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Special Issue "Hybrid Vehicles"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Giovanni Pede

Dipartimento TER, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese, 301 00060 Roma, Italy
Guest Editor
Dr. Srdjan Lukic

Advanced Transportation Energy Center, North Carolina State University, 1017 Main Campus Drive, Suite 2100 Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
Fax: +1 919 513 0405

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) constitute an interesting solution for the reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions with respect to conventional vehicles, while maintaining comparable performances and ranges. They can also be realized with limited modifications to existing manufacturing processes; moreover, they can normally operate not only in hybrid mode, but also in purely electric mode, this way reaching the condition of zero emissions.

The basis of the growth of hybrid technology is electric storage, and electrochemical batteries, and even supercapacitors, are researched and developed in a variety of chemistries and configurations to better meet the continuously changing technical and economical requirements for battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), but, to actually achieve the potential advantages of HEVs the powertrain structure and the energy management logic have to be carefully selected and matched.

The special issue covers current trends and future developments of HEV technology, including both mechanical as well as electrical engineering aspects.

Dr. Srdjan Lukic
Dr. Giovanni Pede
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • electric vehicles
  • hybrid-electric vehicles
  • electrochemical batteries
  • supercapacitors
  • power management strategy
  • modelling
  • simulations
  • fuel economy

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications
Energies 2011, 4(5), 741-757; doi:10.3390/en4050741
Received: 23 February 2011 / Revised: 11 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 April 2011 / Published: 29 April 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field [...] Read more.
Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles
Energies 2011, 4(5), 758-779; doi:10.3390/en4050758
Received: 15 February 2011 / Revised: 26 March 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 29 April 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock [...] Read more.
Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (P)HEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Optimization for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Parameters Based on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms
Energies 2011, 4(3), 532-544; doi:10.3390/en4030532
Received: 13 January 2011 / Revised: 20 February 2011 / Accepted: 10 March 2011 / Published: 18 March 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to conventional vehicles Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) provide fairly high fuel economy with lower emissions. To enhance HEV performance in terms of fuel economy and emissions, and ensure user satisfaction with driving performance, the need for simultaneous optimization for the main [...] Read more.
Compared to conventional vehicles Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) provide fairly high fuel economy with lower emissions. To enhance HEV performance in terms of fuel economy and emissions, and ensure user satisfaction with driving performance, the need for simultaneous optimization for the main parameters of powertrain components and control system is inevitable. However, this problem is challenging due to the large amount of coupling design parameters, conflicting design objectives and nonlinear constraints. Considering the defect of the methods which convert multi-objective optimization problems into single-objective ones, a comprehensive methodology based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms II (NSGA II) to achieve parameter optimization for powertrain components and control system simultaneously and successfully find the Pareto-optimal solutions set is presented in this paper. A case simulation is carried out and simulated by ADVISOR, The simulation results show that this method can produce many Pareto-optimal solutions and a satisfactory solution can be selected by decision-makers according to their requirements. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms proposed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle A Proposal for CO2 Abatement in Urban Areas: The UDR1–Lethe© Turbo-Hybrid Vehicle
Energies 2011, 4(3), 368-388; doi:10.3390/en4030368
Received: 6 December 2010 / Revised: 1 February 2011 / Accepted: 23 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For years the interest of the University of Roma 1 (UDR1) research group has been focused on the development of a Hybrid Series vehicle (called Lethe©), different from standard ones, thanks to the use of a Gas Turbine (GT) set [...] Read more.
For years the interest of the University of Roma 1 (UDR1) research group has been focused on the development of a Hybrid Series vehicle (called Lethe©), different from standard ones, thanks to the use of a Gas Turbine (GT) set as a thermal engine. The reason for this choice resides in the opportunity to reduce weight and dimensions, in comparison to a traditional Internal Combustion Engine. It’s currently not possible to use the GT engine set directly for the vehicle traction, so the UDR1 HS configuration only shows the GT set connected with the electric generator. The result is that the traction is purely electric. The resulting engine configuration is commonly described as a Hybrid Series Plug In. Several previous studies have been carried out, and this research has allowed us to define the correct ratio (Degree of Hybridization) between the installed power of the battery pack and that of the GT electric generator which simultaneously guarantee the main life for the battery package and the capacity of the vehicle to complete a common mission without lack of energy or stopping. This article reports the final step of the research: once all data has been calculated, how to “hybridize” a commercial city car, passenger sedan or any other vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Experiment and Simulation of Medium-Duty Tactical Truck for Fuel Economy Improvement
Energies 2011, 4(2), 276-293; doi:10.3390/en4020276
Received: 26 November 2010 / Revised: 5 January 2011 / Accepted: 26 January 2011 / Published: 4 February 2011
PDF Full-text (1654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fuel economy improvement on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The focus of this study is the investigation of Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) and mild hybridization powertrain that have potential to improve the [...] Read more.
Fuel economy improvement on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The focus of this study is the investigation of Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) and mild hybridization powertrain that have potential to improve the fuel economy of the 2.5-ton cargo trucks. The current platform uses a seven-speed automatic transmission. This study utilized a combination of on-road experimental vehicle data and analytical vehicle modeling and simulation. This paper presents the results of (1) establishment of a validated, high fidelity baseline analytical vehicle model, (2) modeling and simulation of two AMTs and their control strategy, (3) optimization of transmissions shift schedules, and (4) modeling and simulation of engine idle stop/start and Belt-Integrated-Starter-Generator (B-ISG) systems to improve the fuel economy. The fuel economy discrepancy between experimental average and the baseline simulation result was 2.87%. The simulation results indicated a 14.5% and 12.2% fuel economy improvement for the 10-speed and 12-speed AMT respectively. A stop/start system followed by a B-ISG mild hybrid system incorporating regenerative braking was estimated to improve fuel economy 3.39% and 10.2% respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications
Energies 2010, 3(11), 1821-1830; doi:10.3390/en3111821
Received: 30 August 2010 / Revised: 7 October 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 22 November 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and [...] Read more.
Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule). The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles
Energies 2010, 3(10), 1673-1690; doi:10.3390/en3101673
Received: 20 August 2010 / Revised: 24 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, [...] Read more.
Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H robust control, a H2/H controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Robust State of Charge Estimation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Framework and Algorithms
Energies 2010, 3(10), 1654-1672; doi:10.3390/en3101654
Received: 13 September 2010 / Accepted: 25 September 2010 / Published: 30 September 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
State of Charge (SoC) estimation is one of the most significant and difficult techniques to promote the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). Suffering from various interference in vehicle driving environment and model uncertainties due to the strong time-variant property and inconsistency of [...] Read more.
State of Charge (SoC) estimation is one of the most significant and difficult techniques to promote the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). Suffering from various interference in vehicle driving environment and model uncertainties due to the strong time-variant property and inconsistency of batteries, the existing typical SoC estimators such as coulomb counting and extended Kalman filter cannot perform their theoretically optimal efficacy in practical applications. Aiming at enhancing the robustness of SoC estimation and improving accuracy under the real driving conditions with noises and uncertainties, this paper proposes a framework consisting of (1) an adaptive-κ nonlinear diffusion filter to reduce the noise in current measurement, (2) a self-learning strategy to estimate and remove the zero-drift, (3) a coulomb counting algorithm to realize open-loop SoC estimation, (4) an H filter to implement closed-loop robust estimation, and (5) a data fusion unite to achieve the final estimation by integrating the advantages of the two SoC estimators. The availability and efficacy of each component have been demonstrated based on comparative studiesin simulation with the conventional approaches respectively, under the testing conditions of noises with various signal-noise-ratios, varying zero-drifts, and different model errors. The overall framework has also been verified to rationally and efficiently combine these components and achieve robust estimation results in the presence of kinds of noises and uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer
Energies 2010, 3(9), 1586-1603; doi:10.3390/en3091586
Received: 29 July 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 9 September 2010
Cited by 63 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC) is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating [...] Read more.
In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC) is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV). The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identified and optimized using the numerically nonlinear least squares algorithm, based on an experimental data set. By means of the optimized model, an adaptive Luenberger observer is built to estimate online the SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack. The observer gain is adaptively adjusted using a stochastic gradient approach so as to reduce the error between the estimated battery output voltage and the filtered battery terminal voltage measurement. Validation results show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack without a heavy computational load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Hu, X.; Sun, F. and Zou, Y. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer. Energies 2010, 3, 1586–1603
Energies 2011, 4(12), 2132; doi:10.3390/en4122132
Received: 6 November 2011 / Published: 30 November 2011
PDF Full-text (147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The authors would like to make the following corrections to their published paper in Energies [1]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Vehicles)

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