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Special Issue "Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Xiangzheng Deng

Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 86-10-6488-8980
Interests: land use economics; land use and climate change; dynamics and consequences of land system change; urban energy balance; energy; environmental and climate policies
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Karen C. Seto

School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 203 432 5556
Interests: urbanization and sustainability; human dimensions of global change; comparative urbanization dynamics in Asia; monitoring, modeling, and forecasting urban expansion; remote sensing of land-use and land-cover change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urbanization, biofuel production, deforestation and agricultural expansion are just some examples of large-scale land use and land cover changes (LUCC) that have significant and direct impacts on surface water and energy balance, and local surface climate parameters. These LUCC also affect or are manifestations of changes in energy use. This Special Issue of Energies addresses these direct and indirect effects of large-scale LUCC. We invite papers that address any of the following three topics:

1. Large-scale LUCC and direct impacts on surface energy flux
2. Large-scale LUCC and impacts on surface water balance
3. Large-scale LUCC and indirect impacts on energy use

We especially encourage papers that provide new methodological approaches and use of novel datasets to model and forecast these relationships.

Prof. Dr. Xiangzheng Deng
Dr. Karen C. Seto
Guest Editors

Submission

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • urbanization
  • biofuel production
  • land use and land cover change
  • ecosystem service
  • biogeophysical process
  • surface energy flux
  • surface water balance
  • biogeochemical cycles
  • energy use, energy policy

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Downscaling the Impacts of Large-Scale LUCC on Surface Temperature along with IPCC RCPs: A Global Perspective
Energies 2014, 7(4), 2720-2739; doi:10.3390/en7042720
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 12 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 24 April 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (959 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focuses on the potential impacts of large-scale land use and land cover changes (LUCC) on surface temperature from a global perspective. As important types of LUCC, urbanization, deforestation, cultivated land reclamation, and grassland degradation have effects on the climate, the potential
[...] Read more.
This study focuses on the potential impacts of large-scale land use and land cover changes (LUCC) on surface temperature from a global perspective. As important types of LUCC, urbanization, deforestation, cultivated land reclamation, and grassland degradation have effects on the climate, the potential changes of the surface temperature caused by these four types of large-scale LUCC from 2010 to 2050 are downscaled, and this issue analyzed worldwide along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The first case study presents some evidence of the effects of future urbanization on surface temperature in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States of America (USA). In order to understand the potential climatological variability caused by future forest deforestation and vulnerability, we chose Brazilian Amazon region as the second case study. The third selected region in India as a typical region of cultivated land reclamation where the possible climatic impacts are explored. In the fourth case study, we simulate the surface temperature changes caused by future grassland degradation in Mongolia. Results show that the temperature in built-up area would increase obviously throughout the four land types. In addition, the effects of all four large-scale LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Wetland Changes and Their Responses to Climate Change in the “Three-River Headwaters” Region of China since the 1990s
Energies 2014, 7(4), 2515-2534; doi:10.3390/en7042515
Received: 23 January 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The wetland ecosystem in the “Three-River Headwaters” (TRH) region plays an irreplaceable role in water source conservation, run-off adjustment and biodiversity maintenance. In recent years, assessment of wetland resources affected by climate changes has aroused enormous attention, since it can further protect wetland
[...] Read more.
The wetland ecosystem in the “Three-River Headwaters” (TRH) region plays an irreplaceable role in water source conservation, run-off adjustment and biodiversity maintenance. In recent years, assessment of wetland resources affected by climate changes has aroused enormous attention, since it can further protect wetland resources and provide a scientific basis for decision makers. In this study, wetland changes and its response to climate changes in the TRH region from the early 1990s to 2012 were analyzed by remote sensing (RS) image interpretation and climate change trend analysis. The results showed that wetlands occupied 6.3% of the total land area in 2012, and swamps, streams & rivers and lakes were the dominant wetland types in the TRH region. Since the early 1990s, wetlands have undergone great changes, and total wetland area increased by 260.57 km2 (1.17%). Lakes, reservoir & ponds took on continuous increasing trend, but swamps, streams & rivers had a continuous decreasing trend. On the other hand, the wetland area in the Yangtze River basin showed an overall increasing trend, while in the Yellow River and Langcang River basins, it decreased in general. The climate turned from Warm-Dry to Warm-Wet. The average temperature and precipitation increased by 0.91 °C and 101.99 mm, respectively, from 1990 to 2012, and the average humidity index (HI) increased by 0.06 and showing an upward trend and a shifting of the dividing line towards the northwest in both the areas of semi-humid and semi-arid zone. The correlation analysis of wetland changes with meteorological factors from 1990 to 2012 indicated that the regional humidity differences and the interannual variation trend, caused by the change of precipitation and evaporation, was the main driving factor for the dynamic variation of wetland change in the TRH region. In the general, the increase of HI in the THR region since the 1990s, especially in the western TRH region, contributed to wetland increase continuously. The conclusions of this study will provide some scientific references for the management and protection of wetlands in the TRH region, especially for restoration, reconstruction and conservation of degradation wetland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Variability of Carbon Flux from Different Land Use and Land Cover Changes: A Case Study in Hubei Province, China
Energies 2014, 7(4), 2298-2316; doi:10.3390/en7042298
Received: 23 January 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 3 April 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon sources and sinks as a result of land use and land cover changes (LUCC) are significant for global climate change. This paper aims to identify and analyze the temporal and spatial changes of land use-based carbon emission in the Hubei Province in
[...] Read more.
Carbon sources and sinks as a result of land use and land cover changes (LUCC) are significant for global climate change. This paper aims to identify and analyze the temporal and spatial changes of land use-based carbon emission in the Hubei Province in China. We use a carbon emission coefficient to calculate carbon emissions in different land use patterns in Hubei Province from 1998 to 2009. The results indicate that regional land use is facing tremendous pressure from rapid carbon emission growth. Source:sink ratios and average carbon emission intensity values of urban land are increasing, while slow-growing carbon sinks fail to offset the rapidly expanding carbon sources. Overall, urban land carbon emissions have a strong correlation with the total carbon emissions, and will continue to increase in the future mainly due to the surge of industrialization and urbanization. Furthermore, carbon emission in regions with more developed industrial structures is much higher than in regions with less advanced industrial structures. Lastly, carbon emission per unit of GDP has declined since 2004, indicating that a series of reform measures i.e., economic growth mode transformation and land-use structure optimization, has initiated the process of carbon emission reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Variation of Surface Energy Fluxes Due to Land Use Changes across China
Energies 2014, 7(4), 2194-2206; doi:10.3390/en7042194
Received: 22 January 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We estimate the heat flux changes caused by the projected land transformation over the next 40 years across China to improve the understanding of the impacts of land dynamics on regional climate. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate
[...] Read more.
We estimate the heat flux changes caused by the projected land transformation over the next 40 years across China to improve the understanding of the impacts of land dynamics on regional climate. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate these impacts in four representative land transformation zones, where reclamation, overgrazing, afforestation, and urbanization dominates the land use and land cover changes in each zone respectively. As indicated by the significant variance of albedo due to different land use and cover changes, different surface properties cause great spatial variance of the surface flux. From the simulation results, latent heat flux increases by 2 and 21 W/m2 in the reclamation and afforestation regions respectively. On the contrary, overgrazing and urban expansion results in decrease of latent heat flux by 5 and 36 W/m2 correspondingly. Urban expansion leads to an average increase of 40 W/m2 of sensible heat flux in the future 40 years, while reclamation, afforestation, as well as overgrazing result in the decrease of sensible heat flux. Results also show that reclamation and overgrazing lead to net radiation decrease by approximately 4 and 7 W/m2 respectively, however, afforestation and urbanization lead to net radiation increase by 6 and 3 W/m2 respectively. The simulated impacts of projected HLCCs on surface energy fluxes will inform sustainable land management and climate change mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Large-Scale Land Use for Construction and Energy Consumption after the New Millennium with Their Impact on Total-Factor Efficiency Change in China’s Regional Economy
Energies 2014, 7(4), 1986-2003; doi:10.3390/en7041986
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid economic growth after the new millennium could be characterized by the reappearance of heavy industrialization and land urbanization. In the literatures, extensive studies have examined the impact of energy and emissions on the growth quality during the heavy industrialization process, but
[...] Read more.
The rapid economic growth after the new millennium could be characterized by the reappearance of heavy industrialization and land urbanization. In the literatures, extensive studies have examined the impact of energy and emissions on the growth quality during the heavy industrialization process, but few have paid attention to the land dimension. This paper aims at studying the role of land use in changing the total-factor efficiency (TFE) in China’s regional economy, together with the energy factors. The basic conclusions obtained are as follows: (1) the land and energy factors do have a statistically significant influence on the total-factor integrated efficiency (TFIE), leading to a much lower and not improved efficiency performance in the sample period. The integrated efficiency is dominated by the land factor rather than energy ones; and (2) the total-factor land efficiency (TFLE) is lower than the energy efficiency and has more room to improve. The land factor has a statistically significant influence on the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) but not vice versa. As compared to single-factor efficiency, the total-factor energy/land efficiency provides us a more precise measure of factor efficiency in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Localized Climate and Surface Energy Flux Alterations across an Urban Gradient in the Central U.S.
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1770-1791; doi:10.3390/en7031770
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long-term urban and rural climate data spanning January 1995 through October 2013 were analyzed to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in a representative mid-sized city of the central US. Locally distributed climate data were also collected at nested low density urban,
[...] Read more.
Long-term urban and rural climate data spanning January 1995 through October 2013 were analyzed to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in a representative mid-sized city of the central US. Locally distributed climate data were also collected at nested low density urban, recently developed, and high density urban monitoring sites from June through September 2013 to improve mechanistic understanding of spatial variability of the UHI effect based upon urban land use intensity. Long-term analyses (1995–2013) indicate significant differences (p < 0.001) between average air temperature (13.47 and 12.89 °C, at the urban and rural site respectively), relative humidity (69.11% and 72.51%, urban and rural respectively), and average wind speed (2.05 and 3.15 m/s urban and rural respectively). Significant differences (p < 0.001) between urban monitoring sites indicate an urban microclimate gradient for all climate variables except precipitation. Results of analysis of net radiation and soil heat flux data suggest distinct localized alterations in urban energy budgets due to land use intensity. Study results hold important implications for urban planners and land managers seeking to improve and implement better urban management practices. Results also reinforce the need for distributed urban energy balance investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Inter-Seasonal Variations of Surface Temperature in the Urbanized Environment of Delhi Using Landsat Thermal Data
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1811-1828; doi:10.3390/en7031811
Received: 29 January 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Complex land use/cover patterns in urban areas significantly influence their prevailing surface temperature conditions. As a result of differential cooling and heating of various land use/cover, large temperature ranges are associated with bare land, built-up land, etc. and low ranges are found in
[...] Read more.
Complex land use/cover patterns in urban areas significantly influence their prevailing surface temperature conditions. As a result of differential cooling and heating of various land use/cover, large temperature ranges are associated with bare land, built-up land, etc. and low ranges are found in vegetation cover and water bodies. Extremely high and low temperature conditions in built-up land have direct and negative impacts on health conditions, and therefore are imperative to study. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to analyze seasonal variations in surface temperature in city of Delhi. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 5 satellite images for the four seasons, viz., 16 January (winter), 5 March (spring), 8 May (summer) and 29 September (autumn) 2011 have been used to interpret the distribution and changes in surface temperature. A total of 80 samples from all land use/cover categories were taken to generalize the patterns along with north-south and west-east profiles. The extracted surface temperature patterns reflect the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature over different land use/cover. The north-south and west-east gradient of temperature demonstrates that the core of Delhi has a much lower temperature and weak urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1300-1317; doi:10.3390/en7031300
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the
[...] Read more.
Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON), the irrigation scenario (IRR), and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE). Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Simulated Effects of Land Cover Conversion on the Surface Energy Budget in the Southwest of China
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1251-1264; doi:10.3390/en7031251
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 3 March 2014
PDF Full-text (1605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the coupled WRF/SSiB model, accompanied by a Karst Rocky Desertification (KRD) map of the Guizhou Karst Plateau (GKP) of China, was applied to detect how the changed vegetation and soil characteristics over the GKP modify the energy balance at the
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the coupled WRF/SSiB model, accompanied by a Karst Rocky Desertification (KRD) map of the Guizhou Karst Plateau (GKP) of China, was applied to detect how the changed vegetation and soil characteristics over the GKP modify the energy balance at the land surface. The results indicated that land degradation led to reduced net radiation by inducing more upward shortwave and longwave radiation, which were associated with increasing surface albedo and temperature, respectively. The KRD also resulted in changed surface energy partitioning into sensible and latent heat fluxes. The latent heat flux at land surface was reduced substantially due to the higher surface albedo and stomatal resistance, the lower Leaf Area Index (LAI) and roughness length in the degradation experiment, while the sensible heat flux increased, mainly because of the higher surface temperature. Furthermore, the moisture flux convergence was reduced, owing to the lower atmospheric heating and the relative subsidence. However, compared with the reduced evaporation, the decrease in moisture flux convergence contributed much less to the reduced precipitation. Precipitation strongly affects soil moisture, vegetation growth and phenology, and thus evaporation and convective latent heating, so when precipitation was changed, a feedback loop was created. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Changes in Crop Residues with Potential for Bioenergy Use in China from 1990 to 2010
Energies 2013, 6(12), 6153-6169; doi:10.3390/en6126153
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 15 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China has abundant crop residues (CRE) that could be used for bioenergy. The spatiotemporal characteristics of bioenergy production are crucial for high-efficiency use and appropriate management of bioenergy enterprises. In this study, statistical and remote-sensing data on crop yield in
[...] Read more.
China has abundant crop residues (CRE) that could be used for bioenergy. The spatiotemporal characteristics of bioenergy production are crucial for high-efficiency use and appropriate management of bioenergy enterprises. In this study, statistical and remote-sensing data on crop yield in China were used to estimate CRE and to analyze its spatiotemporal changes between 1990 and 2010. In 2010, China’s CRE was estimated to be approximately 133.24 Mt, and it was abundant in North and Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and South China; CRE was scarce on the Loess and Qinghai–Tibet Plateaus. The quantity of CRE increased clearly over the 20-year analysis period, mainly from an increase in residues produced on dry land. Changes in cultivated land use clearly influenced the changes in CRE. The expansion of cultivated land, which mainly occurred in Northeast and Northwest China, increased CRE by 5.18 Mt. The loss of cultivated land, which occurred primarily in North China and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, reduced CRE by 3.55 Mt. Additionally, the interconversion of paddy fields and dry land, which occurred mostly in Northeast China, increased CRE by 0.78 Mt. The findings of this article provide important information for policy makers in formulating plans and policies for crop-residue-based bioenergy development in China, and also for commercial ventures in deciding on locations and production schedules for generation of bioenergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5486-5506; doi:10.3390/en6105486
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better
[...] Read more.
Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle A Kalman Filter-Based Method for Reconstructing GMS-5 Global Solar Radiation by Introduction of In Situ Data
Energies 2013, 6(6), 2804-2818; doi:10.3390/en6062804
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solar radiation is an important input for various land-surface energy balance models. Global solar radiation data retrieved from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5 (GMS-5)/Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) has been widely used in recent years. However, due to the impact
[...] Read more.
Solar radiation is an important input for various land-surface energy balance models. Global solar radiation data retrieved from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5 (GMS-5)/Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) has been widely used in recent years. However, due to the impact of clouds, aerosols, solar elevation angle and bidirectional reflection, spatial or temporal deficiencies often exist in solar radiation datasets that are derived from satellite remote sensing, which can seriously affect the accuracy of application models of land-surface energy balance. The goal of reconstructing radiation data is to simulate the seasonal variation patterns of solar radiation, using various statistical and numerical analysis methods to interpolate the missing observations and optimize the whole time-series dataset. In the current study, a reconstruction method based on data assimilation is proposed. Using a Kalman filter as the assimilation algorithm, the retrieved radiation values are corrected through the continuous introduction of local in-situ global solar radiation (GSR) provided by the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System (Daily radiation dataset_Version 3) which were collected from 122 radiation data collection stations over China. A complete and optimal set of time-series data is ultimately obtained. This method is applied and verified in China’s northern agricultural areas (humid regions, semi-humid regions and semi-arid regions in a warm temperate zone). The results show that the mean value and standard deviation of the reconstructed solar radiation data series are significantly improved, with greater consistency with ground-based observations than the series before reconstruction. The method implemented in this study provides a new solution for the time-series reconstruction of surface energy parameters, which can provide more reliable data for scientific research and regional renewable-energy planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Evapotranspiration Estimation with Remote Sensing and Various Surface Energy Balance Algorithms—A Review
Energies 2014, 7(5), 2821-2849; doi:10.3390/en7052821
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (2024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the advent of new satellite technology, the radiative energy exchanges between Sun, Earth, and space may now be quantified accurately. Nevertheless, much less is known about the magnitude of the energy flows within the climate system and at the Earth’s surface, which
[...] Read more.
With the advent of new satellite technology, the radiative energy exchanges between Sun, Earth, and space may now be quantified accurately. Nevertheless, much less is known about the magnitude of the energy flows within the climate system and at the Earth’s surface, which cannot be directly measured by satellites. This review surveys the basic theories, observational methods, and different surface energy balance algorithms for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) from landscapes and regions with remotely sensed surface temperatures, and highlights uncertainties and limitations associated with those estimation methods. Although some of these algorithms were built up for specific land covers like irrigation areas only, methods developed for other disciplines like hydrology and meteorology, are also reviewed, where continuous estimates in space and in time are needed. Temporal and spatial scaling issues associated with the use of thermal remote sensing for estimating evapotranspiration are also discussed. A review of these different satellite based remote sensing approaches is presented. The main physical bases and assumptions of these algorithms are also discussed. Some results are shown for the estimation of evapotranspiration on a rice paddy of Chiayi Plain in Taiwan using remote sensing data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)

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