Special Issue "Natural Killer (NK) Cells"

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A special issue of Antibodies (ISSN 2073-4468).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Taku Kambayashi

Division of Transfusion Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mouse NK cell education; inhibitory receptors; activating receptors; signal transduction; cytotoxicity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in defense against tumors and infections. When activated, NK cells can produce proinflammatory cytokines and directly eradicate tumor or pathogen-infected cells by mediating cytotoxicity. One important mechanism by which NK cells recognize target cells is through interaction of their Fcγ receptor with IgG-coated targeted cells or IgG immune complexes. Ligation of the Fcγ receptor involves the phosphorylation of immunotyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)s in the intracellular portion of the Fcγ chain leading to downstream signal transduction events important for NK cell responses. Activation through ITAM-bearing immunoreceptors is critical for NK cell development and function in pathological and non-pathological states.

This special issue of Antibodies is focused on NK cell activation through Fcγ receptors or by other immunoreceptors utilizing ITAM-bearing adaptors and I kindly invite you to submit your novel results to this special issue. Welcome are manuscripts describing in vitro or in vivo function of NK cells activated through these receptors, signal transduction through these receptors, and acquisition or effects of these receptors in NK cell development or homeostasis.

Dr. Taku Kambayashi
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibodies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • NK cells
  • Fcγ receptor
  • cytotoxicity
  • cytokine
  • antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
  • signal transduction
  • NK cell development
  • NK cell effector function
  • immunoreceptor

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Invariant Natural Killer T Cells
Antibodies 2014, 3(1), 16-36; doi:10.3390/antib3010016
Received: 8 November 2013 / Revised: 13 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 23 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Invariant Natural killer T cell (iNKT cells) are a subset of T cells, which are narrowly defined as a T cell lineage expressing a semi-invariant CD1d-restricted T cell Receptors (TCRs) composed by Vα24-Jα18/Vβ11 in human, and Vα14-Jα18/Vβ8,Vβ7, and Vβ2 in mouse. Unlike conventional
[...] Read more.
Invariant Natural killer T cell (iNKT cells) are a subset of T cells, which are narrowly defined as a T cell lineage expressing a semi-invariant CD1d-restricted T cell Receptors (TCRs) composed by Vα24-Jα18/Vβ11 in human, and Vα14-Jα18/Vβ8,Vβ7, and Vβ2 in mouse. Unlike conventional T cells which recognize peptides bound to highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules, iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens, such as glycolipids, presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic non-classical MHC class I molecule. Lipids derived from microbes, tumors, and allergens, as well as self lipids have been shown to be able to activate iNKT cells. Early on, in an immune response, ligation of the iNKT cell TCR leads to rapid and copious secretion of prototypical Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Moreover, like NK cells, iNKT cells express cytotoxic granules, such as perforin and granzyme that polarize upon activation of TCR and are able to kill target cells. Therefore iNKT cells are a very interesting subset of T cells that may bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems. Indeed, iNKT cells can mount specific responses to antigen with cytokine production and cytotoxic activity, however, their TCR evolved to recognize different glycolipid antigens in a conserved manner and to perform innate-like rather than adaptive functions. iNKT cells are now recognized as important players in atopic, autoimmune, infectious diseases, and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Killer (NK) Cells)
Open AccessReview The Role of CD2 Family Members in NK-Cell Regulation of B-Cell Antibody Production
Antibodies 2014, 3(1), 1-15; doi:10.3390/antib3010001
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 13 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural Killer (NK) cells, an important component of the innate immune system, can mount much more rapid responses upon activation than adaptive antigen specific responses. Among the various functions attributed to NK cells their effect on antibody production merits special attention. The modification
[...] Read more.
Natural Killer (NK) cells, an important component of the innate immune system, can mount much more rapid responses upon activation than adaptive antigen specific responses. Among the various functions attributed to NK cells their effect on antibody production merits special attention. The modification of IgG subclasses distribution as well as the amplification of the B cell response can be functionally relevant both for mediation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and for control of dysregulated autoantibody production. In this review recent experimental evidence for the mechanistic basis of the effect of NK cells on B cell-responses will be covered. Thus, it will be shown that these effects are mediated not only via activation of cytokine and Toll-like receptors (TLR), but also by direct receptor-ligand interactions. Importantly, the function of these receptor/ligands, CD48 and CD244, do not require recognition of class I-MHC molecules but are more dependent on inflammatory conditions brought about by infection or oncogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Killer (NK) Cells)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title:
Antibodies and Natural Killer Cells
Authors: RJ Aicheler and GWG Wilkinson
Affiliation: Section of Medical Microbiology, Tenovus Building, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Abstract: NK cells are critically important for the control of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the host. To date, 8 NK immunomodulatory functions encoded by HCMV have been characterised, 7 of these modulate the ability of the NK cell to degranulate in response to HCMV infected cells by modulating NK cell ligand expression and one targets TRAILR2, a member of the death receptor pathway. Although 90% of NK cells express the Fc receptor CD16 and so would be expected to initiate Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC), little work has been carried out to characterise viral clearance through ADCC. Classically, CD16 is found on the surface of the NK cell in a complex with the two FcRγ chains and two CD3ζ chains. Recent studies have identified a novel population of NK cells that are FcRγ negative and have reduced levels of CD16 on their surface. HCMV has a profound effect on the NK cell repertoire such that 10 fold expansions of NKG2C+ cells can be seen in HCMV seropositive individuals as compared to seronegative donors. Two recent papers have published data indicating that these NKG2C+ are FcRγ negative CD16lo and have striking ADCC functions. These data not only give a function to a hitherto identified population of expanded NK cells in HCMV seropositive donors but also are the first demonstration of clearance of HCMV infected target cells by ADCC.

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