Special Issue "Catalysts for Biomass Conversion"

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A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Michikazu Hara

Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-45-924-5311
Interests: catalysis; heterogeneous catalyst; solid acids; cellulosic biomass; hydrolysis; saccharides; glucose; HMF

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Hot and Dry Cleaning of Biomass-Gasified Gas Using Activated Carbons with Simultaneous Removal of Tar, Particles, and Sulfur Compounds
Catalysts 2012, 2(2), 281-298; doi:10.3390/catal2020281
Received: 29 February 2012 / Revised: 11 April 2012 / Accepted: 18 April 2012 / Published: 8 May 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes a gas-cleaning process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds, tar, and particles from biomass-gasified gas using Fe-supported activated carbon and a water-gas shift reaction. On a laboratory scale, the simultaneous removal of H2S and COS was performed
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This study proposes a gas-cleaning process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds, tar, and particles from biomass-gasified gas using Fe-supported activated carbon and a water-gas shift reaction. On a laboratory scale, the simultaneous removal of H2S and COS was performed under a mixture of gases (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/C2H4/N2/H2S/COS/steam). The reactions such as COS + H2 → H2S + CO and COS + H2O → H2S + CO2 and the water-gas shift reaction were promoted on the Fe-supported activated carbon. The adsorption capacity with steam was higher than that without steam. On a bench scale, the removal of impurities from a gas derived from biomass gasification was investigated using two activated filters packed with Fe-supported activated carbon. H2S and COS, three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particles were removed and a water-gas shift reaction was promoted through the first filter at 320–350 °C. The concentrations of H2S and COS decreased to less than 0.1 ppmv. Particles and the one- and two-ring PAHs, except for benzene, were then removed through the second filter at 60–170 °C. The concentration of tar and particles decreased from 2428 to 102 mg Nm−3 and from 2244 to 181 mg Nm−3, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)
Open AccessArticle Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass Gasification Products to Syngas
Catalysts 2012, 2(2), 264-280; doi:10.3390/catal2020264
Received: 17 January 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 17 April 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium nickel silicate (MNS) has been investigated as a catalyst to convert tars and light hydrocarbons to syngas (CO and H2) by steam reforming and CO2 reforming in the presence of H2S for biomass gasification process at NexTech
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Magnesium nickel silicate (MNS) has been investigated as a catalyst to convert tars and light hydrocarbons to syngas (CO and H2) by steam reforming and CO2 reforming in the presence of H2S for biomass gasification process at NexTech Materials. It was observed that complete CH4 conversion could be achieved on MNS catalyst granules at 800–900 °C and a space velocity of 24,000 mL/g/h in a simulated biomass gasification stream. Addition of 10–20 ppm H2S to the feed had no apparent impact on CH4 conversion. The MNS-washcoated monolith also showed high activities in converting methane, light hydrocarbons and tar to syngas. A 1200 h test without deactivation was achieved on the MNS washcoated monolith in the presence of H2S and/or NH3, two common impurities in gasified biomass. The results indicate that the MNS material is a promising catalyst for removal of tar and light hydrocarbons from biomass gasified gases, enabling efficient use of biomass to produce power, liquid fuels and valuable chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)
Open AccessArticle Application of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems
Catalysts 2012, 2(2), 223-243; doi:10.3390/catal2020223
Received: 27 February 2012 / Revised: 14 March 2012 / Accepted: 23 March 2012 / Published: 12 April 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Combustion of solid biomass fuels for heat generation is an important renewable energy resource. The major part among biomass combustion applications is being played by small-scale systems like wood log stoves and small wood pellet burners, which account for 75% of the overall
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Combustion of solid biomass fuels for heat generation is an important renewable energy resource. The major part among biomass combustion applications is being played by small-scale systems like wood log stoves and small wood pellet burners, which account for 75% of the overall biomass heat production. Despite an environmentally friendly use of renewable energies, incomplete combustion in small-scale systems can lead to the emission of environmental pollutants as well as substances which are hazardous to health. Besides particles of ash and soot, a wide variety of gaseous substances can also be emitted. Among those, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and several organic volatile and semi-volatile compounds (VOC) are present. Heterogeneous catalysis is applied for the reduction of various gaseous compounds as well as soot. Some research has been done to examine the application of catalytic converters in small-scale biomass combustion systems. In addition to catalyst selection with respect to complete oxidation of different organic compounds, parameters such as long-term stability and durability under flue gas conditions are considered for use in biomass combustion furnaces. Possible catalytic procedures have been identified for investigation by literature and market research. Experimental studies with two selected oxidation catalysts based on noble metals have been carried out on a wood log stove with a retrofit system. The measurements have been performed under defined conditions based on practical mode of operation. The measurements have shown that the catalytic flue gas treatment is a promising method to reduce carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds. Even a reduction of particulate matter was observed, although no filtering effect could be detected. Therefore, the oxidation of soot or soot precursors can be assumed. The selected catalysts differed in their activity, depending on the compound to be oxidized. Examinations showed that the knitted wire catalyst showed better activity for the reduction of carbon monoxide, whereas the honeycomb induced a higher reduction of aromatic compounds. The properties of the two catalysts can be combined by integrating both together. The one drawback of the catalyst so far is the deactivation for the conversion of methane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)
Open AccessArticle Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite
Catalysts 2012, 2(1), 171-190; doi:10.3390/catal2010171
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Waste cooking oil with a high-acid-value (28.7 mg-KOH/g-oil) was converted to bio-hydrogenated diesel by a hydrotreatment process over supported Ru catalysts. The standard reaction temperature, H2 pressure, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), and H2/oil ratio were 350 °C, 2 MPa,
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Waste cooking oil with a high-acid-value (28.7 mg-KOH/g-oil) was converted to bio-hydrogenated diesel by a hydrotreatment process over supported Ru catalysts. The standard reaction temperature, H2 pressure, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), and H2/oil ratio were 350 °C, 2 MPa, 15.2 h–1, and 400 mL/mL, respectively. Both the free fatty acids and the triglycerides in the waste cooking oil were deoxygenated at the same time to form hydrocarbons in the hydrotreatment process. The predominant liquid hydrocarbon products (98.9 wt%) were n-C18H38, n-C17H36, n-C16H34, and n-C15H32 when a Ru/SiO2 catalyst was used. These long chain normal hydrocarbons had high melting points and gave the liquid hydrocarbon product over Ru/SiO2 a high pour point of 20 °C. Ru/H-Y was not suitable for producing diesel from waste cooking oil because it formed a large amount of C5–C10 gasoline-ranged paraffins on the strong acid sites of HY. When Al-polyoxocation-pillared montmorillonite (Al13-Mont) was used as a support for the Ru catalyst, the pour point of the liquid hydrocarbon product decreased to −15 °C with the conversion of a significant amount of C15–C18 n-paraffins to iso-paraffins and light paraffins on the weak acid sites of Al13-Mont. The liquid product over Ru/Al13-Mont can be expected to give a green diesel for current diesel engines because its chemical composition and physical properties are similar to those of commercial petro-diesel. A relatively large amount of H2 was consumed in the hydrogenation of unsaturated C=C bonds and the deoxygenation of C=O bonds in the hydrotreatment process. A sulfided Ni-Mo/Al13-Mont catalyst also produced bio-hydrogenated diesel by the hydrotreatment process but it showed slow deactivation during the reaction due to loss of sulfur. In contrast, Ru/Al13-Mont did not show catalyst deactivation in the hydrotreatment of waste cooking oil after 72 h on-stream because the waste cooking oil was not found to contain sulfur-containing compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)
Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Evolution from Napiergrass by the Combination of Biological Treatment and a Pt-Loaded TiO2-Photocatalytic Reaction
Catalysts 2012, 2(1), 56-67; doi:10.3390/catal2010056
Received: 11 November 2011 / Revised: 1 December 2011 / Accepted: 12 December 2011 / Published: 22 December 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ethanol and pentose were produced from lignocellulosic napiergrass by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) using hydrolytic enzyme and S. Cerevisiae. After the ethanol was removed, the pentose solution was subjected to photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with Pt-loaded TiO2 under UV-irradiation.
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Ethanol and pentose were produced from lignocellulosic napiergrass by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) using hydrolytic enzyme and S. Cerevisiae. After the ethanol was removed, the pentose solution was subjected to photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with Pt-loaded TiO2 under UV-irradiation. This process converted 100 g of napiergrass into 12.3 g of ethanol and 1.76 g of hydrogen whose total combustion energy of (H) was 615 kJ. This was close to the H (639 kJ) of the pentose (13.6 g) and hexose (27.4 g) obtained by the cellulose-saccharification of 100 g of napiergrass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)

Review

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Open AccessReview Application of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis in Biomass to Liquid Conversion
Catalysts 2012, 2(2), 303-326; doi:10.3390/catal2020303
Received: 16 April 2012 / Revised: 9 May 2012 / Accepted: 1 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2), which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or biomass. Biomass to Liquid via Fischer–Tropsch (BTL-FT)
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Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2), which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or biomass. Biomass to Liquid via Fischer–Tropsch (BTL-FT) synthesis is gaining increasing interests from academia and industry because of its ability to produce carbon neutral and environmentally friendly clean fuels; such kinds of fuels can help to meet the globally increasing energy demand and to meet the stricter environmental regulations in the future. In the BTL-FT process, biomass, such as woodchips and straw stalk, is firstly converted into biomass-derived syngas (bio-syngas) by gasification. Then, a cleaning process is applied to remove impurities from the bio-syngas to produce clean bio-syngas which meets the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis requirements. Cleaned bio-syngas is then conducted into a Fischer–Tropsch catalytic reactor to produce green gasoline, diesel and other clean biofuels. This review will analyze the three main steps of BTL-FT process, and discuss the issues related to biomass gasification, bio-syngas cleaning methods and conversion of bio-syngas into liquid hydrocarbons via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Some features in regard to increasing carbon utilization, enhancing catalyst activity, maximizing selectivity and avoiding catalyst deactivation in bio-syngas conversion process are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)
Open AccessReview Biomass Converting Enzymes as Industrial Biocatalysts for Fuels and Chemicals: Recent Developments
Catalysts 2012, 2(2), 244-263; doi:10.3390/catal2020244
Received: 16 January 2012 / Revised: 18 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 March 2012 / Published: 12 April 2012
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The economic utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for the production of fuel and chemicals would represent a profound shift in industrial carbon utilization, allowing sustainable resources to substitute for, and compete with, petroleum based products. In order to exploit biomass
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The economic utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for the production of fuel and chemicals would represent a profound shift in industrial carbon utilization, allowing sustainable resources to substitute for, and compete with, petroleum based products. In order to exploit biomass as a source material for production of renewable compounds, it must first be broken down into constituent compounds, such as sugars, that can be more easily converted in chemical and biological processes. Lignocellulose is, unfortunately, a heterogeneous and recalcitrant material which is highly resistant to depolymerization. Many microorganisms have evolved repertoires of enzyme activities which act in tandem to decompose the various components of lignocellulosic biomass. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of these enzymes, with particular regard to those activities deemed likely to be applicable in commercialized biomass utilization processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)
Open AccessReview Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Utilization of Glycerol: A Review
Catalysts 2012, 2(1), 191-222; doi:10.3390/catal2010191
Received: 19 January 2012 / Revised: 11 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
More than 10 million tons of biodiesel fuel (BDF) have been produced in the world from the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol by using acid catalysts (sulfuric acid, H2SO4), alkaline catalysts (sodium hydroxide, NaOH or potassium hydroxide, KOH),
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More than 10 million tons of biodiesel fuel (BDF) have been produced in the world from the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol by using acid catalysts (sulfuric acid, H2SO4), alkaline catalysts (sodium hydroxide, NaOH or potassium hydroxide, KOH), solid catalysts and enzymes. Unfortunately, the price of BDF is still more expensive than that of petro diesel fuel due to the lack of a suitable raw material oil. Here, we review the best selection of BDF production systems including raw materials, catalysts and production technologies. In addition, glycerol formed as a by-product needs to be converted to useful chemicals to reduce the amount of glycerol waste. With this in mind, we have also reviewed some recent studies on the utilization of glycerol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)

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