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Special Issue "ICT for Energy"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonello Monti

E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: power system dynamics, grid automation; real-time simulation; Cloud applications for energy
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ferdinanda Ponci

E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: distribution grid automation; grid monitoring; agents in power systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The transformation of the energy system is creating the need for a convergence between the energy and ICT domain. This is particularly true for the electrical grid infrastructure. The so-called Smart Grid is the integration of a distributed intelligent infrastructure on top of the traditional grid. This Special Issue aims at exploring the most advanced examples of interactions of these infrastructures. The main goal is to show how the confluence of Energy and ICT is shaping a completely new scenario for electrical grid operation and planning defining new roles and scenarios. This transformation is affecting all the stakeholders: Distribution grid operators, but also the end customers, now better defined as prosumer for their active role. Papers that present results related to concrete deployments in field test are particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Antonello Monti
Prof. Dr. Ferdinanda Ponci
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • distributed intelligence for grid automation
  • Cloud applications
  • active distribution grids

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Design, Implementation and Demonstration of Embedded Agents for Energy Management in Non-Residential Buildings
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1106; doi:10.3390/en10081106
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
With the building sector being responsible for 30% of the total final energy consumption, great interest lies in implementing adequate policies and deploying efficient technologies that would decrease this number. However, building comfort and energy management systems (BCEM) are challenging to manage on
[...] Read more.
With the building sector being responsible for 30% of the total final energy consumption, great interest lies in implementing adequate policies and deploying efficient technologies that would decrease this number. However, building comfort and energy management systems (BCEM) are challenging to manage on account of their increasing complexity with regard to the integration of renewable energy sources or the connection of electrical, thermal and gas grids. Multi-agent~systems (MAS) deal well with such complex issues. This paper presents an MAS for non-residential buildings from the design, implementation and demonstration, both simulation based and in a field test. Starting from an ontology and an attached data model for BCEM application, we elaborated use cases for developing and testing the MAS framework. The building and technical equipment are modeled using the modeling language Modelica under Dymola. The agents are programmed in JADE and communicate with Dymola via TCP/IP and with the real devices via BACnet. Operatively, the~agents can take on different control strategies: normal operation with no optimization, optimization of energy costs, where energy is delivered through the room through the devices that have the lowest operating costs, and relaxation of the comfort constraint, where the costs of the productivity loss under sub-optimal comfort conditions is taken into account during optimization. Comfort is expressed as a function of indoor air temperature. Simulation, including a comparison with a benchmark system, and field test results are presented to demonstrate the features of the proposed BCEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT for Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Next Generation Real-Time Smart Meters for ICT Based Assessment of Grid Data Inconsistencies
Energies 2017, 10(7), 857; doi:10.3390/en10070857
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF Full-text (4826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The latest technological developments are challenging for finding new solutions to mitigate the massive integration of renewable-based electricity generation in the electrical networks and to support new and dynamic energy and ancillary services markets. Smart meters have become ubiquitous equipment in the low
[...] Read more.
The latest technological developments are challenging for finding new solutions to mitigate the massive integration of renewable-based electricity generation in the electrical networks and to support new and dynamic energy and ancillary services markets. Smart meters have become ubiquitous equipment in the low voltage grid, enabled by the decision made in many countries to support massive deployments. The smart meter is the only equipment mandatory to be mounted when supplying a grid connected user, as it primarily has the function to measure delivered and/or produced energy on its common coupling point with the network, as technical and legal support for billing. Active distribution networks need new functionalities, to cope with the bidirectional energy flow behaviour of the grid, and many smart grid requirements need to be implemented in the near future. However there is no real coupling between smart metering systems and smart grids, as there is not yet a synergy using the opportunity of the high deployment level in smart metering. The paper presents a new approach for managing the smart metering and smart grid orchestration by presenting a new general design based on an unbundled smart meter (USM) concept, labelled as next generation open real-time smart meters (NORM), for integrating the smart meter, phasor measurement unit (PMU) and cyber-security through an enhanced smart metering gateway (SMG). NORM is intended to be deployed everywhere at the prosumer’s interface to the grid, as it is usually now done with the standard meter. Furthermore, rich data acquired from NORM is used to demonstrate the potential of assessing grid data inconsistencies at a higher level, as function to be deployed in distribution security monitoring centers, to address the higher level cyber-security threats, such as false data injections and to allow secure grid operations and complex market activities at the same time. The measures are considering only non-sensitive data from a privacy perspective, and is therefore able to be applied everywhere in the grid, down to the end-customer level, where a citizen’s personal data protection is an important aspect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT for Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Bandwidth and Accuracy-Aware State Estimation for Smart Grids Using Software Defined Networks
Energies 2017, 10(7), 858; doi:10.3390/en10070858
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF Full-text (1989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart grid (SG) will be one of the major application domains that will present severe pressures on future communication networks due to the expected huge number of devices that will be connected to it and that will impose stringent quality transmission requirements. To
[...] Read more.
Smart grid (SG) will be one of the major application domains that will present severe pressures on future communication networks due to the expected huge number of devices that will be connected to it and that will impose stringent quality transmission requirements. To address this challenge, there is a need for a joint management of both monitoring and communication systems, so as to achieve a flexible and adaptive management of the SG services. This is the issue addressed in this paper, which provides the following major contributions. We define a new strategy to optimize the accuracy of the state estimation (SE) of the electric grid based on available network bandwidth resources and the sensing intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) installed in the field. In particular, we focus on phasor measurement units (PMUs) as measurement devices. We propose the use of the software defined networks (SDN) technologies to manage the available network bandwidth, which is then assigned by the controller to the forwarding devices to allow for the flowing of the data streams generated by the PMUs, by considering an optimization routine to maximize the accuracy of the resulting SE. Additionally, the use of SDN allows for adding and removing PMUs from the monitoring architecture without any manual intervention. We also provide the details of our implementation of the SDN solution, which is used to make simulations with an IEEE 14-bus test network in order to show performance in terms of bandwidth management and estimation accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT for Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Prototyping a Software Defined Utility
Energies 2017, 10(6), 818; doi:10.3390/en10060818
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The smart grid can be seen as a hybrid system composed by many systems. From a large scale point of view, it combines the electric power system itself and a heterogeneous information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. Additionally, these systems are composed by
[...] Read more.
The smart grid can be seen as a hybrid system composed by many systems. From a large scale point of view, it combines the electric power system itself and a heterogeneous information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. Additionally, these systems are composed by many building blocks that are designed and managed as separated systems which are hard to fully integrate between each other. Relying on the experiences arisen and the knowledge gathered from the partners during the development of the FP7 European projects INTEGRIS (intelligent electrical grid sensor communications) and FINESCE (future internet smart utility services), this paper presents the software defined utility (SDU) concept for the management of the smart grid and its security, which advocates for the migration of the utility infrastructure to software systems instead of relying on complex and rigid hardware based systems. Following this approach, SDU proposes the evolution of power systems’ ICT and the usage of programmable commodity hardware, low-cost sensors, and reliable high-speed IP-based communications underneath. More concretely, this paper proposes some building blocks for the deployment of the SDU (flexible data management infrastructure, context-aware security and web of things interface) and evaluates their functionalities and benefits for the smart grids of the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT for Energy)
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Open AccessArticle IEC 61850 Configuration Solution to Distributed Intelligence in Distribution Grid Automation
Energies 2017, 10(4), 528; doi:10.3390/en10040528
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
PDF Full-text (10522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To solve the configuration issue when using International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850 for distributed intelligence in Distribution Automation Systems (DAS), this paper proposes the configuration solution in terms of semantic models and processing methods. Firstly, the special requirements of the DAS configuration are
[...] Read more.
To solve the configuration issue when using International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850 for distributed intelligence in Distribution Automation Systems (DAS), this paper proposes the configuration solution in terms of semantic models and processing methods. Firstly, the special requirements of the DAS configuration are analyzed, consisting of the system boundary of a configuration project, the topology configuration for distributed applications, and the automatic identification of the Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED). The new models of Process, Line, and other elements are then presented based on the System Configuration Language (SCL) to describe the distribution network topology. The planned contents are allocated into a new format of the Configured IED Description (CID) file to realize the distributed applications. A register service is designed, which fulfills the automatic identification of IEDs when they are remotely placed into a DAS. The service checks the configuration status in real-time and automates the whole configuration engineering process. The case study shows that the proposed solution allows an IED to detect the real-time topology and re-establish the data flow configuration with peer IEDs independently from the master station; thus the distributed applications can be performed more autonomously and efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICT for Energy)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type: Article
Title: A Decentralized Energy Management Scheme for Coordinating Community Microgrids
Authors: Kazi Moyeen ul Huq
Affiliation: This paper focuses on the operational issues related to community level microgrids that use Photovoltaic (PV) systems as their main local power generation. The paper shows how several community microgrids with Community Energy Storage(CES) devices can co-operate in a decentralized way to achieve global and local objectives. A rule-based energy management scheme is developed that incorporates the operating constraints such as reducing combined energy consumption during peak load, limiting reverse power flow towards utility, and smoothing PV intermittency. To assure that the proposed scheme will perform well under different operating conditions, typical PV profiles corresponding to different days (sunny day, days with varying cloudiness) were considered. The effectiveness of the rule-based solution is compared to an optimized solution.
Keywords: Decentralized Energy Management System, EMS, Battery Energy storage, Community Energy Storage, Community microgrid

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