Open AccessArticle
Quantum Control in Qutrit Systems Using Hybrid Rabi-STIRAP Pulses
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 62; doi:10.3390/photonics3040062 -
Abstract
We introduce and analyze theoretically a procedure that combines slow adiabatic stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) manipulation with short nonadiabatic Rabi pulses to produce any desired three-level state in a qutrit system. In this protocol, the fast pulses create superpositions between the ground
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We introduce and analyze theoretically a procedure that combines slow adiabatic stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) manipulation with short nonadiabatic Rabi pulses to produce any desired three-level state in a qutrit system. In this protocol, the fast pulses create superpositions between the ground state and the first excited state, while the slow pulses transfer an arbitrary population to the second excited state via STIRAP. We demonstrate high-fidelity quantum control of the level populations and phases and we characterize the errors incurred under the breakdown of adiabaticity. In a configuration where an ancillary state is available, we show how to realize a nondemolition monitoring of the relative phases. These methods are general and can be implemented on any experimental platform where a quantum system with at least three accessible energy levels is available. We discuss here in detail experimental implementations in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) based on the results obtained with a transmon, where the control of population using the hybrid Rabi-STIRAP sequence has been achieved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photonic Quantum Noise Reduction with Low-Pump Parametric Amplifiers for Photonic Integrated Circuits
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 61; doi:10.3390/photonics3040061 -
Abstract
An approximation-free and fully quantum optic formalism for parametric processes is presented. Phase-dependent gain coefficients and related phase-pulling effects are identified for quantum Rayleigh emission and the electro-optic conversion of photons providing parametric amplification in small-scale integration of photonic devices. These mechanisms can
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An approximation-free and fully quantum optic formalism for parametric processes is presented. Phase-dependent gain coefficients and related phase-pulling effects are identified for quantum Rayleigh emission and the electro-optic conversion of photons providing parametric amplification in small-scale integration of photonic devices. These mechanisms can be manipulated to deliver, simultaneously, sub-Poissonian distributions of photons as well as phase-dependent amplification in the same optical quadrature of a signal field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Locally Enhanced and Tunable Optical Chirality in Helical Metamaterials
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 60; doi:10.3390/photonics3040060 -
Abstract
We report on a numerical study of optical chirality. Intertwined gold helices illuminated with plane waves concentrate right and left circularly polarized electromagnetic field energy to sub-wavelength regions. These spots of enhanced chirality can be smoothly shifted in position and magnitude by varying
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We report on a numerical study of optical chirality. Intertwined gold helices illuminated with plane waves concentrate right and left circularly polarized electromagnetic field energy to sub-wavelength regions. These spots of enhanced chirality can be smoothly shifted in position and magnitude by varying illumination parameters, allowing for the control of light-matter interactions on a nanometer scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Single Microwave Photon Detection with a Trapped Electron
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 59; doi:10.3390/photonics3040059 -
Abstract
We investigate theoretically the use of an electron in a Penning trap as a detector of single microwave photons. At the University of Sussex we are developing a chip Penning trap technology, designed to be integrated within quantum circuits. Microwave photons are guided
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We investigate theoretically the use of an electron in a Penning trap as a detector of single microwave photons. At the University of Sussex we are developing a chip Penning trap technology, designed to be integrated within quantum circuits. Microwave photons are guided into the trap and interact with the electron’s quantum cyclotron motion. This is an electric dipole transition, where the near field of the microwave radiation induces quantum jumps of the cyclotron harmonic oscillator. The quantum jumps can be monitored using the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, providing the quantum non demolition signal of the microwave quanta. We calculate the quantum efficiency of photon detection and discuss the main features and technical challenges for the trapped electron as a quantum microwave sensor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Constant Matrix Element Approximation to Time-Resolved Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 58; doi:10.3390/photonics3040058 -
Abstract
We discuss several issues associated with employing a constant matrix element approximation for the coupling of light to multiband electrons in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES). In particular, we demonstrate that the “constant matrix element approximation” —even when reasonable—only holds
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We discuss several issues associated with employing a constant matrix element approximation for the coupling of light to multiband electrons in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES). In particular, we demonstrate that the “constant matrix element approximation” —even when reasonable—only holds for specific choices of the one-electron basis, and changing to other bases, requires including nonconstant corrections to the matrix element. We also discuss some simplifying approximations, where a constant matrix element is employed in multiple bases, and the consequences of this further approximation (especially with respect to the calculated TR-ARPES signal becoming negative). We also discuss issues related to gauge invariance of the final spectra. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characterization of SPAD Array for Multifocal High-Content Screening Applications
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 56; doi:10.3390/photonics3040056 -
Abstract
Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS) are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array was explored as a detector for
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Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS) are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array was explored as a detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in HCS. Device parameters and characterization results were interpreted in the context of the application to determine if the SPAD array could satisfy the requirements of HCS-FLIM. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using a known fluorescence standard; and the recovered fluorescence lifetime matched literature reported values. The design of a theoretical 32 × 32 SPAD array was also considered as a detector for a multi-point confocal scanning microscope. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Traveling Odd Schrödinger Cat States in Circuit-QED
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 57; doi:10.3390/photonics3040057 -
Abstract
We propose a realistic scheme of generating a traveling odd Schrödinger cat state and a generalized entangled coherent state in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit-QED). A squeezed vacuum state is used as the initial resource of nonclassical states, which can be created through a
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We propose a realistic scheme of generating a traveling odd Schrödinger cat state and a generalized entangled coherent state in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit-QED). A squeezed vacuum state is used as the initial resource of nonclassical states, which can be created through a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier, and travels through a transmission line. Because a single-photon subtraction from the squeezed vacuum gives an odd Schrödinger cat state with very high fidelity, we consider a specific circuit-QED setup consisting of the Josephson amplifier creating the traveling resource in a line, a beam-splitter coupling two transmission lines, and a single photon detector located at the end of the other line. When a single microwave photon is detected by measuring the excited state of a superconducting qubit in the detector, a heralded cat state is generated with high fidelity in the opposite line. For example, we show that the high fidelity of the outcome with the ideal cat state can be achieved with appropriate squeezing parameters theoretically. As its extended setup, we suggest that generalized entangled coherent states can be also built probabilistically and that they are useful for microwave quantum information processing for error-correctable qudits in circuit-QED. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silicon Drift Detectors with the Drift Field Induced by PureB-Coated Trenches
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 54; doi:10.3390/photonics3040054 -
Abstract
Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD) was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional
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Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD) was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional bulk-silicon drift detector (BSDD) configurations. Although the device was not experimentally realized, the manufacturability of the TDDs is estimated to be good on the basis of previously demonstrated photodiodes and detectors fabricated in PureB technology. The pure boron deposition of this technology allows good trench coverage and is known to provide nm-shallow low-noise p+n diodes that can be used as radiation-hard light-entrance windows. With this type of diode, the TDDs would be suitable for X-ray radiation detection down to 100 eV and up to tens of keV energy levels. In the TDD, the drift region is formed by varying the geometry and position of the trenches while the reverse biasing of all diodes is kept at the same constant voltage. For a given wafer doping, the drift field is lower for the TDD than for a BSDD and it demands a much higher voltage between the anode and cathode, but also has several advantages: it eliminates the possibility of punch-through and no current flows from the inner to outer perimeter of the cathode because a voltage divider is not needed to set the drift field. In addition, the loss of sensitive area at the outer perimeter of the cathode is much smaller. For example, the simulations predict that an optimized TDD geometry with an active-region radius of 3100 µm could have a drift field of 370 V/cm and a photo-sensitive radius that is 500-µm larger than that of a comparable BSDD structure. The PureB diodes on the front and back of the TDD are continuous, which means low dark currents and high stability with respect to leakage currents that otherwise could be caused by radiation damage. The dark current of the 3100-µm TDD will increase by only 34% if an interface trap concentration of 1012 cm−2 is introduced to approximate the oxide interface degradation that could be caused during irradiation. The TDD structure is particularly well-suited for implementation in multi-cell drift detector arrays where it is shown to significantly decrease the cross-talk between segments. The trenches will, however, also present a narrow dead area that can split the energy deposited by high-energy photons traversing this dead area. The count rate within a cell of a radius = 300 µm in a multi-cell TDD array is found to be as high as 10 Mcps. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Single-Photon Sources and Detectors on GaAs
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 55; doi:10.3390/photonics3040055 -
Abstract
Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs) on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is
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Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs) on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is presented together with our recent achievements in terms of nanofabrication and integration of each component of the circuit. Photons are generated by excited InAs quantum dots (QDs) and routed through ridge waveguides towards photonic crystal cavities acting as filters. The filters with a transmission of 20% and free spectral range ≥66 nm are able to select a single excitonic line out of the complex emission spectra of the QDs. The QD luminescence can be measured by on-chip superconducting single photon detectors made of niobium nitride (NbN) nanowires patterned on top of a suspended nanobeam, reaching a device quantum efficiency up to 28%. Moreover, two electrically independent detectors are integrated on top of the same nanobeam, resulting in a very compact autocorrelator for on-chip g(2)(τ) measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Service in a Bidirectional Radio-over-Fiber System over a Spectral-Amplitude-Coding OCDMA Network
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 53; doi:10.3390/photonics3040053 -
Abstract
A new scheme of radio-over-fiber (RoF) network based on spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) is herein proposed. Differential service is provided by a power control scheme that classifies users into several classes and assigns each of them with a specific
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A new scheme of radio-over-fiber (RoF) network based on spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) is herein proposed. Differential service is provided by a power control scheme that classifies users into several classes and assigns each of them with a specific power level. Additionally, the wavelength reuse technique is adapted to support bidirectional transmission and reduce base station (BS) cost. Both simulation and numerical results show that significantly differential quality-of-service (QoS) in bit-error rate (BER) is achieved in both downlink and uplink transmissions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
External Control of Dissipative Coupling in a Heterogeneously Integrated Photonic Crystal—SOI Waveguide Optomechanical System
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 52; doi:10.3390/photonics3040052 -
Abstract
Cavity optomechanical systems with an enhanced coupling between mechanical motion and electromagnetic radiation have permitted the investigation of many novel physical effects. The optomechanical coupling in the majority of these systems is of dispersive nature: the cavity resonance frequency is modulated by the
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Cavity optomechanical systems with an enhanced coupling between mechanical motion and electromagnetic radiation have permitted the investigation of many novel physical effects. The optomechanical coupling in the majority of these systems is of dispersive nature: the cavity resonance frequency is modulated by the vibrations of the mechanical oscillator. Dissipative optomechanical interaction, where the photon lifetime in the cavity is modulated by the mechanical motion, has recently attracted considerable interest and opens new avenues in optomechanical control and sensing. In this work we demonstrate an external optical control over the dissipative optomechanical coupling strength mediated by the modulation of the absorption of a quantum dot layer in a hybrid optomechanical system. Such control enhances the capability of tailoring the optomechanical coupling of our platform, which can be used in complement to the previously demonstrated control of the relative (dispersive to dissipative) coupling strength via the geometry of the integrated access waveguide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analytical Investigations on Carrier Phase Recovery in Dispersion-Unmanaged n-PSK Coherent Optical Communication Systems
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 51; doi:10.3390/photonics3040051 -
Abstract
Using coherent optical detection and digital signal processing, laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise can be effectively mitigated using the feed-forward and feed-back carrier phase recovery approaches. In this paper, theoretical analyses of feed-back and feed-forward carrier phase recovery methods have
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Using coherent optical detection and digital signal processing, laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise can be effectively mitigated using the feed-forward and feed-back carrier phase recovery approaches. In this paper, theoretical analyses of feed-back and feed-forward carrier phase recovery methods have been carried out in the long-haul high-speed n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) optical fiber communication systems, involving a one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm, a block-wise average algorithm, and a Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm. The analytical expressions for evaluating the estimated carrier phase and for predicting the bit-error-rate (BER) performance (such as the BER floors) have been presented and discussed in the n-PSK coherent optical transmission systems by considering both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise. The results indicate that the Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase recovery algorithm outperforms the one-tap normalized LMS and the block-wise average algorithms for small phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance), while the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm shows a better performance than the other two algorithms for large phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance). In addition, the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm is more sensitive to the level of modulation formats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study of Light Propagation in Apple Tissues Using a Multispectral Imaging System
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 50; doi:10.3390/photonics3030050 -
Abstract
This work aimed at highlighting the role played by the skin in the light propagation through the apple flesh. A multispectral Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) steady-state imaging setup based on the use of four continuous laser sources (633, 763, 784, and 852 nm) and
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This work aimed at highlighting the role played by the skin in the light propagation through the apple flesh. A multispectral Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) steady-state imaging setup based on the use of four continuous laser sources (633, 763, 784, and 852 nm) and a charge–coupled–device (CCD) camera was developed to record light diffusion inside apple tissues. Backscattering images and light reflectance profiles were studied to reveal optical features of three whole and half-cut apple varieties with and without skin. The optical absorption and scattering properties (μa, μ’s) of intact apples and peeled apples were also retrieved in reflectance mode, using an optimal sensing range of 2.8–10 mm. A relative difference for Δμa ranging from 3.4% to 24.7% was observed for intact apples with respect to peeled apples. Under the same conditions, no significant changes were noted for Δμ’s, which ranged from 0.1% to 1.7%. These findings show that the apple skin cannot be ignored when using Vis-NIR optical imaging as a non-destructive sensing means to reveal major quality attributes of fruits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Loss Electro-Optic Polymer Based Fast Adaptive Phase Shifters Realized in Silicon Nitride and Oxynitride Waveguide Technology
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 49; doi:10.3390/photonics3030049 -
Abstract
We present a comprehensive study on how to design and fabricate low loss electro-optic phase shifters based on an electro-optic polymer and the silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride waveguide material systems. The loss mechanisms of phase shifters with an electro-optic (EO) polymer cladding
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We present a comprehensive study on how to design and fabricate low loss electro-optic phase shifters based on an electro-optic polymer and the silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride waveguide material systems. The loss mechanisms of phase shifters with an electro-optic (EO) polymer cladding are analyzed in detail and design solutions to achieve lowest losses are presented. In order to verify the low loss design a proof of concept prototype phase shifter was fabricated, which exhibits an attenuation of 0.8 dB/cm at 1550 nm and an electro-optic efficiency factor of 27%. Furthermore, the potential of this class of phase shifters is evaluated in numerical simulations, from which the optimal design parameters and achievable figures of merit were derived. The presented phase shifter design has its potential for application in fast adaptive multi stage devices for optical signal processing. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Photodynamic Therapy-Induced Microvascular Changes in a Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Model Assessed by Photoacoustic Microscopy and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 48; doi:10.3390/photonics3030048 -
Abstract
One of the main mechanisms of action for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the destruction of tumor vasculature. We observed the PDT-induced vasculature destruction in a mouse model of skin cancer using two techniques: Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). PAM showed
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One of the main mechanisms of action for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the destruction of tumor vasculature. We observed the PDT-induced vasculature destruction in a mouse model of skin cancer using two techniques: Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). PAM showed high-resolution images of the abnormal microvasculature near the establishing tumor area at pre-PDT, as well as the subsequent destruction of those vessels post-PDT. DCS indicated a significant blood flow decrease after PDT, confirming the vascular destruction. Noninvasive assessment of vascular changes may be indicative of therapy response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Frequency Tuning and Modulation of a Quantum Cascade Laser with an Integrated Resistive Heater
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 47; doi:10.3390/photonics3030047 -
Abstract
We present a detailed experimental investigation of the use of a novel actuator for frequency tuning and modulation in a quantum cascade laser (QCL) based on a resistive integrated heater (IH) placed close to the active region. This new actuator is attractive for
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We present a detailed experimental investigation of the use of a novel actuator for frequency tuning and modulation in a quantum cascade laser (QCL) based on a resistive integrated heater (IH) placed close to the active region. This new actuator is attractive for molecular spectroscopy applications as it enables fast tuning of the QCL wavelength with a minor influence on the optical output power, and is electrically-controlled. Using a spectroscopic setup comprising a low-pressure gas cell, we measured the tuning and modulation properties of a QCL emitting at 7.8 μm as a function of the active region and IH currents. We show that a current step applied to the IH enables the laser frequency to be switched by 500 MHz in a few milliseconds, as fast as for a step of the current in the active region, and limited by heat dissipation towards the laser sub-mount. The QCL optical frequency can be modulated up to ~100 kHz with the IH current, which is one order of magnitude slower than for the QCL current, but sufficient for many spectroscopic applications. We discuss the experimental results using a thermal model of the heat transfer in terms of cascaded low-pass filters and extract the respective cut-off frequencies. Finally, we present a proof-of-principle experiment of wavelength modulation spectroscopy of a N2O transition performed with a modulation of the IH current and show some potential benefits in comparison to QCL current modulation, which results from the reduced associated amplitude modulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ar+-Implanted Si-Waveguide Photodiodes for Mid-Infrared Detection
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 46; doi:10.3390/photonics3030046 -
Abstract
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible Ar+-implanted Si-waveguide p-i-n photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared (2.2 to 2.3 µm wavelengths) are demonstrated at room temperature. Responsivities exceeding 21 mA/W are measured at a 5 V reverse bias with an estimated internal quantum efficiency of 3.1%–3.7%.
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Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible Ar+-implanted Si-waveguide p-i-n photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared (2.2 to 2.3 µm wavelengths) are demonstrated at room temperature. Responsivities exceeding 21 mA/W are measured at a 5 V reverse bias with an estimated internal quantum efficiency of 3.1%–3.7%. The dark current is found to vary from a few nanoamps down to less than 11 pA after post-implantation annealing at 350 °C. Linearity is demonstrated over four orders of magnitude, confirming a single-photon absorption process. The devices demonstrate a higher thermal processing budget than similar Si+-implanted devices and achieve higher responsivity after annealing up to 350 °C. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Applying Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy in Plasma Diagnostics
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 45; doi:10.3390/photonics3030045 -
Abstract
The considerably higher power and wider frequency coverage available from quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in comparison to lead salt diode lasers has led to substantial advances when QCLs are used in pure and applied infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, they can be used in both
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The considerably higher power and wider frequency coverage available from quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in comparison to lead salt diode lasers has led to substantial advances when QCLs are used in pure and applied infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, they can be used in both pulsed and continuous wave (cw) operation, opening up new possibilities in quantitative time resolved applications in plasmas both in the laboratory and in industry as shown in this article. However, in order to determine absolute concentrations accurately using pulsed QCLs, careful attention has to be paid to features like power saturation phenomena. Hence, we begin with a discussion of the non-linear effects which must be considered when using short or long pulse mode operation. More recently, cw QCLs have been introduced which have the advantage of higher power, better spectral resolution and lower fluctuations in light intensity compared to pulsed devices. They have proved particularly useful in sensing applications in plasmas when very low concentrations have to be monitored. Finally, the use of cw external cavity QCLs (EC-QCLs) for multi species detection is described, using a diagnostics study of a methane/nitrogen plasma as an example. The wide frequency coverage of this type of QCL laser, which is significantly broader than from a distributed feedback QCL (DFB-QCL), is a substantial advantage for multi species detection. Therefore, cw EC-QCLs are state of the art devices and have enormous potential for future plasma diagnostic studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm for Strain-Enhanced Quantum Cascade Lasers
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 44; doi:10.3390/photonics3030044 -
Abstract
An automated design approach using an evolutionary algorithm for the development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. Our algorithmic approach merges computational intelligence techniques with the physics of device structures, representing a design methodology that reduces experimental effort and costs. The algorithm
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An automated design approach using an evolutionary algorithm for the development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. Our algorithmic approach merges computational intelligence techniques with the physics of device structures, representing a design methodology that reduces experimental effort and costs. The algorithm was developed to produce QCLs with a three-well, diagonal-transition active region and a five-well injector region. Specifically, we applied this technique to AlxGa1-xAs/InyGa1-yAs strained active region designs. The algorithmic approach is a non-dominated sorting method using four aggregate objectives: target wavelength, population inversion via longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon extraction, injector level coupling, and an optical gain metric. Analysis indicates that the most plausible device candidates are a result of the optical gain metric and a total aggregate of all objectives. However, design limitations exist in many of the resulting candidates, indicating need for additional objective criteria and parameter limits to improve the application of this and other evolutionary algorithm methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fractional Effective Charges and Misner-Wheeler Charge without Charge Effect in Metamaterials
Photonics 2016, 3(3), 43; doi:10.3390/photonics3030043 -
Abstract
Transformation optics enables engineering of the effective topology and dimensionality of the optical space in metamaterials. Nonlinear optics of such metamaterials may mimic Kaluza-Klein theories having one or more kinds of effective charges. As a result, novel photon blockade devices may be realized.
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Transformation optics enables engineering of the effective topology and dimensionality of the optical space in metamaterials. Nonlinear optics of such metamaterials may mimic Kaluza-Klein theories having one or more kinds of effective charges. As a result, novel photon blockade devices may be realized. Here we demonstrate that an electromagnetic wormhole may be designed, which connects two points of such an optical space and changes its effective topological connectivity. Electromagnetic field configurations, which exhibit fractional effective charges, appear as a result of such topology change. Moreover, such effects as Misner-Wheeler “charge without charge” may be replicated. Full article
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