Special Issue "Towards Applications of Graphene"

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A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Philippe Lambin

Physics Department, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Interests: theoretical solid-state physics; nanosciences; structural; mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many interesting properties of graphene and few layer graphite have put this material at the foreground of present day nanosciences. Graphene is mechanically hard and extremely flexible, chemically inert, impermeable to any atom or molecule, optically transparent. It is a zero-gap semiconductor, easily made conducting by electrostatic charging, the charge carriers having then a remarkable mobility, and it has an excellent thermal conductivity.

The unique properties of graphene make it suitable for many potential applications. Composite polymers based on it are light materials that can become, e.g., transparent electrodes or microwave absorbers. The electronic properties of graphene depend strongly on its environment, which makes it a good candidate for sensing. These graphene nanoribbons that become semiconducting due to lateral confinement may become ultra-fast field-effect transistors. Graphene has potential applications in nano electromechanical systems, most particularly as resonator having a very high sensitivity.

All the cited foreseen applications, and other, will require extensive work to become reality, if they ever do. There are indeed many difficulties to overcome. Due to its extremely small thickness, graphene is not easily to manipulate: it can fold, break, or simply get lost. Graphene produced by CVD is not free of defects, grain boundaries in particular, which degrade its intrinsic properties. Possible toxicity and environmental effects are important issues to be addressed before graphene enters industry. The route towards real applications is still long and is sprinkled with various technological challenges.

For around the last ten years, fundamental research has been paving the way toward practical applications of graphene . Progressively, worldwide efforts have led to a better knowledge of synthesis and growth mechanisms, to a deeper understanding of the effects, defects, and interactions of the substrates that hold graphene, to an increasing know-how in the manipulation of samples and atomically precise positioning, etc. This special issue is expected to gather contributions that describe recent results obtained in various active fields of graphene science and demonstrate how said results can be important in light of applications.

Prof. Dr. Philippe Lambin
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • graphene synthesis
  • graphene manipulation and shaping
  • graphene characterization
  • graphene defects
  • mechanical properties of graphene
  • electronic; electromagnetic and optical properties of graphene
  • graphene chemistry
  • graphene nanodevices
  • graphene based composites
  • applications of graphene

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Heterospin Junctions in Zigzag-Edged Graphene Nanoribbons
Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 351-365; doi:10.3390/app4030351
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
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Abstract
We propose a graphene nanoribbon-based heterojunction, where a defect-free interface separates two zigzag graphene nanoribbons prepared in opposite antiferromagnetic spin configurations. This heterospin junction is found to allow the redirecting of low-energy electrons from one edge to the other. The basic scattering mechanisms
[...] Read more.
We propose a graphene nanoribbon-based heterojunction, where a defect-free interface separates two zigzag graphene nanoribbons prepared in opposite antiferromagnetic spin configurations. This heterospin junction is found to allow the redirecting of low-energy electrons from one edge to the other. The basic scattering mechanisms and their relation to the system’s geometry are investigated through a combination of Landauer–Green’s function and the S-matrix and eigen-channel methods within a tight-binding + Hubbard model validated with density functional theory. The findings demonstrate the possibility of using zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (zGNRs) in complex networks where current can be transmitted across the entire system, instead of following the shortest paths along connected edges belonging to the same sub-lattice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Applications of Graphene)
Open AccessArticle Electrical Properties of Graphene for Interconnect Applications
Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(2), 305-317; doi:10.3390/app4020305
Received: 23 March 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 14 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A semi-classical electrodynamical model is derived to describe the electrical transport along graphene, based on the modified Boltzmann transport equation. The model is derived in the typical operating conditions predicted for future integrated circuits nano-interconnects, i.e., a low bias condition and an
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A semi-classical electrodynamical model is derived to describe the electrical transport along graphene, based on the modified Boltzmann transport equation. The model is derived in the typical operating conditions predicted for future integrated circuits nano-interconnects, i.e., a low bias condition and an operating frequency up to 1 THz. A generalized non-local dispersive Ohm’s law is derived, which can be regarded as the constitutive equation for the material. The behavior of the electrical conductivity is studied with reference to a 2D case (the infinite graphene layer) and a 1D case (the graphene nanoribbons). The modulation effects of the nanoribbons’ size and chirality are highlighted, as well as the spatial dispersion introduced in the 2D case by the dyadic nature of the conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Applications of Graphene)
Open AccessArticle Elastic Properties and Stability of Physisorbed Graphene
Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(2), 282-304; doi:10.3390/app4020282
Received: 9 March 2014 / Revised: 1 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Graphene is an ultimate membrane that mixes both flexibility and mechanical strength, together with many other remarkable properties. A good knowledge of the elastic properties of graphene is prerequisite to any practical application of it in nanoscopic devices. Although this two-dimensional material is
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Graphene is an ultimate membrane that mixes both flexibility and mechanical strength, together with many other remarkable properties. A good knowledge of the elastic properties of graphene is prerequisite to any practical application of it in nanoscopic devices. Although this two-dimensional material is only one atom thick, continuous-medium elasticity can be applied as long as the deformations vary slowly on the atomic scale and provided suitable parameters are used. The present paper aims to be a critical review on this topic that does not assume a specific pre-knowledge of graphene physics. The basis for the paper is the classical Kirchhoff-Love plate theory. It demands a few parameters that can be addressed from many points of view and fitted to independent experimental data. The parameters can also be estimated by electronic structure calculations. Although coming from diverse backgrounds, most of the available data provide a rather coherent picture that gives a good degree of confidence in the classical description of graphene elasticity. The theory can than be used to estimate, e.g., the buckling limit of graphene bound to a substrate. It can also predict the size above which a scrolled graphene sheet will never spontaneously unroll in free space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Applications of Graphene)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Electromagnetic Properties of Graphene-like Films in Ka-Band
Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(2), 255-264; doi:10.3390/app4020255
Received: 25 February 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 15 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied electromagnetic properties of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) films with thicknesses from 9 nm to 110 nm. The PyC films consisted of randomly oriented and intertwined graphene flakes with a typical size of a few nanometers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
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We studied electromagnetic properties of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) films with thicknesses from 9 nm to 110 nm. The PyC films consisted of randomly oriented and intertwined graphene flakes with a typical size of a few nanometers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at 1100 °C on a quartz substrate. The reflectance and transmittance of these films in Ka-band, 26–37 GHz, were studied both experimentally and theoretically. The discovered remarkably high absorption loss of up to 50% of incident power, along with chemical stability, makes PyC films attractive for electromagnetic (EM) interference shielding in space and airspace communication systems, as well as in portable electronic devices occupying this frequency slot. Since, in practical applications, the PyC film should be employed for coating of dielectric surfaces, two important issues to be addressed are: (i) which side (front or back) of the substrate should be covered to ensure maximum absorption losses; and (ii) the frequency dependence of absorbance/transmittance/reflectance of binary PyC/quartz structures in the Ka-band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Applications of Graphene)
Open AccessArticle Mechanism of Thin Layers Graphite Formation by 13C Implantation and Annealing
Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(2), 180-194; doi:10.3390/app4020180
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanism of thin layers graphite (TLG) synthesis on a polycrystalline nickel film deposited on SiO2(300 nm thick)/Si(100) has been investigated by 13C implantation of four equivalent graphene monolayers and annealing at moderate temperatures (450–600 °C). During this process, the
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The mechanism of thin layers graphite (TLG) synthesis on a polycrystalline nickel film deposited on SiO2 (300 nm thick)/Si(100) has been investigated by 13C implantation of four equivalent graphene monolayers and annealing at moderate temperatures (450–600 °C). During this process, the implanted 13C segregates to the surface. Nuclear Reaction Analyses (NRA) are used for the first time in the topic of graphene synthesis to separate the isotopes and to determine the 12C and 13C concentrations at each step. Indeed, a significant part of carbon in the TLG also comes from residual 12C carbon absorbed into the metallic matrix. Raman spectroscopy and imaging are used to determine the main location of each carbon isotope in the TLG. The Raman mappings especially emphasize the role of 12C previously present at the surface that first diffuses along grain boundaries. They play the role of nucleation precursors. Around them the implanted 13C or a mixture of bulk 12C–13C aggregate and further precipitate into graphene-like fragments. Graphenization is effective at around 600 °C. These results point out the importance of controlling carbon incorporation, as well as the importance of preparing a uniform nickel surface, in order to avoid heterogeneous nucleation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Applications of Graphene)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Terahertz Optoelectronic Property of Graphene: Substrate-Induced Effects on Plasmonic Characteristics
Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(1), 28-41; doi:10.3390/app4010028
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The terahertz plasmon dispersion of a multilayer system consisting of graphene on dielectric and/or plasma thin layers is systematically investigated. We show that graphene plasmons can couple with other quasiparticles such as phonons and plasmons of the substrate; the characteristics of the plasmon
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The terahertz plasmon dispersion of a multilayer system consisting of graphene on dielectric and/or plasma thin layers is systematically investigated. We show that graphene plasmons can couple with other quasiparticles such as phonons and plasmons of the substrate; the characteristics of the plasmon dispersion of graphene are dramatically modified by the presence of the coupling effect. The resultant plasmon dispersion of the multilayer system is a strong function of the physical parameters of the spacer and the substrate, signifying the importance of the substrate selection in constructing graphene-based plasmonic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Applications of Graphene)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Graphene Thermal Properties: Applications in Thermal Management and Energy Storage
Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(4), 525-547; doi:10.3390/app4040525
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (7210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review the thermal properties of graphene, few-layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons, and discuss practical applications of graphene in thermal management and energy storage. The first part of the review describes the state-of-the-art in the graphene thermal field focusing on recently reported experimental
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We review the thermal properties of graphene, few-layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons, and discuss practical applications of graphene in thermal management and energy storage. The first part of the review describes the state-of-the-art in the graphene thermal field focusing on recently reported experimental and theoretical data for heat conduction in graphene and graphene nanoribbons. The effects of the sample size, shape, quality, strain distribution, isotope composition, and point-defect concentration are included in the summary. The second part of the review outlines thermal properties of graphene-enhanced phase change materials used in energy storage. It is shown that the use of liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene as filler material in phase change materials is promising for thermal management of high-power-density battery parks. The reported experimental and modeling results indicate that graphene has the potential to outperform metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and other carbon allotropes as filler in thermal management materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Applications of Graphene)
Open AccessReview Intra- and Interlayer Electron-Phonon Interactions in 12/12C and 12/13C BiLayer Graphene
Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(2), 207-239; doi:10.3390/app4020207
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review focuses on intra- and interlayer (IL) electron-phonon interactions and phonon self-energy renormalizations in twisted and AB-stacked bilayer graphene (2LG) composed either only of 12C or a mixing of 12C and 13C isotopes. A simple way to imagine a 2LG is by
[...] Read more.
This review focuses on intra- and interlayer (IL) electron-phonon interactions and phonon self-energy renormalizations in twisted and AB-stacked bilayer graphene (2LG) composed either only of 12C or a mixing of 12C and 13C isotopes. A simple way to imagine a 2LG is by placing one monolayer graphene (1LG) on top of another 1LG. The orientation of one of the layers with relation to the other may originate a twisted 2LG system (known as turbostratic) as well as a AB-stacked system, also known as Bernal stacking. By rotating the layers of a 2LG one can departure from a fully misoriented system to achieve the AB-stacked configuration and their IL interactions can be dramatically different being close to zero in a fully misoriented system and maximum in an AB-stacked system. Interlayer interactions are expected to slightly perturb the intralayer phonons and they also govern the low-energy electronic and vibrational properties, which are of primary importance to phenomena such as transport, infrared (IR) optics and telecommunication bands in the IR range. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion combining intra- and interlayer phenomena is necessary and addressed throughout the text. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Applications of Graphene)

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