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Special Issue "Atmospheric Emissions from Agricultural Practices"

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A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. John T. Walker

US EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 109 T.W. Alexander Dr., Mail Drop E305-02, RTP, NC 27711, USA
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Agricultural activities associated with crop and animal production include tillage, application of fertilizer and pesticides, harvesting, and controlled burning, as well as housing of animals and storage of animal waste (manure). These components of production result in the loss of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. Trace gases emitted from animal manure and fertilized soils include greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide), reactive precursors (ammonia and nitric oxide) of secondary atmospheric pollutants, and odorous compounds (volatile organic compounds), while tillage and harvesting are sources of particulate matter. Ventilation of animal housing and burning of crop residues are sources of both trace gases and particulate matter. While progress has been made in characterizing emissions from some agricultural sources, large uncertainties persist in emission factors for many source categories and compounds. Furthermore, emission models are, in many cases, insufficient for scaling up observations to larger areas and for testing mitigation strategies.

This special issue welcomes measurement and modeling oriented papers that examine emissions from agricultural sources, the underlying emission processes, and options for mitigating emissions. Submission of papers that address the atmospheric transport, transformation, and deposition of agriculturally emitted compounds is also encouraged.

Dr. John T. Walker
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • agricultural emissions
  • fertilizer
  • manure
  • nitrogen
  • greenhouse gases
  • ammonia
  • nitrous oxide
  • methane
  • particulate matter
  • mitigation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Desorption of Herbicides from Atmospheric Particulates During High-Volume Air Sampling
Atmosphere 2011, 2(4), 671-687; doi:10.3390/atmos2040671
Received: 25 July 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 24 October 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
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Abstract
Pesticides can be present in the atmosphere either as vapours and/or in association with suspended particles. High-volume air sampling, in which air is aspirated first through a glass fibre filter to capture pesticides associated with atmospheric particulates and then polyurethane foam (PUF), often
[...] Read more.
Pesticides can be present in the atmosphere either as vapours and/or in association with suspended particles. High-volume air sampling, in which air is aspirated first through a glass fibre filter to capture pesticides associated with atmospheric particulates and then polyurethane foam (PUF), often in combination with an adsorbent resin such as XAD-2, to capture pesticides present as vapours, is generally employed during atmospheric monitoring for pesticides. However, the particulate fraction may be underestimated because some pesticides may be stripped or desorbed from captured particulates due to the pressure drop created by the high flow of air through the filter. This possibility was investigated with ten herbicide active ingredients commonly used on the Canadian prairies (dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba, 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester, bromoxynil octanoate, diclofop methyl ester, fenoxaprop ethyl ester, trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin) and seven hydrolysis products (2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, bromoxynil, diclofop, clopyralid and mecoprop). Finely ground heavy clay soil fortified with active ingredients/hydrolysis products was evenly distributed on the glass fibre filters of high-volume air samplers and air aspirated through the samplers at a flow rate of 12.5 m3/h for a 7-day period. The proportion desorbed as vapour from the fortified soil was determined by analysis of the PUF/XAD-2 resin composite cartridges. The extent of desorption from the fortified soil applied to the filters varied from 0% for each of the dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba to approximately 50% for trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Emissions from Agricultural Practices)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Reduced Nitrogen Diets on Ammonia Emissions from Cattle Feedlot Pens
Atmosphere 2011, 2(4), 655-670; doi:10.3390/atmos2040655
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 10 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 11 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reducing crude protein (CP) in livestock diets may lower ammonia emissions. A feeding trial was conducted with crossbred steers at the Southeast Colorado Research Center in Lamar, Colorado from December 2009 to March 2010. Three diet treatments were investigated: Reduced (11.6% CP), Oscillating
[...] Read more.
Reducing crude protein (CP) in livestock diets may lower ammonia emissions. A feeding trial was conducted with crossbred steers at the Southeast Colorado Research Center in Lamar, Colorado from December 2009 to March 2010. Three diet treatments were investigated: Reduced (11.6% CP), Oscillating (13.5% crude protein 4 days/week and 11.6% CP 3 days/week) and Control (13.5% CP). Intact soil core samples (n = 36 per sampling date) were collected from the pen surfaces on three dates corresponding to 45, 92, and 148 days into the feeding cycle. Four pens from each diet treatment were sampled. Cores were placed into flow-through laboratory chambers for seven days and ammonia fluxes were trapped in acid bubblers that were refreshed every 24 h. Average daily ammonia emissions for the Control diet ranged from 6.6 to 9.4 g NH3 m−2·day−1; average daily emission for the Oscillating diet ranged from 6.3 to 8.8 g NH3 m−2·day−1; and average daily flux for the Reduced diet ranged from 4.1 to 5.8 g NH3 m−2·day−1. Ammonia fluxes from the reduced N treatment were significantly lower (21% to 40%) than from the control diet on the first two sample dates. There was no significant difference between the Oscillating and Control treatments. Reducing CP in cattle feedlot diets may be an effective method for reducing ammonia emissions from pen surfaces. More research is needed to validate these results at commercial scales in different environments to determine if reductions in ammonia can be sustained with lower CP diets without affecting rate of gain, feed efficiency and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Emissions from Agricultural Practices)
Open AccessArticle Measuring Trace Gas Emission from Multi-Distributed Sources Using Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM) and Backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS) Techniques
Atmosphere 2011, 2(3), 553-566; doi:10.3390/atmos2030553
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 26 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two micrometeorological techniques for measuring trace gas emission rates from distributed area sources were evaluated using a variety of synthetic area sources. The vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) and the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) techniques with an open-path optical spectroscopic sensor were evaluated
[...] Read more.
Two micrometeorological techniques for measuring trace gas emission rates from distributed area sources were evaluated using a variety of synthetic area sources. The vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) and the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) techniques with an open-path optical spectroscopic sensor were evaluated for relative accuracy for multiple emission-source and sensor configurations. The relative accuracy was calculated by dividing the measured emission rate by the actual emission rate; thus, a relative accuracy of 1.0 represents a perfect measure. For a single area emission source, the VRPM technique yielded a somewhat high relative accuracy of 1.38 ± 0.28. The bLS technique resulted in a relative accuracy close to unity, 0.98 ± 0.24. Relative accuracies for dual source emissions for the VRPM and bLS techniques were somewhat similar to single source emissions, 1.23 ± 0.17 and 0.94 ± 0.24, respectively. When the bLS technique was used with vertical point concentrations, the relative accuracy was unacceptably low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Emissions from Agricultural Practices)
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Open AccessArticle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations
Atmosphere 2011, 2(3), 303-329; doi:10.3390/atmos2030303
Received: 13 March 2011 / Revised: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 9 August 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only
[...] Read more.
A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs) from ground level area sources (GLAS) at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area), loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd−1 d−1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) hd−1 d−1), respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd−1 d−1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1), respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from the compost pile and runoff pond. The pen surface alone contributed about 93% and 84% of the aggregate CO2 and N2O emission, respectively. Abatement and management practices that address GHG emissions from these sources will likely be most effective for reducing facility emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Emissions from Agricultural Practices)
Open AccessArticle Nitrogen Isotope Fractionation and Origin of Ammonia Nitrogen Volatilized from Cattle Manure in Simulated Storage
Atmosphere 2011, 2(3), 256-270; doi:10.3390/atmos2030256
Received: 30 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 25 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between nitrogen (N) isotope composition of cattle manure and ammoniaemissions, potential contribution of nitrogenous gases other than ammoniato manure N volatilization losses, and to determine the relative contribution of urinary-
[...] Read more.
A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between nitrogen (N) isotope composition of cattle manure and ammonia emissions, potential contribution of nitrogenous gases other than ammonia to manure N volatilization losses, and to determine the relative contribution of urinary- vs. fecal-N to ammonia emissions during the initial stage of manure storage. Data confirmed that ammonia volatilization losses from manure are most intensive during the first 2 to 3 days of storage and this coincides with a very rapid loss (hydrolysis) of urinary urea. Long-term (30 days) monitoring of δ15N of manure and emitted ammonia indicated that the dynamics of N isotope fractionation may be complicating the usefulness of the isotope approach as a tool for estimating ammonia emissions from manure in field conditions. The relationship between δ15N of manure and ammonia emission appears to be linear during the initial stages of manure storage (when most of the ammonia losses occur) and should be further investigated. These experiments demonstrated that the main source of ammonia-N volatilized from cattle manure during the initial 10 days of storage is urinary-N, representing on average 90% of the emitted ammonia-N. The contribution of fecal-N was relatively low, but gradually increased to about 10% by day 10. There appears to be substantial emissions of nitrogenous gases other than ammonia, most likely dinitrogen gas, which may account for up to 25% of N losses during the first 20 days of manure storage. This finding, which has to be confirmed in laboratory and field conditions, may be indicative of overestimation of ammonia emissions from cattle operations by the current emissions factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Emissions from Agricultural Practices)

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