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Special Issue "Natural Gas Hydrate"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ross Chapman (Website)

School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Bob Wright Centre for Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Science, Rm A329, 3800 Finnerty Road (Ring Road), Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2, Canada
Fax: +1 250 472 4620
Interests: seismic investigation of marine gas hydrates; characterization and detection of sea floor gas seeps
Guest Editor
Prof. Richard B. Coffin (Website)

Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Corpus Christi, TX 78421, USA
Interests: variation in methane hydrate abundance in world ocean coastal regions; shallow sediment methane cycling; methane flux to the atmosphere; elemental isotope analyses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gas hydrates, recognized to be distributed through the world coastal oceans, are a significant energy source, have potential to influence coastal ocean platform stability, are an important component in climate change, and may contribute significantly to the overlying water column carbon cycles. Large investments for evaluation of methane hydrates as an energy source are ongoing at the Mackenzie Delta and Prudhoe Bay in the Arctic, the Nankai Trough off Japan, the Bay of Bengal near India, and on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition to these large scale efforts, preliminary investigation of hydrate as a resource has started off on the coasts of New Zealand, Korea, Russia, Norway, Chile and other countries. Methane in hydrates is also being studied in Arctic coastal permafrost as a contribution to climate change. Addressing the development of this resource requires integration of a wide array of chemical, physical, geophysical and biological laboratory and field data. This special issue will combine papers on methods for evaluating deep sediment hydrate quantities, regional resource characterization, the methane contribution to shallow sediment and overlying water column carbon cycling, and predicted contributions to climate change. A primary goal is to share a thorough global overview of the current activity related to methane hydrate research.

Prof. Dr. Ross Chapman
Dr. Richard B. Coffin
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • energy
  • methane hydrates
  • climate change
  • carbon cycling
  • biogeochemistry
  • ocean modeling

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Measurements of Water Permeability in Unconsolidated Porous Media with Methane Hydrate Formation
Energies 2013, 6(7), 3622-3636; doi:10.3390/en6073622
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Permeability is one of the key factors that determine the fluids flow capacity and production potential of hydrate deposits. In this study, an experimental setup is developed to investigate the flow properties of the porous media, and the permeabilities to water are [...] Read more.
Permeability is one of the key factors that determine the fluids flow capacity and production potential of hydrate deposits. In this study, an experimental setup is developed to investigate the flow properties of the porous media, and the permeabilities to water are measured in the unconsolidated porous media with or without hydrate deposition in the pores. A specialized method of precisely controlling the amount of injected methane gas is employed to form methane hydrate in the core sample, and the hydrate formation process is described by the change characteristics of the gas and hydrate saturations. It is found that the residual gas plays an obstructive role in the water flow and it tends to slightly reduce the water permeability in the porous media, especially under high pressure conditions. After hydrate formation in the core sample, relatively steady flow state can be obtained under suitable water injection rate Q at which hydrate dissociation rate is very slow. The absolute permeability of the porous sample is reduced from 49.2 to 1.2 Darcies when the hydrate saturation increases from 0 to 9.3% in this study, indicating a strong dependence of k on the hydrate saturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessArticle A Long Gravity-Piston Corer Developed for Seafloor Gas Hydrate Coring Utilizing an In Situ Pressure-Retained Method
Energies 2013, 6(7), 3353-3372; doi:10.3390/en6073353
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A corer, which can obtain long in situ pressure-retained sediments of up to 30 m core containing gas hydrates, has been applied in the South China Sea (SCS) dozens of times. The corer presented in this paper is a convenient, efficient and [...] Read more.
A corer, which can obtain long in situ pressure-retained sediments of up to 30 m core containing gas hydrates, has been applied in the South China Sea (SCS) dozens of times. The corer presented in this paper is a convenient, efficient and economical long in situ pressure-retained coring and research tool for submarine sediments, that can applied to completely cope with all sediments close to the seafloor ranging from shallow waters to the deep sea depths of 6000 m. This article mainly presents the overall structure, working principles, key pressure-retained components, coring mechanism, sea trials and outlook of the corer. The analyses found that the coring ability was affected by formation characteristics, the outer diameter of the core barrels and inner diameter of the core liners, the shapes of the cutter and the dead weight of the corer. This study can provide the practical basis for the structural optimization of this type of corer and designs for corers with greater penetrability. Sea trials showed that the developed corer presented in this paper can support the in situ pressure of the seafloor sediment core, which is an improvement over the conventional piston corer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
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Open AccessArticle Massively-Parallel Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Clathrate Hydrates on Blue Gene Platforms
Energies 2013, 6(6), 3072-3081; doi:10.3390/en6063072
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 31 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Massively-parallel classical equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the computational performance of the Simple Point Charge (SPC) model and single-particle model of Molinero et al. applied to simulation of methane hydrates, using systems consisting of several million particles, [...] Read more.
Massively-parallel classical equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the computational performance of the Simple Point Charge (SPC) model and single-particle model of Molinero et al. applied to simulation of methane hydrates, using systems consisting of several million particles, on a variety of Blue Gene/L, P and Q platforms. It was found that the newer Blue Gene/Q platform offers attractive performance for massively-parallel simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessArticle A Counter-Current Heat-Exchange Reactor for the Thermal Stimulation of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments
Energies 2013, 6(6), 3002-3016; doi:10.3390/en6063002
Received: 25 March 2013 / Revised: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since huge amounts of CH4 are bound in natural gas hydrates occurring at active and passive continental margins and in permafrost regions, the production of natural gas from hydrate-bearing sediments has become of more and more interest. Three different methods to [...] Read more.
Since huge amounts of CH4 are bound in natural gas hydrates occurring at active and passive continental margins and in permafrost regions, the production of natural gas from hydrate-bearing sediments has become of more and more interest. Three different methods to destabilize hydrates and release the CH4 gas are discussed in principle: thermal stimulation, depressurization and chemical stimulation. This study focusses on the thermal stimulation using a counter-current heat-exchange reactor for the in situ combustion of CH4. The principle of in situ combustion as a method for thermal stimulation of hydrate bearing sediments has been introduced and discussed earlier [1,2]. In this study we present the first results of several tests performed in a pilot plant scale using a counter-current heat-exchange reactor. The heat of the flameless, catalytic oxidation of CH4 was used for the decomposition of hydrates in sand within a LArge Reservoir Simulator (LARS). Different catalysts were tested, varying from diverse elements of the platinum group to a universal metal catalyst. The results show differences regarding the conversion rate of CH4 to CO2. The promising results of the latest reactor test, for which LARS was filled with sand and ca. 80% of the pore space was saturated with CH4 hydrate, are also presented in this study. The data analysis showed that about 15% of the CH4 gas released from hydrates would have to be used for the successful dissociation of all hydrates in the sediment using thermal stimulation via in situ combustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessArticle Numerical Analysis on Gas Production Efficiency from Hydrate Deposits by Thermal Stimulation: Application to the Shenhu Area, South China Sea
Energies 2011, 4(2), 294-313; doi:10.3390/en4020294
Received: 14 December 2010 / Revised: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 26 January 2011 / Published: 14 February 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gas hydrates have been attracted a great deal of attention because of their potential as an energy substitute and the climate implications. Drilling and sampling research on the hydrate deposit in the Shenhu Area on the northern continental slope of the Southern [...] Read more.
Gas hydrates have been attracted a great deal of attention because of their potential as an energy substitute and the climate implications. Drilling and sampling research on the hydrate deposit in the Shenhu Area on the northern continental slope of the Southern China Sea was a big breakthrough for hydrate investigation in China, but as a new potential energy source, how the gas can be effectively produced from hydrate deposits has become a hot research topic. Besides depressurization heat stimulation is regarded as another important means for producing hydrate-derived gas, however, the production efficiency and economic feasibility of producing gas by heat stimulation have not been clearly understood. In this paper, a simplified model for predicting gas production from hydrate deposits by heat stimulation is developed. The model ideally neglects the effects of heat convection and pressure regime in the sediments for simplicity. We compute the heat consumption efficiency and gas energy efficiency of gas production from hydrate deposits by heat stimulation, only considering effect of hydrate dissociation due to heat input. This model is for predicting the maximum production efficiency. By studying the hydrate reservoirs and significant parameters collected from drilling and sampling researches, we calculate the production potential of the Shenhu hydrate deposits and investigate the production efficiency and feasibility. Our research shows that the maximum amount of cumulative gas production at Shenhu is ~509 m3 per meter in three years. The production potential is much lower than the industrial criterion for marine production. In our discussion the numerical simulations show that a practical potential of the gas production is merely 25 m3/m in 3 years and contribution of thermal stimulation is very small in joint-production schemes. We conclude that production cost is quite high and the economic value of producing gas from the hydrate through a vertical well is not attractive, even though the production by heat stimulation theoretically has a very high heat consumption rate and energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
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Open AccessArticle Polyethylene Glycol Drilling Fluid for Drilling in Marine Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sediments: An Experimental Study
Energies 2011, 4(1), 140-150; doi:10.3390/en4010140
Received: 10 December 2010 / Revised: 23 December 2010 / Accepted: 14 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of [...] Read more.
Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na2CO3, 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% LV-PAC, 0.5% NaOH and 1% PVP K-90 performs well in shale swelling and gas hydrate inhibition. It also shows satisfactory rheological properties and lubrication at temperature ranges from −8 °C to 15 °C. The PVP K-90, a kinetic hydrate inhibitor, can effectively inhibit gas hydrate aggregations at a dose of 1 wt%. This finding demonstrates that a drilling fluid with a high addition of NaCl and a low addition of PVP K-90 is suitable for drilling in natural marine gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessArticle New Approaches for the Production of Hydrocarbons from Hydrate Bearing Sediments
Energies 2011, 4(1), 151-172; doi:10.3390/en4010151
Received: 5 November 2010 / Revised: 16 December 2010 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The presence of natural gas hydrates at all active and passive continental margins has been proven. Their global occurrence as well as the fact that huge amounts of methane and other lighter hydrocarbons are stored in natural gas hydrates has led to [...] Read more.
The presence of natural gas hydrates at all active and passive continental margins has been proven. Their global occurrence as well as the fact that huge amounts of methane and other lighter hydrocarbons are stored in natural gas hydrates has led to the idea of using hydrate bearing sediments as an energy resource. However, natural gas hydrates remain stable as long as they are in mechanical, thermal and chemical equilibrium with their environment. Thus, for the production of gas from hydrate bearing sediments, at least one of these equilibrium states must be disturbed by depressurization, heating or addition of chemicals such as CO2. Depressurization, thermal or chemical stimulation may be used alone or in combination, but the idea of producing hydrocarbons from hydrate bearing sediments by CO2 injection suggests the potential of an almost emission free use of this unconventional natural gas resource. However, up to now there are still open questions regarding all three production principles. Within the framework of the German national research project SUGAR the thermal stimulation method by use of in situ combustion was developed and tested on a pilot plant scale and the CH4-CO2 swapping process in gas hydrates studied on a molecular level. Microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for in situ investigations of the CO2-hydrocarbon exchange process in gas hydrates and its driving forces. For the thermal stimulation a heat exchange reactor was designed and tested for the exothermal catalytic oxidation of methane. Furthermore, a large scale reservoir simulator was realized to synthesize hydrates in sediments under conditions similar to nature and to test the efficiency of the reactor. Thermocouples placed in the reservoir simulator with a total volume of 425 L collect data regarding the propagation of the heat front. In addition, CH4 sensors are placed in the water saturated sediment to detect the distribution of CH4 in the sample. These data are used for numerical simulations for up-scaling from laboratory to field conditions. This study presents the experimental set up of the large scale reservoir simulator and the reactor design. Preliminary results indicate that the catalytic oxidation of CH4 operated as a temperature controlled, autothermal reaction in a countercurrent heat exchange reactor is a safe and promising tool for the thermal stimulation of hydrates. In addition, preliminary results from the laboratory studies on the CO2-hydrocarbon swapping process in simple and mixed gas hydrates are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessArticle Offshore Antarctic Peninsula Gas Hydrate Reservoir Characterization by Geophysical Data Analysis
Energies 2011, 4(1), 39-56; doi:10.3390/en4010039
Received: 8 December 2010 / Revised: 21 December 2010 / Accepted: 24 December 2010 / Published: 31 December 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A gas hydrate reservoir, identified by the presence of the bottom simulating reflector, is located offshore of the Antarctic Peninsula. The analysis of geophysical dataset acquired during three geophysical cruises allowed us to characterize this reservoir. 2D velocity fields were obtained by [...] Read more.
A gas hydrate reservoir, identified by the presence of the bottom simulating reflector, is located offshore of the Antarctic Peninsula. The analysis of geophysical dataset acquired during three geophysical cruises allowed us to characterize this reservoir. 2D velocity fields were obtained by using the output of the pre-stack depth migration iteratively. Gas hydrate amount was estimated by seismic velocity, using the modified Biot-Geerstma-Smit theory. The total volume of gas hydrate estimated, in an area of about 600 km2, is in a range of 16 × 109–20 × 109 m3. Assuming that 1 m3 of gas hydrate corresponds to 140 m3 of free gas in standard conditions, the reservoir could contain a total volume that ranges from 1.68 to 2.8 × 1012 m3 of free gas. The interpretation of the pre-stack depth migrated sections and the high resolution morpho-bathymetry image allowed us to define a structural model of the area. Two main fault systems, characterized by left transtensive and compressive movement, are recognized, which interact with a minor transtensive fault system. The regional geothermal gradient (about 37.5 °C/km), increasing close to a mud volcano likely due to fluid-upwelling, was estimated through the depth of the bottom simulating reflector by seismic data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessArticle First-Order Estimation of In-Place Gas Resources at the Nyegga Gas Hydrate Prospect, Norwegian Sea
Energies 2010, 3(12), 2001-2026; doi:10.3390/en3122001
Received: 26 October 2010 / Revised: 7 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 December 2010 / Published: 22 December 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gas hydrates have lately received increased attention as a potential future energy source, which is not surprising given their global and widespread occurrence. This article presents an integrated study of the Nyegga site offshore mid-Norway, where a gas hydrate prospect is defined [...] Read more.
Gas hydrates have lately received increased attention as a potential future energy source, which is not surprising given their global and widespread occurrence. This article presents an integrated study of the Nyegga site offshore mid-Norway, where a gas hydrate prospect is defined on the basis of a multitude of geophysical models and one shallow geotechnical borehole. This prospect appears to hold around 625GSm3 (GSm3 = 109 standard cubic metres) of gas. The uncertainty related to the input parameters is dealt with through a stochastic calculation, giving a spread of in-place volumes of 183GSm3 (P90) to 1431GSm3 (P10). The resource density for Nyegga is found to be comparable to published resource assessments of other global hydrate provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessArticle Observation of Sintering of Clathrate Hydrates
Energies 2010, 3(12), 1960-1971; doi:10.3390/en3121960
Received: 25 October 2010 / Revised: 2 December 2010 / Accepted: 10 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clathrate hydrates have recently received attention as novel storage and transportation materials for natural gases or hydrogen. These hydrates are treated as powders or particles, and moderate storage temperatures (around 253 K) are set for economic reasons. Thus, it is necessary to [...] Read more.
Clathrate hydrates have recently received attention as novel storage and transportation materials for natural gases or hydrogen. These hydrates are treated as powders or particles, and moderate storage temperatures (around 253 K) are set for economic reasons. Thus, it is necessary to consider the sintering of hydrate particles for their easy handling because the hydrates have a framework similar to that of ice, even though their sintering would require guest molecules in addition to water molecules. We observed the sintering process of clathrate hydrates to estimate the rate of sintering. Spherical tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate particles were used in observations of sintering under a microscope equipped with a CCD camera and a time-lapse video recorder. We found that THF hydrate particles stored at temperatures below the equilibrium condition sintered like ice particles. The sintering part was confirmed to be not ice, but THF hydrate, by increasing the temperature above 273 K after each experiment. The sintering rate was lower than that of ice particles under the normal vapor condition at the same temperature. However, it became of the same order when the atmosphere of the sample was saturated with THF vapor. This indicates that the sintering rate of THF hydrate was controlled by the transportation of guest molecules through the vapor phase accompanied with water molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessArticle A Method to Use Solar Energy for the Production of Gas from Marine Hydrate-Bearing Sediments: A Case Study on the Shenhu Area
Energies 2010, 3(12), 1861-1879; doi:10.3390/en3121861
Received: 2 November 2010 / Revised: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 24 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A method is proposed that uses renewable solar energy to supply energy for the exploitation of marine gas hydrates using thermal stimulation. The system includes solar cells, which are installed on the platform and a distributor with electric heaters. The solar module [...] Read more.
A method is proposed that uses renewable solar energy to supply energy for the exploitation of marine gas hydrates using thermal stimulation. The system includes solar cells, which are installed on the platform and a distributor with electric heaters. The solar module is connected with electric heaters via an insulated cable, and provides power to the heaters. Simplified equations are given for the calculation of the power of the electric heaters and the solar battery array. Also, a case study for the Shenhu area is provided to illustrate the calculation of the capacity of electric power and the solar cell system under ideal conditions. It is shown that the exploitation of marine gas hydrates by solar energy is technically and economically feasible in typical marine areas and hydrate reservoirs such as the Shenhu area. This method may also be used as a good assistance for depressurization exploitation of marine gas hydrates in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Processes: Will They Work?
Energies 2010, 3(6), 1154-1175; doi:10.3390/en3061154
Received: 8 April 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 7 June 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated [...] Read more.
Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. Results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve (see Figure 1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Towards Commercial Gas Production from Hydrate Deposits
Energies 2011, 4(2), 215-238; doi:10.3390/en4020215
Received: 13 November 2010 / Revised: 24 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last decade global natural gas consumption has steadily increased since many industrialized countries are substituting natural gas for coal to generate electricity. There is also significant industrialization and economic growth of the heavily populated Asian countries of India and China. [...] Read more.
Over the last decade global natural gas consumption has steadily increased since many industrialized countries are substituting natural gas for coal to generate electricity. There is also significant industrialization and economic growth of the heavily populated Asian countries of India and China. The general consensus is that there are vast quantities of natural gas trapped in hydrate deposits in geological systems, and this has resulted in the emerging importance of hydrates as a potential energy resource and an accompanying proliferation of recent studies on the technical and economic feasibility of gas production from hydrates. There are then the associated environmental concerns. This study reviews the state of knowledge with respect to natural gas hydrates and outlines remaining challenges and knowledge gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessReview Gas Hydrate Stability and Sampling: The Future as Related to the Phase Diagram
Energies 2010, 3(12), 1991-2000; doi:10.3390/en3121991
Received: 1 November 2010 / Revised: 13 December 2010 / Accepted: 16 December 2010 / Published: 21 December 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The phase diagram for methane + water is explained, in relation to hydrate applications, such as in flow assurance and in nature. For natural applications, the phase diagram determines the regions for hydrate formation for two- and three-phase conditions. Impacts are presented for sample [...] Read more.
The phase diagram for methane + water is explained, in relation to hydrate applications, such as in flow assurance and in nature. For natural applications, the phase diagram determines the regions for hydrate formation for two- and three-phase conditions. Impacts are presented for sample preparation and recovery. We discuss an international study for “Round Robin” hydrate sample preparation protocols and testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)
Open AccessReview Perspectives on Hydrate Thermal Conductivity
Energies 2010, 3(12), 1934-1942; doi:10.3390/en3121934
Received: 28 October 2010 / Revised: 3 December 2010 / Accepted: 6 December 2010 / Published: 10 December 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, the intriguing, anomalous behaviour of hydrate thermal conductivity will be described, and progress in performing experimental measurements will be described briefly. However particular attention shall be devoted to recent advances in the development of detailed theoretical understandings of mechanisms [...] Read more.
In this review, the intriguing, anomalous behaviour of hydrate thermal conductivity will be described, and progress in performing experimental measurements will be described briefly. However particular attention shall be devoted to recent advances in the development of detailed theoretical understandings of mechanisms of thermal conduction in clathrate hydrates, and on how information gleaned from molecular simulation has contributed to mechanistic theoretical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate)

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