Special Issue "Photonic Crystals"

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A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yuri Kivshar (Website)

Nonlinear Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
Phone: 61261253081
Interests: lattice vibrations; nonlinear dynamics; localized modes; solitons; photonic crystals; metamaterials
Guest Editor
Prof. Mikhail Limonov

Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russia
Guest Editor
Dr. Mikhail Rybin

Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russia.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

More than 25 years have passed after the publication of the pioneering papers of S. John and E. Yablonovich, which opened up a new and exciting field of research on artificial periodic structures for electromagnetic waves. These structures are now known as “photonic crystals”. Photonic crystals offer unprecedented control on photons and have emerged as an important new class of optical materials. More importantly, the field of photonic crystals brings together the seemingly different areas of optics and solid state physics, and exploit many important concepts known from the electron theory and condensed matter physics. Such concepts include discreteness, tight-binding approximation, Bloch states, energy bandgaps, etc. More important recent developments include the studies of disorder, topological insulators, nonlinear effects, and other types of periodic photonic structures, such as optical lattices.

This Special Issue will focus on the most recent advances in the field of photonic crystals and structured photonic materials. Topics will include, but are not limited to, recent advances in the design of novel photonic structures and photonic-crystal devices, as well as the fabrication of novel photonic micro‐ and nanostructures; studies of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder effects in the optical properties of ordered structures; nonlinear optical effects in periodic and related structures; resonant effects, such as  Fano resonance; the physics and applications of photonic-crystal waveguides, fibres, microcavities, and other photonic-crystal based integrated optics; magnetic photonic and metal‐dielectric periodic electromagnetic and plasmonic structures; and various approaches for light control in photovoltaic devices, which are based on concepts of photonic crystals.

Prof. Dr. Yuri Kivshar
Prof. Mikhail Limonov
Dr. Mikhail Rybin
Guest Editors

Submission

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Keywords

  • photonic crystal
  • bandgap
  • photonic structures
  • Bloch waves
  • localization
  • resonances

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Band Structure of Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization
Crystals 2015, 5(1), 61-73; doi:10.3390/cryst5010061
Received: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We study theoretically the band-gap structures of several types of three-dimensional photonic crystals with the fcc lattice symmetry: synthetic opals, inverted yablonovite and woodpile. The samples of inverted yablonovite, inverted yablonovite with a glassy superstructure and woodpile are fabricated by two-photon polymerization [...] Read more.
We study theoretically the band-gap structures of several types of three-dimensional photonic crystals with the fcc lattice symmetry: synthetic opals, inverted yablonovite and woodpile. The samples of inverted yablonovite, inverted yablonovite with a glassy superstructure and woodpile are fabricated by two-photon polymerization through a direct laser writing technique, which allows the creation of complex three-dimensional photonic crystals with a resolution better than 100 nm. A material is polymerized along the trace of a moving laser focus, thus enabling the fabrication of any desirable three-dimensional structure by direct “recording” into the volume of a photosensitive material. The correspondence of the structures of the fabricated samples to the expected fcc lattices is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. We discuss theoretically how the complete photonic band-gap is modified by structural and dielectric parameters. We demonstrate that the photonic properties of opal and yablonovite are opposite: the complete photonic band gap appears in the inverted opal, and direct yablonovite is absent in direct opal and inverted yablonovite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
Open AccessArticle Bloch Modes and Evanescent Modes of Photonic Crystals: Weak Form Solutions Based on Accurate Interface Triangulation
Crystals 2015, 5(1), 14-44; doi:10.3390/cryst5010014
Received: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a new approach to calculate the complex photonic band structure, both purely dispersive and evanescent Bloch modes of a finite range, of arbitrary three-dimensional photonic crystals. Our method, based on a well-established plane wave expansion and the weak form solution [...] Read more.
We propose a new approach to calculate the complex photonic band structure, both purely dispersive and evanescent Bloch modes of a finite range, of arbitrary three-dimensional photonic crystals. Our method, based on a well-established plane wave expansion and the weak form solution of Maxwell’s equations, computes the Fourier components of periodic structures composed of distinct homogeneous material domains from a triangulated mesh representation of the inter-material interfaces; this allows substantially more accurate representations of the geometry of complex photonic crystals than the conventional representation by a cubic voxel grid. Our method works for general two-phase composite materials, consisting of bi-anisotropic materials with tensor-valued dielectric and magnetic permittivities ε and μ and coupling matrices ς. We demonstrate for the Bragg mirror and a simple cubic crystal closely related to the Kelvin foam that relatively small numbers of Fourier components are sufficient to yield good convergence of the eigenvalues, making this method viable, despite its computational complexity. As an application, we use the single gyroid crystal to demonstrate that the consideration of both conventional and evanescent Bloch modes is necessary to predict the key features of the reflectance spectrum by analysis of the band structure, in particular for light incident along the cubic [111] direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
Open AccessArticle Plasmonic Photonic-Crystal Slabs: Visualization of the Bloch Surface Wave Resonance for an Ultrasensitive, Robust and Reusable Optical Biosensor
Crystals 2014, 4(4), 498-508; doi:10.3390/cryst4040498
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 4 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) with termination by a metal film—a plasmonic photonic-crystal slab—has been theoretically analyzed for its optical response at a variation of the dielectric permittivity of an analyte and at a condition simulating the molecular binding event. Visualization of [...] Read more.
A one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) with termination by a metal film—a plasmonic photonic-crystal slab—has been theoretically analyzed for its optical response at a variation of the dielectric permittivity of an analyte and at a condition simulating the molecular binding event. Visualization of the Bloch surface wave resonance (SWR) was done with the aid of plasmon absorption in a dielectric/metal/dielectric sandwich terminating a PhC. An SWR peak in spectra of such a plasmonic photonic crystal (PPhC) slab comprising a noble or base metal layer was shown to be sensitive to a negligible variation of refractive index of a medium adjoining to the slab. As a consequence, the considered PPhC-based optical sensors exhibited an enhanced sensitivity and a good robustness in comparison with the conventional surface-plasmon and Bloch surface wave sensors. The PPhC biosensors can be of practical importance because the metal layer is protected by a capping dielectric layer from contact with analytes and, consequently, from deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
Open AccessArticle Optical Effects Accompanying the Dynamical Bragg Diffraction in Linear 1D Photonic Crystals Based on Porous Silicon
Crystals 2014, 4(4), 427-438; doi:10.3390/cryst4040427
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 14 October 2014
PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We survey our recent results on the observation and studies of the effects accompanying the dynamical Bragg diffraction in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PhC). Contrary to the kinematic Bragg diffraction, the dynamical one considers a continuous interaction between the waves travelling within a [...] Read more.
We survey our recent results on the observation and studies of the effects accompanying the dynamical Bragg diffraction in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PhC). Contrary to the kinematic Bragg diffraction, the dynamical one considers a continuous interaction between the waves travelling within a spatially-periodic structure and is the most pronounced in the so called Laue geometry, leading to a number of exciting phenomena. In the described experiments, we study the PhC based on porous silicon or porous quartz, made by the electrochemical etching of crystalline silicon with the consequent thermal annealing. Importantly, these PhC are approximately hundreds of microns thick and contain a few hundreds of periods, so that the experiments in the Laue diffraction scheme are available. We discuss the effect of the temporal splitting of femtosecond laser pulses and show that the effect is quite sensitive to the polarization and the phase of a femtosecond laser pulse. We also show the experimental realization of the Pendular effect in porous quartz PhC and demonstrate the experimental conditions for the total spatial switching of the output radiation between the transmitted and diffracted directions. All described effects are of high interest for the control over the light propagation based on PhC structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Retrieval of Effective Parameters of Subwavelength Periodic Photonic Structures
Crystals 2014, 4(3), 417-426; doi:10.3390/cryst4030417
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 17 September 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We revisit the standard Nicolson–Ross–Weir method of effective permittivity and permeability restoration of photonic structures for the case of subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayers. We show that the direct application of the standard method yields a false zero-epsilon point and an associated spurious permeability [...] Read more.
We revisit the standard Nicolson–Ross–Weir method of effective permittivity and permeability restoration of photonic structures for the case of subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayers. We show that the direct application of the standard method yields a false zero-epsilon point and an associated spurious permeability resonance. We show how this artifact can be worked around by the use of the cycle shift operator to the periodic multilayer in question. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
Open AccessArticle High-Q Defect-Free 2D Photonic Crystal Cavity from Random Localised Disorder
Crystals 2014, 4(3), 342-350; doi:10.3390/cryst4030342
Received: 21 May 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a high-Q photonic crystal cavity formed by introducing random disorder to the central region of an otherwise defect-free photonic crystal slab (PhC). Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations determine the frequency, quality factor, Q, and modal volume, V, of [...] Read more.
We propose a high-Q photonic crystal cavity formed by introducing random disorder to the central region of an otherwise defect-free photonic crystal slab (PhC). Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations determine the frequency, quality factor, Q, and modal volume, V, of the localized modes formed by the disorder. Relatively large Purcell factors of 500–800 are calculated for these cavities, which can be achieved for a large range of degrees of disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)
Open AccessArticle Combinatorial Frequency Generation in Quasi-Periodic Stacks of Nonlinear Dielectric Layers
Crystals 2014, 4(3), 209-227; doi:10.3390/cryst4030209
Received: 10 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 1 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-wave mixing in quasi-periodic structures (QPSs) composed of nonlinear anisotropic dielectric layers, stacked in Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences, has been explored at illumination by a pair of pump waves with dissimilar frequencies and incidence angles. A new formulation of the nonlinear scattering [...] Read more.
Three-wave mixing in quasi-periodic structures (QPSs) composed of nonlinear anisotropic dielectric layers, stacked in Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences, has been explored at illumination by a pair of pump waves with dissimilar frequencies and incidence angles. A new formulation of the nonlinear scattering problem has enabled the QPS analysis as a perturbed periodic structure with defects. The obtained solutions have revealed the effects of stack composition and constituent layer parameters, including losses, on the properties of combinatorial frequency generation (CFG). The CFG features illustrated by the simulation results are discussed. It is demonstrated that quasi-periodic stacks can achieve a higher efficiency of CFG than regular periodic multilayers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals)

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