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Special Issue "Electric and Hybrid Vehicles"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. K.T. Chau

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electric and hybrid vehicles; machines and drives; renewable and clean energies; power electronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In a world where energy conservation, environmental protection and sustainable development are growing concerns, the development of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) technologies has taken on an accelerated pace. This special issue entitled “Electric and Hybrid Vehicles” invites articles that address the state-of-the-art technologies and new developments for EVs and HEVs, including but not limited to energy sources, electric powertrains, hybrid powertrains, energy management systems, energy refueling systems, regenerative braking systems, system integration, system optimization and infrastructure. Articles which deal with the latest hot topics for EVs and HEVs are particularly encouraged such as advanced lithium-ion batteries, ultracapacitors, energy-efficient motor drives, bidirectional power converters, integrated-starter-generator systems, electric variable transmission systems, on-board renewable energy, inductive or wireless charging technology, and vehicle-to-grid technology. As the impact of the use of EVs and HEVs on our daily lives is utmost important, articles which deal with the relationships between the use of EVs or HEVs and the energy, environment and economy would be of particular interest.

Prof. Dr. K.T. Chau
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • electric vehicles
  • hybrid vehicles
  • energy sources
  • batteries
  • ultracapacitors
  • powertrains
  • motor drives
  • energy management
  • vehicle-to-grid
  • chargers

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Mitigation Emission Strategy Based on Resonances from a Power Inverter System in Electric Vehicles
Energies 2016, 9(6), 419; doi:10.3390/en9060419
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
PDF Full-text (9149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs) and nearby vehicles. The
[...] Read more.
Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs) and nearby vehicles. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters, ferrite chokes, and shielding added in the product process based on the “black box” approach can reduce the emission levels in a specific frequency range. However, these countermeasures may also introduce an unexpected increase in EMI noises in other frequency ranges due to added capacitances and inductances in filters resonating with elements of the power inverter, and even increase the weight and dimension of the power inverter system in EVs with limited space. In order to predict the interaction between the mitigation techniques and power inverter geometry, an accurate model of the system is needed. A power inverter system was modeled based on series of two-port network measurements to study the impact of EMI generated by power devices on radiated emission of AC cables. Parallel resonances within the circuit can cause peaks in the S21 (transmission coefficient between the phase-node-to-chassis voltage and the center-conductor-to-shield voltage of the AC cable connecting to the motor) and Z11 (input impedance at Port 1 between the Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) phase node and chassis) at those resonance frequencies and result in enlarged noise voltage peaks at Port 1. The magnitude of S21 between two ports was reduced to decrease the amount of energy coupled from the noise source between the phase node and chassis to the end of the AC cable by lowering the corresponding quality factor. The equivalent circuits were built by analyzing current-following paths at three critical resonance frequencies. Interference voltage peaks can be suppressed by mitigating the resonances. The capacitances and inductances generating the parallel resonances and responsible elements were determined by the calculation through the equivalent circuits. A combination of mitigation strategies including adding common-mode (CM) ferrite chokes through the Y-caps and the AC bus bar was designed to mitigate the resonances at 6 MHz, 11 MHz, and 26 MHz related to the CM conducted emission by IGBT switching and the radiated emission of the AC cable. The values of Z11 decreased respectively by 15 dB at 6 MHz, 0.4 dB at 11 MHz, and 11.5 dB at 26 MHz and the values of S21 decreased respectively by 8.6 dB at 6 MHz, 7 dB at 11 MHz, and 6.3 dB at 26 MHz. An equivalent model of the power inverter system for real-time simulation in time domain was built to validate the mitigation strategy in simulation software PSPICE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply
Energies 2016, 9(3), 171; doi:10.3390/en9030171
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs) such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from
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Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs) such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H). In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Thermal Analysis of a Novel Cylindrical Transverse-Flux Permanent-Magnet Linear Machine
Energies 2015, 8(8), 7874-7896; doi:10.3390/en8087874
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel staggered-teeth cylindrical transverse-flux permanent-magnet linear machine (TFPMLM), which aims to improve the power factor and force density. Due to the compact structure and high performance requirement, thermal problems should be seriously considered. The three-dimensional (3-D) temperature field model
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel staggered-teeth cylindrical transverse-flux permanent-magnet linear machine (TFPMLM), which aims to improve the power factor and force density. Due to the compact structure and high performance requirement, thermal problems should be seriously considered. The three-dimensional (3-D) temperature field model is established. The determination of convection heat transfer coefficients is discussed. Equivalent thermal conductivities of stator core and winding are given to simplify the analysis. With the thermal effect of the adhesive coatings among permanent magnets (PMs) and mover yoke taken into account, the temperature field distribution and variation rules of the TFPMLM are obtained using the finite volume method (FVM). The influences of slot filling factor and air flow velocity on the temperature field distribution are analyzed. It is found that the hottest spot of the TFPMLM appears in the middle of the end winding; and there is no risk of demagnetization for PMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis and Simulation of a Novel Brushless Double Rotor Machine for Power-Split HEV Applications
Energies 2012, 5(1), 119-137; doi:10.3390/en5010119
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new type of brushless double rotor machine (BDRM) is proposed in this paper. The BDRM is an important component in compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM) systems, which are promising for power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The BDRM can realize the speed
[...] Read more.
A new type of brushless double rotor machine (BDRM) is proposed in this paper. The BDRM is an important component in compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM) systems, which are promising for power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The BDRM can realize the speed adjustment between claw-pole rotor and permanent-magnet rotor without brushes and slip rings. The structural characteristics of the BDRM are described and its magnetic circuit model is built. Reactance parameters of the BDRM are deduced by an analytical method. It is found that the size characteristics of the BDRM are different from those of conventional machines. The new sizing and torque equations are analyzed and the theoretical results are used in the optimization process. Studies of the analytical magnetic circuit and finite element method (FEM) model show that the BDRM tends to have high leakage flux and low power factor, and then the method to obtain high power factor is discussed. Furthermore, a practical methodology of the BDRM design is developed, which includes an analytical tool, 2D field calculation and performance evaluation by 3D field calculation. Finally, different topologies of the BDRM are compared and an optimum prototype is designed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Standardization Work for BEV and HEV Applications: Critical Appraisal of Recent Traction Battery Documents
Energies 2012, 5(1), 138-156; doi:10.3390/en5010138
Received: 30 September 2011 / Revised: 16 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased activity in the field of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have led to an increase in standardization work, performed by both world-wide organizations like the IEC or the ISO, as by regional and national bodies such as
[...] Read more.
The increased activity in the field of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have led to an increase in standardization work, performed by both world-wide organizations like the IEC or the ISO, as by regional and national bodies such as CEN, CENELEC, SAE or JEVA. The issues of these standards cover several topics: safety, performance and operational/dimension issues. This paper reports a brief overview of current standardization activities of lithium batteries based on IEC 62660-1/2 and ISO 12405-1/2. Furthermore, in this paper, a series of innovative test procedures for lithium-ion batteries are presented. Thanks to these tests, the general characteristics of a battery such as charge and discharge capabilities, power performances and life cycle can be determined. Then, a new approach for extracting the life cycle of a battery in function of depth of discharge has been developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Is the Electric Vehicle an Attractive Option for Customers?
Energies 2012, 5(1), 71-91; doi:10.3390/en5010071
Received: 7 November 2011 / Revised: 23 December 2011 / Accepted: 4 January 2012 / Published: 12 January 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a new technology, electric mobility has the potential to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions and contribute to the transition from the current transportation system to a better one, environmentally speaking. The objective of the paper is to aid the necessary
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As a new technology, electric mobility has the potential to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions and contribute to the transition from the current transportation system to a better one, environmentally speaking. The objective of the paper is to aid the necessary decision-making for the adoption and development of electric vehicles in Spain, taking the time horizon of 2020. This will be achieved by building a System Dynamics model for various scenarios that will be used for the analysis and comparison of various dynamic variables, as well as to determine how, and to what extent, they will influence the number of electric vehicles that will run on Spanish roads in the coming years, focusing on the cost variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Modeling and Control of a Flux-Modulated Compound-Structure Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Energies 2012, 5(1), 45-57; doi:10.3390/en5010045
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 29 December 2011 / Accepted: 29 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM), comprising a double rotor machine (DRM) and a permanent-magnet (PM) motor, is a promising electronic-continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) concept for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). By CS-PMSM, independent speed and torque control of the vehicle engine is realized
[...] Read more.
The compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM), comprising a double rotor machine (DRM) and a permanent-magnet (PM) motor, is a promising electronic-continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) concept for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). By CS-PMSM, independent speed and torque control of the vehicle engine is realized without a planetary gear unit. However, the slip rings and brushes of the conventional CS-PMSM are considered a major drawback for vehicle application. In this paper, a brushless flux-modulated CS-PMSM is investigated. The operating principle and basic working modes of the CS-PMSM are discussed. Mathematical models of the CS-PMSM system are given, and joint control of the two integrated machines is proposed. As one rotor of the DRM is mechanically connected with the rotor of the PM motor, special rotor position detection and torque allocation methods are required. Simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink, and the feasibility of the control system is proven. Considering the complexity of the controller, a single digital signal processor (DSP) is used to perform the interconnected control of dual machines instead of two separate ones, and a typical hardware implementation is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of a Single-Phase Z-Source Inverter for Battery Discharging in Vehicle to Grid Applications
Energies 2011, 4(12), 2224-2235; doi:10.3390/en4122224
Received: 20 September 2011 / Revised: 23 November 2011 / Accepted: 25 November 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1045 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vehicle to Grid technology allows the batteries of electric vehicles to operate as energy storage elements for renewable energy power systems. The Z-Source inverter is a new and attractive topology for the power electronics interface. In this paper, the equivalent DC-link voltage ripple
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Vehicle to Grid technology allows the batteries of electric vehicles to operate as energy storage elements for renewable energy power systems. The Z-Source inverter is a new and attractive topology for the power electronics interface. In this paper, the equivalent DC-link voltage ripple of a single-phase Z-Source inverter for Vehicle to Grid applications is analyzed in this paper before deriving a general design approach for the Z-Source network. These theoretical findings, and design rule for a Z-Source network have been confirmed by computer simulations and a laboratory-implemented prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2011, 4(9), 1461-1477; doi:10.3390/en4091461
Received: 12 May 2011 / Revised: 2 September 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 22 September 2011
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (2332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs) to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS) integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car
[...] Read more.
Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs) to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS) integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Model Predictive Control-Based Fast Charging for Vehicular Batteries
Energies 2011, 4(8), 1178-1196; doi:10.3390/en4081178
Received: 13 June 2011 / Revised: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1066 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Battery fast charging is one of the most significant and difficult techniques affecting the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, we propose a fast charge framework based on model predictive control, with the aim of simultaneously reducing the charge duration, which
[...] Read more.
Battery fast charging is one of the most significant and difficult techniques affecting the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, we propose a fast charge framework based on model predictive control, with the aim of simultaneously reducing the charge duration, which represents the out-of-service time of vehicles, and the increase in temperature, which represents safety and energy efficiency during the charge process. The RC model is employed to predict the future State of Charge (SOC). A single mode lumped-parameter thermal model and a neural network trained by real experimental data are also applied to predict the future temperature in simulations and experiments respectively. A genetic algorithm is then applied to find the best charge sequence under a specified fitness function, which consists of two objectives: minimizing the charging duration and minimizing the increase in temperature. Both simulation and experiment demonstrate that the Pareto front of the proposed method dominates that of the most popular constant current constant voltage (CCCV) charge method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach
Energies 2011, 4(4), 582-598; doi:10.3390/en4040582
Received: 24 January 2011 / Revised: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 28 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
Cited by 185 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV) applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin
[...] Read more.
To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV) applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP) model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC) estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST) and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF) approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS) experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1840-1857; doi:10.3390/en4111840
Received: 31 August 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 25 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
Cited by 89 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control,
[...] Read more.
The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)

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