Special Issue "Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress"

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A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Enzo Berardesca

San Gallicano Dermatological Institute, Via Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: dermatology; skin care; contact dermatitis; cosmetic efficacy; cosmetic formulation; barrier function; skin irritation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Skin ageing is a complex phenomenon resulting from different pathophysiological mechanisms. Its investigation, as well as the development of new actives and formulations, is a fascinating and stimulating area of research. This unique meeting will gather scientists from ISBS and several European Cosmetic Scientist Societies to develop, discuss and investigate new approaches to the understanding, the objective quantification and the development of new strategies for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main topics will cover skin physiology and pathology of ageing, new active ingredients and cosmetic formulations, substantiation of efficacy claims and new non invasive technology to investigate and quantify skin aging and cosmetic treatment of this condition, legal and regulatory aspects.

Prof. Dr. Enzo Berardesca
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • cosmetic ingredients
  • skin aging
  • claim substantiation
  • skin physiology
  • active ingredients
  • noninvasive techniques
  • efficacy measurements

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Elastin/Collagen Content in Human Dermis in-Vivo by Multiphoton Tomography—Variation with Depth and Correlation with Aging
Cosmetics 2014, 1(3), 211-221; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1030211
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 1 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the depth of the dermis on the measured collagen and elastin levels and to establish the correlation between the amount of these two extracellular matrix (ECM) components and age. Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM)
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the depth of the dermis on the measured collagen and elastin levels and to establish the correlation between the amount of these two extracellular matrix (ECM) components and age. Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM) that measures the autofluorescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) was used to quantify the levels of elastin and collagen and to determine the SAAID (SHG-to-AF Aging Index of Dermis) at two different skin depths. A 50 MHz ultrasound scanner was used for the calculation of the Sub Epidermal Non Echogenic Band (SENEB). The measurements of the skin mechanical properties were done with a cutometer. All measurements were performed on two groups of 30 healthy female volunteers. The MPM showed a decrease of the quantity of collagen and elastin as a function of depth of the dermis as well as age. The SAAID was lower for the older skin in the deeper dermis. Ultrasound imaging revealed a significant decrease of SENEB as a function of aging. The mechanical properties confirmed a loss of cutaneous elasticity and firmness. Although multiphoton microscopy is a powerful technique to study the characteristics of the dermis and its age-related damage, the location of the measurements (depth) remains very important for the validation of these variations. These variations do not seem to be homogeneous according to the part of the dermis that is studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
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Open AccessArticle Chitin-Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Multifunctional Carrier to Deliver Anti-Aging Active Ingredients through the Skin
Cosmetics 2014, 1(3), 140-158; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1030140
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA), showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined
[...] Read more.
The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA), showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Zetasizer, while encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the entrapped ingredients were controlled by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Safeness was evidenced on fibroblasts and keratinocytes culture viability by the MTT (Methylthiazol) assay; anti-aging activity was evaluated in vitro measuring antioxidant capacity, anti-collagenase activity, and metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory release; efficacy was shown in vivo by a double-blind vehicle-controlled study for 60 days on 60 women affected by photo-aging. In addition, the CN-HA nanoparticles have shown interesting possibility to be used as active ingredients, for designing and making advanced medication by the electrospinning technology, as well as to produce transparent films for food packaging, by the casting method, and can be used also in their dry form as tissues or films without adding preservatives. These unusual CN-HA nanoparticles obtained from the use of raw materials of waste origin may offer an unprecedented occasion for making innovative products, ameliorating the quality of life, reducing pollution and safeguarding the environment’s integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
Open AccessArticle The Age Factor in the Cosmetic Management of Biophysical Skin Parameters
Cosmetics 2014, 1(2), 117-127; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1020117
Received: 20 February 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we investigated the correlation between the basal skin hydration data, elasticity and surface roughness and the age of volunteers. Then, we analyzed the variations obtained at the end of the treatments with anti-age cosmetic products for the face. The aim
[...] Read more.
In this study we investigated the correlation between the basal skin hydration data, elasticity and surface roughness and the age of volunteers. Then, we analyzed the variations obtained at the end of the treatments with anti-age cosmetic products for the face. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility to improvement of volunteers from different age groups. Data were collected in our testing laboratory based in Milan over a 6-year long activity. We only considered measurements performed on the face of a female population aged between 18 and 70 years of age. Values were subdivided in age groups for each considered parameter and were statistically compared. As expected, skin roughness increased and R2 elasticity parameter decreased with ageing, while hydration values resulted to be higher in older women. Apparently, this unaccountable result is probably due to the fact that elderly women living in urban areas tend to take appropriate care of their skin, thus improving skin hydration effectively. Interestingly, as for skin hydration, the analysis showed that women aged 61–70 were the most susceptible to improvement induced by several types of cosmetic treatments. However, when considering the skin roughness values, women over 50 years old seemed to react better to cosmetic treatment. As for skin elasticity, the highest improvement values were found with women between 31 and 50 years of age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Activity and Tolerability of a Cosmetic Treatment for the Periocular Area on the Aging Face: Controlled Clinical and Instrumental Evaluation vs. Placebo
Cosmetics 2014, 1(2), 105-116; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1020105
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically and by non invasive instrumental evaluations the efficacy and tolerability of a cosmetic treatment containing an innovative active ingredient, ethyl ximenynate, in the prevention of dark circles under the eyes and blemishes of skin
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically and by non invasive instrumental evaluations the efficacy and tolerability of a cosmetic treatment containing an innovative active ingredient, ethyl ximenynate, in the prevention of dark circles under the eyes and blemishes of skin aging on the eye profile. Evaluations were performed at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment on 22 volunteers; the study was planned as a double blind half-face trial. Data showed a trend towards a lifting of the eyelid skin; all investigator scores (eye puffiness, skin smoothness, roughness and dryness) decreased. In addition, profilometric results confirmed the anti-wrinkles efficacy of the active product and its lifting action, while those related to spectrophotometry underlined the decongestant effect on dark circles that appeared, at the end of the study, to be less marked. The improvement of skin microcirculation and capillary resistance and vascular tone in the eye area underlines a general mitigation of all relevant skin imperfections and blemishes of skin aging on the eye profile. The active ingredient was shown to be effective for the cosmetic treatment of the periocular area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
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Open AccessArticle The Efficiency and Safety of Leuphasyl—A Botox-Like Peptide
Cosmetics 2014, 1(2), 75-81; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1020075
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peptides of synthesis are a very new strategy in cosmetic science and technology for at least two reasons: (1) they are small molecules, easily penetrable in the skin and (2) they are able to induce a very specific action, because all skin cells
[...] Read more.
Peptides of synthesis are a very new strategy in cosmetic science and technology for at least two reasons: (1) they are small molecules, easily penetrable in the skin and (2) they are able to induce a very specific action, because all skin cells (keratinocytes, fibroblasts, nervous cells) have membrane receptors for peptides. This group of cosmeceutics includes the botox-like peptides, represented by acetyl hexapeptide 3 (Argireline) and pentapeptid-3 (Leuphasyl). The latter is less known and has been less studied. This substance inhibits the neuromuscular synapses in the mimic muscles, acting as enkephalins. It links the enkephalin receptor to nervous cells, thereby modulating the release of acetylcholine in synaptic space. This cellular activity will be translated in vivo in a relaxation of the muscle and a reduction of expression wrinkles. The aim of our study is to evaluate the optimal concentration of Leuphasyl for skin application at the mimic muscle level, the efficiency and the safety of this peptide. We formulated three emulsions of different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%) which were applied to the skin, at the level of mimic muscles (1) at the eyebrows zone (above the corrugator supercilii muscle) and (2) at the periorbital zone (above the orbicularis oculi muscle). We evaluated the regression of the wrinkles between the eyebrows using an imagistic method: pro-derm Analyser. The study is of interest to discussions concerning how to apply these kinds of cosmetic products at the mimic muscle skin level and not at the level of the wrinkles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
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Open AccessCommunication l-Ergothioneine Protects Skin Cells against UV-Induced Damage—A Preliminary Study
Cosmetics 2014, 1(1), 51-60; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1010051
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 10 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many changes related to aging at the cellular level may be due to the physiological condition of mitochondria. One of the most common types of damage of mtDNA is the so-called “common deletion” referring to a deletion of 4977 base pairs. In the
[...] Read more.
Many changes related to aging at the cellular level may be due to the physiological condition of mitochondria. One of the most common types of damage of mtDNA is the so-called “common deletion” referring to a deletion of 4977 base pairs. In the skin cells this phenomenon probably is caused by oxidative damage of mtDNA induced by UV. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the antioxidant l-ergothioneine on UV-induced damage in skin cells. The effect of l-ergothioneine on the reduced glutathione level was studied. The presence of the “common deletion” in human fibroblasts irradiated with UVA and treated with l-ergothioneine was evaluated by a polymerase chain reaction. We have demonstrated that l-ergothioneine enhanced the level of reduced glutathione and protected cells from the induction of a photoaging-associated mtDNA “common deletion”. In view of our results, l-ergothioneine could be an effective skin care and anti-photoaging ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
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Open AccessArticle In Vivo Non-Invasive Evaluation of Actinic Keratoses Response to Methyl-Aminolevulinate-Photodynamic Therapy (MAL-PDT) by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy
Cosmetics 2014, 1(1), 37-43; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1010037
Received: 12 January 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
PDF Full-text (1119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is an approved non-invasive treatment option for actinic keratoses (AKs). In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive tool for real-time imaging of epidermis and superficial dermis in vivo that has been previously reported to facilitate
[...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is an approved non-invasive treatment option for actinic keratoses (AKs). In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive tool for real-time imaging of epidermis and superficial dermis in vivo that has been previously reported to facilitate the in vivo evaluation of skin lesions, including AKs. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of in vivo RCM in evaluating AKs response to MAL-PDT. For this reason a total of 10 biopsy-proven AKs were treated by MAL-PDT, according to standard PDT protocol for AKs. RCM investigation was performed before and after PDT and RCM-guided punch biopsies was taken at 3 months in all patients for histopathologic examination. At 3 months follow-up, complete clinical response was observed by clinical examination in 9 out of 10 lesions and a partial clinical response in 1 lesion. In vivo RCM detected two residual AKs in subclinical form, missed by clinical examination. Histological analysis confirmed these results. In vivo RCM may be a new alternative tool for the non-invasive diagnosis of AKs and evaluation of AKs response to non-invasive treatments, as MAL-PDT, improving the ability of dermatologists to diagnose AKs even in subclinical stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
Open AccessArticle Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions
Cosmetics 2014, 1(1), 44-50; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1010044
Received: 12 January 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling) was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact
[...] Read more.
To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling) was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol) in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age) and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests). Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Cosmetic Product Efficacy Testing by Analyzing Epidermal Proteins Extracted from Tape Strips
Cosmetics 2014, 1(1), 29-36; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1010029
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this in vivo pilot study was to investigate whether differential biomarker analysis from skin tape strips could be used, not only to evaluate the difference between treated and untreated skin, but also to evaluate the effect of different product treatments.
[...] Read more.
The objective of this in vivo pilot study was to investigate whether differential biomarker analysis from skin tape strips could be used, not only to evaluate the difference between treated and untreated skin, but also to evaluate the effect of different product treatments. Ten volunteers were included in the study, applying two different basic formulations on their forearms. After four weeks of product application, and also after one week of treatment remission, tape strips were collected from the different treatment sites, as well as from untreated skin. The biomarkers investigated were selected to cover different aspects of epidermal differentiation and in connection with moisturization and barrier function. Levels of Involucrin were increased in both treatments, compared to untreated skin, whereas the levels of Keratin-6 were decreased for both treatments. In addition, a pattern for increased levels of Hornerin and Claudin-1 was also detected. There were no significant differences between the two treatments, only for treatment compared to untreated, but there were tendencies for different effect on some of the biomarkers investigated, differences that may reach significance with increased sample size. The major differences between the two treatments in this study were seen after one week of product remission, although due to too small sample size these differences were not significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
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