis Datasets as Input for Hydrological Modelling in the Sudano-Sahel Region
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 13; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010013 -
Abstract
This paper investigates the potential of using global reanalysis datasets as input for hydrological modelling in the data-scarce Sudano-Sahel region. To achieve this, we used two global atmospheric reanalyses (Climate Forecasting System Reanalysis and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim) datasets
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This paper investigates the potential of using global reanalysis datasets as input for hydrological modelling in the data-scarce Sudano-Sahel region. To achieve this, we used two global atmospheric reanalyses (Climate Forecasting System Reanalysis and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim) datasets and one global meteorological forcing dataset WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim (WFDEI). These datasets were used to drive the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Logone catchment in the Lake Chad basin. Model performance indicators after calibration showed that, at daily and monthly time steps, only WFDEI produced Nash Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of Determination (R2) values above 0.50. Despite a general underperformance compared to WFDEI, CFSR performed better than the ERA-Interim. Model uncertainty analysis after calibration showed that more than 60% of all daily and monthly observed streamflow values at all hydrometric stations were bracketed within the 95 percent prediction uncertainty (95PPU) range for all datasets. Results from this study also show significant differences in simulated actual evapotranspiration estimates from the datasets. Overall results showed that biased corrected WFDEI outperformed the two reanalysis datasets; meanwhile CFSR performed better than the ERA-Interim. We conclude that, in the absence of gauged hydro-meteorological data, WFDEI and CFSR could be used for hydrological modelling in data-scarce areas such as the Sudano-Sahel region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Radioactive Seepage through Groundwater Flow from the Uranium Mines, Namibia
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 11; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010011 -
Abstract
The study focused on the seepage of uranium from unlined tailing dams into the alluvial aquifer in the Gawib River floodplain in Namibia where the region solely relies on groundwater for its economic activities as a result of arid climatic condition. The study
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The study focused on the seepage of uranium from unlined tailing dams into the alluvial aquifer in the Gawib River floodplain in Namibia where the region solely relies on groundwater for its economic activities as a result of arid climatic condition. The study reviewed previous works besides water sample collection and analyses for major ions, metals and environmental isotopes in addition to field tests on physico-chemical parameters (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Redox and T). Estimation of seepage velocity (true velocity of groundwater flow) has been conducted in order to understand the extent of radioactive plume transport. The hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium results show that there is uranium contamination from the unlined uranium tailings in the Gawib shallow aquifer system which suggests high permeability of the alluvial aquifer facilitating groundwater flow in the arid region. The radioactive contaminants could spread into the deeper aquifer system through the major structures such as joints and faults. The contamination plume could also spread downstream into the Swakop River unless serious interventions are employed. There is also a very high risk of the plume to reach the Atlantic Ocean through seasonal flash floods that occurs in the area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Effect of Urban Growth on Annual Runoff Volume Using GIS in the Erbil Sub-Basin of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 12; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010012 -
Abstract
The growth and spread of impervious surfaces within urbanizing catchment areas pose signiificant threats to the quality of natural and built-up environments. Impervious surfaces prevent water infiltration into the soil, resulting in increased runoff generation. The Erbil Sub-basin was selected because the impervious
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The growth and spread of impervious surfaces within urbanizing catchment areas pose signiificant threats to the quality of natural and built-up environments. Impervious surfaces prevent water infiltration into the soil, resulting in increased runoff generation. The Erbil Sub-basin was selected because the impervious cover is increasing rapidly and is affecting the hydrological condition of the watershed. The overall aim of this study is to examine the impact of urban growth and other changes in land use on runoff response during the study period of 1984 to 2014. The study describes long-term hydrologic responses within the rapidly developing catchment area of Erbil city, in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Data from six rainfall stations in and around the Erbil Sub-basin were used. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was also used to extract the distribution of the drainage network. Historical levels of urban growth and the corresponding impervious areas, as well as land use/land cover changes were mapped from 1984 to 2014 using a temporal satellite image (Landsat) to determine land use/land cover changes. Land use/land cover was combined with a hydrological model (SCS-CN) to estimate the volume of runoff from the watershed. The study indicates that the urbanization of the watershed has increased the impervious land cover by 71% for the period from 1984 to 2004 and by 51% from 2004 to 2014. The volume of runoff was 85% higher in 2014 as compared to 1984 due to the increase in the impervious surface area; this is attributed to urban growth. The study also points out that the slope of the watershed in the Erbil sub-basin should be taken into account in surface runoff estimation as the upstream part of the watershed has a high gradient and the land is almost barren with very little vegetation cover; this causes an increase in the velocity of the flow and increases the risk of flooding in Erbil city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Highlighting the Role of Groundwater in Lake– Aquifer Interaction to Reduce Vulnerability and Enhance Resilience to Climate Change
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 10; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010010 -
Abstract
method is presented to analyze the interaction between groundwater and Lake Linlithgow (Australia) as a case study. A simplistic approach based on a “node” representing the groundwater component is employed in a spreadsheet of water balance modeling to analyze and highlight the effect
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method is presented to analyze the interaction between groundwater and Lake Linlithgow (Australia) as a case study. A simplistic approach based on a “node” representing the groundwater component is employed in a spreadsheet of water balance modeling to analyze and highlight the effect of groundwater on the lake level over time. A comparison is made between the simulated and observed lake levels over a period of time by switching the groundwater “node “on and off. A bucket model is assumed to represent the lake behaviour. Although this study demonstrates the understanding of Lake Linlithgow’s groundwater system, the current model reflects the contemporary understanding of the local groundwater system, illustrates how to go about modeling in data-scarce environments, and provides a means to assess focal areas for future data collection and model improvements. Results show that this approach is convenient for getting first‐hand information on the effect of groundwater on wetland or lake levels through lake water budget computation via a node representing the groundwater component. The method can be used anywhere and the applicability of such a method is useful to put in place relevant adaptation mechanisms for future water resources management, reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience to climate change within the lake basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of HEC-HMS in a Cold Region Watershed and Use of RADARSAT-2 Soil Moisture in Initializing the Model
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010009 -
Abstract
This paper presents an assessment of the applicability of using RADARSAT-2-derived soil moisture data in the Hydrologic Modelling System developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-HMS) for flood forecasting with a case study in the Sturgeon Creek watershed in Manitoba, Canada. Spring flooding
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This paper presents an assessment of the applicability of using RADARSAT-2-derived soil moisture data in the Hydrologic Modelling System developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-HMS) for flood forecasting with a case study in the Sturgeon Creek watershed in Manitoba, Canada. Spring flooding in Manitoba is generally influenced by both winter precipitation and soil moisture conditions in the fall of the previous year. As a result, the soil moisture accounting (SMA) and the temperature index algorithms are employed in the simulation. Results from event and continuous simulations of HEC-HMS show that the model is suitable for flood forecasting in Manitoba. Soil moisture data from the Manitoba Agriculture field survey and RADARSAT-2 satellite were used to set the initial soil moisture for the event simulations. The results confirm the benefit of using satellite data in capturing peak flows in a snowmelt event. A sensitivity analysis of SMA parameters, such as soil storage, maximum infiltration, soil percolation, maximum canopy storage and tension storage, was performed and ranked to determine which parameters have a significant impact on the performance of the model. The results show that the soil moisture storage was the most sensitive parameter. The sensitivity analysis of initial soil moisture in a snowmelt event shows that cumulative flow and peak flow are highly influenced by the initial soil moisture setting of the model. Therefore, there is a potential to utilize RADARSAT-2-derived soil moisture for hydrological modelling in other snow-dominated Manitoba watersheds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exact and Approximate Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations for Water Movement in Soils
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010008 -
Abstract
This paper presents solutions of the fractional partial differential equation (fPDE) for analysing water movement in soils. The fPDE explains processes equivalent to the concept of symmetrical fractional derivatives (SFDs) which have two components: the forward fractional derivative (FFD) and backward fractional derivative
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This paper presents solutions of the fractional partial differential equation (fPDE) for analysing water movement in soils. The fPDE explains processes equivalent to the concept of symmetrical fractional derivatives (SFDs) which have two components: the forward fractional derivative (FFD) and backward fractional derivative (BFD) of water movement in soils with the BFD representing the micro-scale backwater effect in porous media. The distributed-order time-space fPDE represents water movement in both swelling and non-swelling soils with mobile and immobile zones with the backwater effect operating at two time scales in large and small pores. The concept of flux-concentration relation is now updated to account for the relative fractional flux of water movement in soils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Faceted Debris-Flood Hazard Assessment for Cougar Creek, Alberta, Canada
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010007 -
Abstract
A destructive debris flood occurred between 19 and 21 June 2013 on Cougar Creek, located in Canmore, Alberta. Cougar Creek fan is likely the most densely developed alluvial fan in Canada. While no lives were lost, the event resulted in approximately $40 M
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A destructive debris flood occurred between 19 and 21 June 2013 on Cougar Creek, located in Canmore, Alberta. Cougar Creek fan is likely the most densely developed alluvial fan in Canada. While no lives were lost, the event resulted in approximately $40 M of damage and closed both the Trans-Canada Highway (Highway 1) and the Canadian Pacific Railway line for a period of several days. The debris flood triggered a comprehensive hazard assessment which is the focus of this paper. Debris-flood frequencies and magnitudes are determined by combining several quantitative methods including photogrammetry, dendrochronology, radiometric dating, test pit logging, empirical relationships between rainfall volumes and sediment volumes, and landslide dam outburst flood modeling. The data analysis suggests that three distinct process types act in the watershed. The most frequent process is normal or “clearwater” floods. Less frequent but more damaging are debris floods during which excessive amounts of bedload are transported on the fan, typically associated with rapid and extensive bank erosion and channel infilling and widening. The third and most destructive process is interpreted to be landslide dam outbreak floods. This event type is estimated to occur at return periods exceeding 300 years. Using a cumulative magnitude frequency technique, the data for conventional debris floods were plotted up to the 100–300s year return period. A peak-over-threshold approach was used for landslide dam outbreak floods occurring at return periods exceeding 300 years, as not all such events were identified during test trenching. Hydrographs for 6 return period classes were approximated by using the estimated peak discharges and fitting the hydrograph shape to integrate to the debris flood volumes as determined from the frequency-magnitude relationship. The fan volume was calculated and compared with the integrated frequency-magnitude curve to check of the validity of the latter. A reasonable match was accomplished, verifying the overall relationship. The findings from this work were later used as input to a risk assessment seeking to quantify risk to loss of life and economic losses. The risk assessment then formed the basis for design of debris-flood mitigation structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Revisiting Cent-Fonts Fluviokarst Hydrological Properties with Conservative Temperature Approximation
Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010006 -
Abstract
We assess the errors produced by considering temperature as a conservative tracer in fluviokarst studies. Heat transfer that occurs between karstic Conduit System (CS) and Porous Fractured Matrix (PFM) is the reason why one should be careful in making this assumption without caution.
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We assess the errors produced by considering temperature as a conservative tracer in fluviokarst studies. Heat transfer that occurs between karstic Conduit System (CS) and Porous Fractured Matrix (PFM) is the reason why one should be careful in making this assumption without caution. We consider the karstic aquifer as an Open Thermodynamic System (OTS), which boundaries are permeable to thermal energy and water. The first principle of thermodynamics allows considering the enthalpy balance between the input and output flows. Combined with a continuity equation this leads to a two-equation system involving flows and temperatures. Steady conditions are approached during the recession period or during particular phases of pumping test experiments. After a theoretical study of the error induced by the conservative assumption in karst, we have applied the method to revisit the data collected during a complete campaign of pumping test. The method, restricted to selected data allowed retrieving values of base flow, mixing of flow, intrusions of streams, and aquifer answer to drawdown. The applicability of the method has been assessed in terms of propagation of the temporal fluctuations trough the solving but also in terms of conservative assumption itself. Our results allow retrieving the main hydrological properties of the karst as observed on field (timed volumetric samplings, geochemical analyses, step pumping test and allogenic intrusion of streams). This consistency argues in favor of the applicability of the conservative temperature method to investigating fluviokarst systems under controlled conditions. Full article
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