Open AccessArticle
Novel Equalization Techniques for Space Division Multiplexing Based on Stokes Space Update Rule
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 12; doi:10.3390/photonics4010012 -
Abstract
Space division multiplexing (SDM) is a promising technology that aims to overcome the capacity crunch of optical communications. In this paper, we introduce the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Stokes Space Algorithm (SSA) implemented in frequency domain, a novel equalization technique for space division multiplexing
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Space division multiplexing (SDM) is a promising technology that aims to overcome the capacity crunch of optical communications. In this paper, we introduce the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Stokes Space Algorithm (SSA) implemented in frequency domain, a novel equalization technique for space division multiplexing (SDM). Although different papers have been published about the SSA and its MIMO implementation, we provide for the first time an analysis of the of the convergence speed and frequency offset of the SSA compared to the least mean square (LMS). SSA algorithm can deal with higher frequency offsets and linewidths than LMS, being suitable for optical communications with higher phase noise. SSA does not need pre-compensation of frequency offset, which can be compensated after equalization without penalties. On the other hand, due to reduced convergence speed, SSA requires longer training sequences than LMS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Diffuse fs-Pulse Reflectometry of Harmonic Upconversion Nanoparticles
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 11; doi:10.3390/photonics4010011 -
Abstract
Nonlinear diffuse femtosecond-pulse reflectometry is introduced as a powerful experimental tool for the unambiguous characterization of polar and non-polar point symmetry groups of harmonic upconversion nanoparticles. Using intense ultrashort 40 femtosecond laser pulses and an appropriate figure of merit (FOM), second and third
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Nonlinear diffuse femtosecond-pulse reflectometry is introduced as a powerful experimental tool for the unambiguous characterization of polar and non-polar point symmetry groups of harmonic upconversion nanoparticles. Using intense ultrashort 40 femtosecond laser pulses and an appropriate figure of merit (FOM), second and third harmonic emission serve for the structural characterization of polar Yb-doped lithium niobate and non-polar titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The tool is capable of differentiating these two samples by FOM values that differ by up to 13 orders of magnitude. The general applicability to harmonic upconversion nanoparticles over a broad range of intensities and wavelength spectrum, is discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dipole Emission to Surface Plasmon-Coupled Enhanced Transmission in Diamond Substrates with Nitrogen Vacancy Center- Near the Surface
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 10; doi:10.3390/photonics4010010 -
Abstract
For distances less 10 nm, a total energy transfer occurs from a quantum emitter to a nearby metallic surface, producing evanescent surface waves that are plasmonic in nature. When investigating a metallic nanohole supported on an optically dense substrate (such as diamond with
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For distances less 10 nm, a total energy transfer occurs from a quantum emitter to a nearby metallic surface, producing evanescent surface waves that are plasmonic in nature. When investigating a metallic nanohole supported on an optically dense substrate (such as diamond with nitrogen vacancy center), the scattering occurred preferentially from the diamond substrate towards the air for dipole distances less 10 nm from the aperture. In addition, an enhancement to the dipole’s radiative decay rate was observed when resonance of the aperture matched the emitters wavelength. The relationship between an emitter and a nearby resonant aperture is shown to be that of the resonance energy transfer where the emitter acts as a donor and the hole as an acceptor. In conjunction with the preferential scattering behavior, this has led to the proposed device that operates in transmission mode, eliminating the need for epi-illumination techniques and optically denser than air superstrates in the collection cycle, hence making the design simpler and more suitable for miniaturization. A design criterion for the surface grating is also proposed to improve the performance, where the period of the grating differs significantly from the wavelength of the surface plasmon polaritons. Response of the proposed device is further studied with respect to changes in nitrogen vacancy’s position and its dipolar orientation to identify the crystallographic planes of diamond over which the performance of the device is maximized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Demonstration of an Electro-Absorption Modulated Laser for High-Speed Transmissions at 1.55-μm Window Using Digital Signal Processing
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/photonics4010009 -
Abstract
We experimentally investigate the transmission performance of 56 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) over 30-km standard single mode fiber (SMF) using a C-band EML for low-cost metro and short-reach wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications. Bit error rate (BER) performance below the HD-FEC
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We experimentally investigate the transmission performance of 56 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) over 30-km standard single mode fiber (SMF) using a C-band EML for low-cost metro and short-reach wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications. Bit error rate (BER) performance below the HD-FEC threshold is achieved for up to 30-km maximum reported distance without employing dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) in the link. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Ultrafast Laser Pulses for Structuring Materials at Micro/Nano Scale: From Waveguides to Superhydrophobic Surfaces
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/photonics4010008 -
Abstract
The current demand for fabricating optical and photonic devices displaying high performance, using low-cost and time-saving methods, prompts femtosecond (fs)-laser processing as a promising methodology. High and low repetition femtosecond lasers enable surface and/or bulk modification of distinct materials, which can be used
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The current demand for fabricating optical and photonic devices displaying high performance, using low-cost and time-saving methods, prompts femtosecond (fs)-laser processing as a promising methodology. High and low repetition femtosecond lasers enable surface and/or bulk modification of distinct materials, which can be used for applications ranging from optical waveguides to superhydrophobic surfaces. Herein, some fundamental aspects of fs-laser processing of materials, as well as the basics of their most common experimental apparatuses, are introduced. A survey of results on polymer fs-laser processing, resulting in 3D waveguides, electroluminescent structures and active hybrid-microstructures for luminescence or biological microenvironments is presented. Similarly, results of fs-laser processing on glasses, gold and silicon to produce waveguides containing metallic nanoparticles, analytical chemical sensors and surface with modified features, respectively, are also described. The complexity of fs-laser micromachining involves precise control of material properties, pushing ultrafast laser processing as an advanced technique for micro/nano devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phase-Insensitive Scattering of Terahertz Radiation
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/photonics4010007 -
Abstract
The nonlinear interaction between Near-Infrared (NIR) and Terahertz pulses is principally investigated as a means for the detection of radiation in the hardly accessible THz spectral region. Most studies have targeted second-order nonlinear processes, given their higher efficiencies, and only a limited number
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The nonlinear interaction between Near-Infrared (NIR) and Terahertz pulses is principally investigated as a means for the detection of radiation in the hardly accessible THz spectral region. Most studies have targeted second-order nonlinear processes, given their higher efficiencies, and only a limited number have addressed third-order nonlinear interactions, mainly investigating four-wave mixing in air for broadband THz detection. We have studied the nonlinear interaction between THz and NIR pulses in solid-state media (specifically diamond), and we show how the former can be frequency-shifted up to UV frequencies by the scattering from the nonlinear polarisation induced by the latter. Such UV emission differs from the well-known electric field-induced second harmonic (EFISH) one, as it is generated via a phase-insensitive scattering, rather than a sum- or difference-frequency four-wave-mixing process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Model and Performance Analysis of a Novel Multilevel Polarization Modulation in Local “Twisted” Fibers
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/photonics4010005 -
Abstract
Transmission demand continues to grow and higher capacity optical communication systems are required to economically meet this ever-increasing need for communication services. This article expands and deepens the study of a novel optical communication system for high-capacity Local Area Networks (LANs), based on
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Transmission demand continues to grow and higher capacity optical communication systems are required to economically meet this ever-increasing need for communication services. This article expands and deepens the study of a novel optical communication system for high-capacity Local Area Networks (LANs), based on twisted optical fibers. The complete statistical behavior of this system is shown, designed for more efficient use of the fiber single-channel capacity by adopting an unconventional multilevel polarization modulation (called “bands of polarization”). Starting from simulative results, a possible reference mathematical model is proposed. Finally, the system performance is analyzed in the presence of shot-noise (coherent detection) or thermal noise (direct detection). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Element Selective Probe of the Ultra-Fast Magnetic Response to an Element Selective Excitation in Fe-Ni Compounds Using a Two-Color FEL Source
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/photonics4010006 -
Abstract
The potential of the two-color mode implemented at the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) source for pumping and probing selectively different atomic species has been demonstrated by time-resolved scattering experiments with permalloy (FeNi alloy) and NiFe2O4 samples. We monitored the ultra-fast
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The potential of the two-color mode implemented at the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) source for pumping and probing selectively different atomic species has been demonstrated by time-resolved scattering experiments with permalloy (FeNi alloy) and NiFe2O4 samples. We monitored the ultra-fast demagnetization of Ni induced by the pump FEL pulse, by tuning the linearly-polarized FEL probe pulse to the Ni-3p resonance and measuring the scattered intensity in the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect geometry. The measurements were performed by varying the intensity of the FEL pump pulse, tuning its wavelength to and off of the Fe-3p resonance, and by spanning the FEL probe pulse delays across the 300–900 fs range. The obtained results have evidenced that for the case of NiFe2O4, there is a sensible difference in the magnetic response at the Ni site when the pump pulse causes electronic excitations at the Fe site. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Photonics in 2016
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/photonics4010004 -
Abstract The editors of Photonics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optical Analysis of the Oils Obtained from Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd: Mapping Absorption-Emission Profiles in an Induced Oxidation Process
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/photonics4010003 -
Abstract
Acrocomia aculeata is a palm tree typical of the Brazilian savanna. Oils extracted from the pulp and kernel of Acrocomia aculeata fruits have gained considerable attention mainly due to their nutritional and medicinal features. Despite their potential applications, a detailed analysis of their
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Acrocomia aculeata is a palm tree typical of the Brazilian savanna. Oils extracted from the pulp and kernel of Acrocomia aculeata fruits have gained considerable attention mainly due to their nutritional and medicinal features. Despite their potential applications, a detailed analysis of their oxidative stability is still needed. The present study shows a close analysis of the oxidative stability of the oils obtained from the kernel and pulp of Acrocomia aculeata fruits, evaluating the influence of the intrinsic antioxidants and the fatty acid composition on the oil’s thermal stability. A complete characterization of the physical-chemical and optical properties of the oils was performed. The results showed that 66% of the fatty acids present in the pulp oil are unsaturated, while 75% are saturated in the kernel oil. A higher content of intrinsic antioxidants was obtained in the pulp oil, and an induction period (at 110 °C) of 65 and 43 h was determined for the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. Additionally, oil absorption increases due to the formation of degradation products, and a new fluorescent compound was formed during the oil oxidation process at 110 °C. Even though the pulp presented a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, the pulp oil was more stable than the kernel oil due to its higher content of intrinsic antioxidant, especially carotenoids. The results also demonstrated that oil oxidation can be optically determined by analyzing the absorption at 232 and 270 nm, as well as the emission at 424 nm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Generation and Detection of Continuous Variable Quantum Vortex States via Compact Photonic Devices
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/photonics4010002 -
Abstract
A quantum photonic circuit with the ability to produce continuous variable quantum vortex states is proposed. This device produces two single-mode squeezed states which go through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer where photons are subtracted by means of weakly coupled directional couplers towards ancillary waveguides.
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A quantum photonic circuit with the ability to produce continuous variable quantum vortex states is proposed. This device produces two single-mode squeezed states which go through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer where photons are subtracted by means of weakly coupled directional couplers towards ancillary waveguides. The detection of a number of photons in these modes heralds the production of a quantum vortex. Likewise, a measurement system of the order and handedness of quantum vortices is introduced and the performance of both devices is analyzed in a realistic scenario by means of the Wigner function. These devices open the possibility of using the quantum vortices as carriers of quantum information. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Future Scenarios for Software-Defined Metro and Access Networks and Software-Defined Photonics
Photonics 2017, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/photonics4010001 -
Abstract
In recent years, architectures, devices, and components in telecommunication networks have been challenged by evolutionary and revolutionary factors which are drastically changing the traffic features. Most of these changes imply the need for major re-configurability and programmability not only in data-centers and core
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In recent years, architectures, devices, and components in telecommunication networks have been challenged by evolutionary and revolutionary factors which are drastically changing the traffic features. Most of these changes imply the need for major re-configurability and programmability not only in data-centers and core networks, but also in the metro-access segment. In a wide variety of contexts, this necessity has been addressed by the proposed introduction of the innovative paradigm of software-defined networks (SDNs). Several solutions inspired by the SDN model have been recently proposed also for metro and access networks, where the adoption of a new generation of software-defined reconfigurable integrated photonic devices is highly desirable. In this paper, we review the possible future application scenarios for software-defined metro and access networks and software-defined photonics (SDP), on the base of analytics, statistics, and surveys. This work describes the reasons underpinning the presented radical change of paradigm and summarizes the most significant solutions proposed in literature, with a specific emphasis to physical-layer reconfigurable networks and a focus on both architectures and devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Sub 10 fs Visible-NIR, UV, and DUV Pulses and Their Applications to Ultrafast Spectroscopy
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 64; doi:10.3390/photonics3040064 -
Abstract
In the first section of this Chapter, the basics of nonlinear optical (NLO) processes are systematically described. Then the generation of the visible pulse utilizing the NLO processes is described and ultrafast spectroscopy using the visible pulse is discussed. By using such short
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In the first section of this Chapter, the basics of nonlinear optical (NLO) processes are systematically described. Then the generation of the visible pulse utilizing the NLO processes is described and ultrafast spectroscopy using the visible pulse is discussed. By using such short pulse, fast chemical reactions, which cannot be identified by utilizing strobe light or flash lamp, can be studied. After the development of femtosecond lasers, they have been widely applied to observe the transition state of various chemical reactions. In the near infrared (NIR) region, a commercial light source of Ti:sapphire laser is available as a femtosecond light source, but not available in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions. In this article, we report our development of sub 10 fs visible-NIR, UV, and deep-ultraviolet (DUV) pulses and their applications to ultrafast spectroscopy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Scale Simulation for Transient Absorption Spectroscopy under Intense Few-Cycle Pulse Laser
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 63; doi:10.3390/photonics3040063 -
Abstract
Numerical pump-probe simulations for the sub-cycle transient spectroscopy of thin film diamond under intense few cycle pulse laser field is reported. The electron dynamics is calculated by the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation. Simultaneously, the propagation of electromagnetic field is calculated by the Maxwell equation.
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Numerical pump-probe simulations for the sub-cycle transient spectroscopy of thin film diamond under intense few cycle pulse laser field is reported. The electron dynamics is calculated by the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation. Simultaneously, the propagation of electromagnetic field is calculated by the Maxwell equation. Our result shows that the modulation of the reflectivity, transmission, and absorption around the optical gap do not coincide with the field amplitude of the pump laser. The phase shift of the modulation with respect to the pump field depends on the pump intensity and probe frequency. The modulation of the reflectivity is sensitive to the choice of the exchange-correlation potential, and dynamical effect of the mean-field in meta-GGA potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantum Control in Qutrit Systems Using Hybrid Rabi-STIRAP Pulses
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 62; doi:10.3390/photonics3040062 -
Abstract
We introduce and analyze theoretically a procedure that combines slow adiabatic stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) manipulation with short nonadiabatic Rabi pulses to produce any desired three-level state in a qutrit system. In this protocol, the fast pulses create superpositions between the ground
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We introduce and analyze theoretically a procedure that combines slow adiabatic stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) manipulation with short nonadiabatic Rabi pulses to produce any desired three-level state in a qutrit system. In this protocol, the fast pulses create superpositions between the ground state and the first excited state, while the slow pulses transfer an arbitrary population to the second excited state via STIRAP. We demonstrate high-fidelity quantum control of the level populations and phases and we characterize the errors incurred under the breakdown of adiabaticity. In a configuration where an ancillary state is available, we show how to realize a nondemolition monitoring of the relative phases. These methods are general and can be implemented on any experimental platform where a quantum system with at least three accessible energy levels is available. We discuss here in detail experimental implementations in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) based on the results obtained with a transmon, where the control of population using the hybrid Rabi-STIRAP sequence has been achieved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photonic Quantum Noise Reduction with Low-Pump Parametric Amplifiers for Photonic Integrated Circuits
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 61; doi:10.3390/photonics3040061 -
Abstract
An approximation-free and fully quantum optic formalism for parametric processes is presented. Phase-dependent gain coefficients and related phase-pulling effects are identified for quantum Rayleigh emission and the electro-optic conversion of photons providing parametric amplification in small-scale integration of photonic devices. These mechanisms can
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An approximation-free and fully quantum optic formalism for parametric processes is presented. Phase-dependent gain coefficients and related phase-pulling effects are identified for quantum Rayleigh emission and the electro-optic conversion of photons providing parametric amplification in small-scale integration of photonic devices. These mechanisms can be manipulated to deliver, simultaneously, sub-Poissonian distributions of photons as well as phase-dependent amplification in the same optical quadrature of a signal field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Locally Enhanced and Tunable Optical Chirality in Helical Metamaterials
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 60; doi:10.3390/photonics3040060 -
Abstract
We report on a numerical study of optical chirality. Intertwined gold helices illuminated with plane waves concentrate right and left circularly polarized electromagnetic field energy to sub-wavelength regions. These spots of enhanced chirality can be smoothly shifted in position and magnitude by varying
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We report on a numerical study of optical chirality. Intertwined gold helices illuminated with plane waves concentrate right and left circularly polarized electromagnetic field energy to sub-wavelength regions. These spots of enhanced chirality can be smoothly shifted in position and magnitude by varying illumination parameters, allowing for the control of light-matter interactions on a nanometer scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Single Microwave Photon Detection with a Trapped Electron
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 59; doi:10.3390/photonics3040059 -
Abstract
We investigate theoretically the use of an electron in a Penning trap as a detector of single microwave photons. At the University of Sussex we are developing a chip Penning trap technology, designed to be integrated within quantum circuits. Microwave photons are guided
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We investigate theoretically the use of an electron in a Penning trap as a detector of single microwave photons. At the University of Sussex we are developing a chip Penning trap technology, designed to be integrated within quantum circuits. Microwave photons are guided into the trap and interact with the electron’s quantum cyclotron motion. This is an electric dipole transition, where the near field of the microwave radiation induces quantum jumps of the cyclotron harmonic oscillator. The quantum jumps can be monitored using the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, providing the quantum non demolition signal of the microwave quanta. We calculate the quantum efficiency of photon detection and discuss the main features and technical challenges for the trapped electron as a quantum microwave sensor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Constant Matrix Element Approximation to Time-Resolved Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 58; doi:10.3390/photonics3040058 -
Abstract
We discuss several issues associated with employing a constant matrix element approximation for the coupling of light to multiband electrons in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES). In particular, we demonstrate that the “constant matrix element approximation” —even when reasonable—only holds
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We discuss several issues associated with employing a constant matrix element approximation for the coupling of light to multiband electrons in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES). In particular, we demonstrate that the “constant matrix element approximation” —even when reasonable—only holds for specific choices of the one-electron basis, and changing to other bases, requires including nonconstant corrections to the matrix element. We also discuss some simplifying approximations, where a constant matrix element is employed in multiple bases, and the consequences of this further approximation (especially with respect to the calculated TR-ARPES signal becoming negative). We also discuss issues related to gauge invariance of the final spectra. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characterization of SPAD Array for Multifocal High-Content Screening Applications
Photonics 2016, 3(4), 56; doi:10.3390/photonics3040056 -
Abstract
Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS) are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array was explored as a detector for
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Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS) are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array was explored as a detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in HCS. Device parameters and characterization results were interpreted in the context of the application to determine if the SPAD array could satisfy the requirements of HCS-FLIM. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using a known fluorescence standard; and the recovered fluorescence lifetime matched literature reported values. The design of a theoretical 32 × 32 SPAD array was also considered as a detector for a multi-point confocal scanning microscope. Full article
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