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Special Issue "Wind Turbines 2014"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg East, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +45 9815 1411
Interests: wind power research; power electronics; control of wind turbines and wind farms; interconnection to grid; generators; power converters; ride-through operation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue is a continuation of the previous successful Special Issue “Wind Turbines 2013”. Similarly, this issue also focuses on recent advances in the wind energy sector on a wide range of topics, including: wind resource mapping, wind intermittency issues, aerodynamics, foundations, aeroelasticity, wind turbine technologies, control of wind turbines, diagnostics, generator concepts including gearless concepts, power electronic converters, grid interconnection, ride-through operation, protection, wind farm layouts - optimization and control, reliability, operations and maintenance, effects of wind farms on local and global climate, wind power stations, smart-grid and micro-grid related to wind turbine operation.

Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


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Published Papers (47 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Towards a Simplified DynamicWake Model Using POD Analysis
Energies 2015, 8(2), 895-920; doi:10.3390/en8020895
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 29 December 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2015 / Published: 28 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We apply a modified proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to large eddy simulation data of a wind turbine wake in a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. The turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. Our analysis mainly focuses on the pragmatic identification of spatial modes,
[...] Read more.
We apply a modified proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to large eddy simulation data of a wind turbine wake in a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. The turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. Our analysis mainly focuses on the pragmatic identification of spatial modes, which yields a low order description of the wake flow. This reduction to a few degrees of freedom is a crucial first step for the development of simplified dynamic wake models based on modal decompositions. It is shown that only a few modes are necessary to capture the basic dynamical aspects of quantities that are relevant to a turbine in the wake flow. Furthermore, we show that the importance of the individual modes depends on the relevant quantity chosen. Therefore, the optimal choice of modes for a possible model could in principle depend on the application of interest. We additionally present a possible interpretation of the extracted modes by relating them to the specific properties of the wake. For example, the first mode is related to the horizontal large-scale movement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Design Optimization of a Coaxial Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Magnetic Gear
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8535-8553; doi:10.3390/en7128535
Received: 4 December 2014 / Revised: 16 December 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the analysis and design optimization of a coaxial surface-mounted permanent-magnet magnetic gear. The magnetic field distribution in the coaxial magnetic gear is calculated analytically in the polar coordinate system and then validated by the finite element method (FEM). The analytical
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the analysis and design optimization of a coaxial surface-mounted permanent-magnet magnetic gear. The magnetic field distribution in the coaxial magnetic gear is calculated analytically in the polar coordinate system and then validated by the finite element method (FEM). The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the magnetic torque, which is formulated as a function of design parameters. The impacts of key design parameters on the torque capability are then studied and some significant observations are summarized. Furthermore, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to optimize the studied magnetic gear. Given that the torque capability and material cost conflict with each other, both of them are set as the optimization objectives in this paper. Different weight factors may be chosen for the two objectives so that more attention can be placed on one or another. The results shows that the highest torque density of 157 kNm/m3 is achieved with the consideration focusing on the torque capability only, then the highest torque per permanent magnet (PM) consumption could be improved to 145 Nm/kg by taking the material cost into account. By synthesizing the torque capability and material cost, a 124 kNm/m3 of torque density and a 128 Nm/kg of torque per PM consumption could be achieved simultaneously by the optimal design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Fatigue Load Estimation through a Simple Stochastic Model
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8279-8293; doi:10.3390/en7128279
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 11 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a procedure to estimate the fatigue loads on wind turbines, based on a recent framework used for reconstructing data series of stochastic properties measured at wind turbines. Through a standard fatigue analysis, we show that it is possible to accurately estimate
[...] Read more.
We propose a procedure to estimate the fatigue loads on wind turbines, based on a recent framework used for reconstructing data series of stochastic properties measured at wind turbines. Through a standard fatigue analysis, we show that it is possible to accurately estimate fatigue loads in any wind turbine within one wind park, using only the load measurements at one single turbine and the set of wind speed measurements. Our framework consists of deriving a stochastic differential equation that describes the evolution of the torque at one wind turbine driven by the wind speed. The stochastic equation is derived directly from the measurements and is afterwards used for predicting the fatigue loads for neighboring turbines. Such a framework could be used to mitigate the financial efforts usually necessary for placing measurement devices in all wind turbines within one wind farm. Finally, we also discuss the limitations and possible improvements of the proposed procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Study of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Archimedes Spiral Wind Turbine Blade
Energies 2014, 7(12), 7893-7914; doi:10.3390/en7127893
Received: 9 May 2014 / Revised: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new type of horizontal axis wind turbine adopting the Archimedes spiral blade is introduced for urban-use. Based on the angular momentum conservation law, the design formula for the blade was derived using a variety of shape factors. The aerodynamic characteristics and performance
[...] Read more.
A new type of horizontal axis wind turbine adopting the Archimedes spiral blade is introduced for urban-use. Based on the angular momentum conservation law, the design formula for the blade was derived using a variety of shape factors. The aerodynamic characteristics and performance of the designed Archimedes wind turbine were examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The CFD simulations showed that the new type of wind turbine produced a power coefficient (Cp) of approximately 0.25, which is relatively high compared to other types of urban-usage wind turbines. To validate the CFD results, experimental studies were carried out using a scaled-down model. The instantaneous velocity fields were measured using the two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) method in the near field of the blade. The PIV measurements revealed the presence of dominant vortical structures downstream the hub and near the blade tip. The interaction between the wake flow at the rotor downstream and the induced velocity due to the tip vortices were strongly affected by the wind speed and resulting rotational speed of the blade. The mean velocity profiles were compared with those predicted by the steady state and unsteady state CFD simulations. The unsteady CFD simulation agreed better with those of the PIV experiments than the steady state CFD simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Dynamics and Control of Lateral Tower Vibrations in Offshore Wind Turbines by Means of Active Generator Torque
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7746-7772; doi:10.3390/en7117746
Received: 6 July 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lateral tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines are normally lightly damped, and large amplitude vibrations induced by wind and wave loads in this direction may significantly shorten the fatigue life of the tower. This paper proposes the modeling and control of lateral tower
[...] Read more.
Lateral tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines are normally lightly damped, and large amplitude vibrations induced by wind and wave loads in this direction may significantly shorten the fatigue life of the tower. This paper proposes the modeling and control of lateral tower vibrations in offshore wind turbines using active generator torque. To implement the active control algorithm, both the mechanical and power electronic aspects have been taken into consideration. A 13-degrees-of-freedom aeroelastic wind turbine model with generator and pitch controllers is derived using the Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model displays important features of wind turbines, such as mixed moving frame and fixed frame-defined degrees-of-freedom, couplings of the tower-blade-drivetrain vibrations, as well as aerodynamic damping present in different modes of motions. The load transfer mechanisms from the drivetrain and the generator to the nacelle are derived, and the interaction between the generator torque and the lateral tower vibration are presented in a generalized manner. A three-dimensional rotational sampled turbulence field is generated and applied to the rotor, and the tower is excited by a first order wave load in the lateral direction. Next, a simple active control algorithm is proposed based on active generator torques with feedback from the measured lateral tower vibrations. A full-scale power converter configuration with a cascaded loop control structure is also introduced to produce the feedback control torque in real time. Numerical simulations have been carried out using data calibrated to the referential 5-MW NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) offshore wind turbine. Cases of drivetrains with a gearbox and direct drive to the generator are considered using the same time series for the wave and turbulence loadings. Results show that by using active generator torque control, lateral tower vibrations can be significantly mitigated for both gear-driven and direct-driven wind turbines, with modest influence on the smoothness of the power output from the generator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle High Performance Reduced Order Models for Wind Turbines with Full-Scale Converters Applied on Grid Interconnection Studies
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7694-7716; doi:10.3390/en7117694
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind power has achieved technological evolution, and Grid Code (GC) requirements forced wind industry consolidation in the last three decades. However, more studies are necessary to understand how the dynamics inherent in this energy source interact with the power system. Traditional energy production
[...] Read more.
Wind power has achieved technological evolution, and Grid Code (GC) requirements forced wind industry consolidation in the last three decades. However, more studies are necessary to understand how the dynamics inherent in this energy source interact with the power system. Traditional energy production usually contains few high power unit generators; however, Wind Power Plants (WPPs) consist of dozens or hundreds of low-power units. Time domain simulations of WPPs may take too much time if detailed models are considered in such studies. This work discusses reduced order models used in interconnection studies of synchronous machines with full converter technology. The performance of all models is evaluated based on time domain simulations in the Simulink/MATLAB environment. A detailed model is described, and four reduced order models are compared using the performance index, Normalized Integral of Absolute Error (NIAE). Models are analyzed during wind speed variations and balanced voltage dip. During faults, WPPs must be able to supply reactive power to the grid, and this characteristic is analyzed. Using the proposed performance index, it is possible to conclude if a reduced order model is suitable to represent the WPPs dynamics on grid studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle CFD Study on Aerodynamic Power Output Changes with Inter-Turbine Spacing Variation for a 6 MW Offshore Wind Farm
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7483-7498; doi:10.3390/en7117483
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the aerodynamic power output change of wind turbines with inter-turbine spacing variation for a 6 MW wind farm composed of three sets of 2 MW wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The wind farm layout design is becoming increasingly
[...] Read more.
This study examined the aerodynamic power output change of wind turbines with inter-turbine spacing variation for a 6 MW wind farm composed of three sets of 2 MW wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The wind farm layout design is becoming increasingly important as the use of wind energy is steadily increasing. Among the many wind farm layout design parameters, the inter-turbine spacing is a key factor in the initial investment cost, annual energy production and maintenance cost. The inter-turbine spacing should be determined to maximize the annual energy production and minimize the wake effect, turbulence effect and fatigue load during the service lifetime of wind turbines. Therefore, some compromise between the aerodynamic power output of wind turbines and the inter-turbine spacing is needed. An actuator disc model with the addition of a momentum source was not used, and instead, a full 3-dimensional model with a tower and nacelle was used for CFD analysis because of its great technical significance. The CFD analysis results, such as the aerodynamic power output, axial direction wind speed change, pressure drop across the rotor of wind turbine, and wind speed deficit due to the wake effect with inter-turbine spacing variation, were studied. The results of this study can be applied effectively to wind farm layout design and evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Electronic Power Transformer Control Strategy in Wind Energy Conversion Systems for Low Voltage Ride-through Capability Enhancement of Directly Driven Wind Turbines with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (D-PMSGs)
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7330-7347; doi:10.3390/en7117330
Received: 18 September 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the use of an Electronic Power Transformer (EPT) incorporated with an energy storage system to smooth the wind power fluctuations and enhance the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of directly driven wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (D-PMSGs). The
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the use of an Electronic Power Transformer (EPT) incorporated with an energy storage system to smooth the wind power fluctuations and enhance the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of directly driven wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (D-PMSGs). The decoupled control schemes of the system, including the grid side converter control scheme, generator side converter control scheme and the control scheme of the energy storage system, are presented in detail. Under normal operating conditions, the energy storage system absorbs the high frequency component of the D-PMSG output power to smooth the wind power fluctuations. Under grid fault conditions, the energy storage system absorbs the redundant power, which could not be transferred to the grid by the EPT, to help the D-PMSG to ride through low voltage conditions. This coordinated control strategy is validated by simulation studies using MATLAB/Simulink. With the proposed control strategy, the output wind power quality is improved and the D-PMSG can ride through severe grid fault conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Lorenz Wind Disturbance Model Based on Grey Generated Components
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7178-7193; doi:10.3390/en7117178
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to meet the needs of wind speed prediction in wind farms, we consider the influence of random atmospheric disturbances on wind variations. Considering a simplified fluid convection mode, a Lorenz system can be employed as an atmospheric disturbance model. Here Lorenz
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In order to meet the needs of wind speed prediction in wind farms, we consider the influence of random atmospheric disturbances on wind variations. Considering a simplified fluid convection mode, a Lorenz system can be employed as an atmospheric disturbance model. Here Lorenz disturbance is defined as the European norm of the solutions of the Lorenz equation. Grey generating and accumulated generating models are employed to explore the relationship between wind speed and its related disturbance series. We conclude that a linear or quadric polynomial generating model are optimal through the verification of short-term wind speed prediction in the Sotavento wind farm. The new proposed model not only greatly improves the precision of short-term wind speed prediction, but also has great significance for the maintenance and stability of wind power system operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Simplified Analysis of the Electric Power Losses for On-Shore Wind Farms Considering Weibull Distribution Parameters
Energies 2014, 7(11), 6856-6885; doi:10.3390/en7116856
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric power losses are constantly present during the service life of wind farms and must be considered in the calculation of the income arising from selling the produced electricity. It is typical to estimate the electrical losses in the design stage as those
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Electric power losses are constantly present during the service life of wind farms and must be considered in the calculation of the income arising from selling the produced electricity. It is typical to estimate the electrical losses in the design stage as those occurring when the wind farm operates at rated power, nevertheless, it is necessary to determine a method for checking if the actual losses meet the design requirements during the operation period. In this paper, we prove that the electric losses at rated power should not be considered as a reference level and a simple methodology will be developed to analyse and foresee the actual losses in a set period as a function of the wind resource in such period, defined according to the Weibull distribution, and the characteristics of the wind farm electrical infrastructure. This methodology facilitates a simple way, to determine in the design phase and to check during operation, the actual electricity losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Insight into Rotational Effects on a Wind Turbine Blade Using Navier–Stokes Computations
Energies 2014, 7(10), 6798-6822; doi:10.3390/en7106798
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (5513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rotational effects are known to influence severely the aerodynamic performance of the inboard region of rotor blades. The underlying physical mechanisms are however far from being well understood. The present work addresses this problem using Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes computations and experimental results of
[...] Read more.
Rotational effects are known to influence severely the aerodynamic performance of the inboard region of rotor blades. The underlying physical mechanisms are however far from being well understood. The present work addresses this problem using Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes computations and experimental results of the MEXICO (Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions) rotor. Four axisymmetric inflow cases with wind speeds ranging from pre-stall to post-stall conditions are computed and compared with pressure and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, obtaining, in general, consistent results. At low angles of attack, the aerodynamic behavior of all of the studied blade sections resembles the one from the corresponding 2D airfoils. However, at high angles of attack, rotational effects lead to stall delay and/or lift enhancement at inboard positions. Such effects are shown to occur only in the presence of significant radial flows. Interestingly, the way in which rotational effects influence the aerodynamics of the MEXICO blades differs qualitatively in certain aspects from the descriptions found in the literature about this topic. The presented results provide new insights that are useful for the development of advanced and physically-sound correction models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Real-Time Wavelet-Based Coordinated Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Denoising and Flattening Wind Power Output
Energies 2014, 7(10), 6620-6644; doi:10.3390/en7106620
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both
[...] Read more.
Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both short-term and long-term fluctuations by using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS). The short-term fluctuation is eliminated by using an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), while the wind-HESS system output is kept constant during each 10-min period by a Ni-MH battery (NB). State-of-charge (SOC) control strategies for both EDLC and NB are proposed to maintain the SOC level of storage within safe operating limits. A ramp rate limitation (RRL) requirement is also considered in the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested by using real time simulation. The simulation model of the wind-HESS system is developed in the real-time digital simulator (RTDS)/RSCAD environment. The proposed algorithm is also implemented as a user defined model of the RSCAD. The simulation results demonstrate that the HESS with the proposed control algorithm can indeed assist in dealing with the variation of wind power generation. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in smoothing out the fluctuation and managing the SOC of battery and EDLC than the simple moving average (SMA) based method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Methods for Risk-Based Planning of O&M of Wind Turbines
Energies 2014, 7(10), 6645-6664; doi:10.3390/en7106645
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to make wind energy more competitive, the big expenses for operation and maintenance must be reduced. Consistent decisions that minimize the expected costs can be made based on risk-based methods. Such methods have been implemented for maintenance planning for oil and
[...] Read more.
In order to make wind energy more competitive, the big expenses for operation and maintenance must be reduced. Consistent decisions that minimize the expected costs can be made based on risk-based methods. Such methods have been implemented for maintenance planning for oil and gas structures, but for offshore wind turbines, the conditions are different and the methods need to be adjusted accordingly. This paper gives an overview of various approaches to solve the decision problem: methods with decision rules based on observed variables, a method with decision rules based on the probability of failure, a method based on limited memory influence diagrams and a method based on the partially observable Markov decision process. The methods with decision rules based on observed variables are easy to use, but can only take the most recent observation into account, when a decision is made. The other methods can take more information into account, and especially, the method based on the Markov decision process is very flexible and accurate. A case study shows that the Markov decision process and decision rules based on the probability of failure are equally good and give lower costs compared to decision rules based on observed variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Transient Thunderstorm Downbursts and Their Effects on Wind Turbines
Energies 2014, 7(10), 6527-6548; doi:10.3390/en7106527
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
PDF Full-text (5485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 61400-1 for the design of wind turbines does not explicitly address site-specific conditions associated with anomalous atmospheric events or conditions. Examples of off-standard atmospheric conditions include thunderstorm downbursts, hurricanes, tornadoes, low-level jets, etc. The simulation of thunderstorm
[...] Read more.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 61400-1 for the design of wind turbines does not explicitly address site-specific conditions associated with anomalous atmospheric events or conditions. Examples of off-standard atmospheric conditions include thunderstorm downbursts, hurricanes, tornadoes, low-level jets, etc. The simulation of thunderstorm downbursts and associated loads on a utility-scale wind turbine is the focus of this study. Since the problem has not received sufficient attention, especially in terms of design, we thus focus in this paper on practical aspects. A wind field model that incorporates component non-turbulent and turbulent parts is described and employed in inflow simulations. The non-turbulent part is based on an available analytical model with some modifications, while the turbulent part is simulated as a stochastic process using standard turbulence power spectral density functions and coherence functions whose defining parameters are related to the downburst characteristics such as the storm translation velocity. Available information on recorded downbursts is used to define two storm scenarios that are studied. Rotor loads are generated using stochastic simulation of the aeroelastic response of a model of a utility-scale 5-MW turbine. An illustrative single storm simulation and the associated turbine response are used to discuss load characteristics and to highlight storm-related and environmental parameters of interest. Extensive simulations for two downbursts are then conducted while varying the storm’s location and track relative to the turbine. Results suggest that wind turbine yaw and pitch control systems clearly influence overall system response. Results also highlight the important effects of both the turbulence as well as the downburst mean wind profiles on turbine extreme loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Real-Time Sliding Mode Control for a Wind Energy System Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator
Energies 2014, 7(10), 6412-6433; doi:10.3390/en7106412
Received: 6 July 2014 / Revised: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 9 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a real time sliding mode control scheme for a variable speed wind turbine that incorporates a doubly feed induction generator is described. In this design, the so-called vector control theory is applied, in order to simplify the system electrical equations.
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a real time sliding mode control scheme for a variable speed wind turbine that incorporates a doubly feed induction generator is described. In this design, the so-called vector control theory is applied, in order to simplify the system electrical equations. The proposed control scheme involves a low computational cost and therefore can be implemented in real-time applications using a low cost Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The stability analysis of the proposed sliding mode controller under disturbances and parameter uncertainties is provided using the Lyapunov stability theory. A new experimental platform has been designed and constructed in order to analyze the real-time performance of the proposed controller in a real system. Finally, the experimental validation carried out in the experimental platform shows; on the one hand that the proposed controller provides high-performance dynamic characteristics, and on the other hand that this scheme is robust with respect to the uncertainties that usually appear in the real systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle A STATCOM with Supercapacitors for Low-Voltage Ride-Through in Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines
Energies 2014, 7(9), 5922-5952; doi:10.3390/en7095922
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fixed-speed wind generator (FSWG) technology has an important presence in countries where wind energy started to be developed more than a decade ago. This type of technology cannot be directly adapted to the grid codes, for example those requirements related to the immunity
[...] Read more.
Fixed-speed wind generator (FSWG) technology has an important presence in countries where wind energy started to be developed more than a decade ago. This type of technology cannot be directly adapted to the grid codes, for example those requirements related to the immunity level under voltage dips. That behavior is typically referred as low-voltage ride through (LVRT), and it usually implies certain reactive and active power injection requirements, both during a voltage dip and during the voltage recovery. In this context, a review is presented of the LVRT exigencies present in some of the countries with the most advanced grid codes (Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom). In this paper, the capabilities of STATCOM-based devices for fulfilling the LVRT requirements in FSWGs are analyzed. For this purpose, two technologies are considered: a STATCOM with a supercapacitor, which improves its energy storage features; and a STATCOM with a supercapacitor and a DC-DC converter, to achieve higher discharge levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Improving Wind Farm Dispatchability Using Model Predictive Control for Optimal Operation of Grid-Scale Energy Storage
Energies 2014, 7(9), 5847-5862; doi:10.3390/en7095847
Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper demonstrates the use of model-based predictive control for energy storage systems to improve the dispatchability of wind power plants. Large-scale wind penetration increases the variability of power flow on the grid, thus increasing reserve requirements. Large energy storage systems collocated with
[...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates the use of model-based predictive control for energy storage systems to improve the dispatchability of wind power plants. Large-scale wind penetration increases the variability of power flow on the grid, thus increasing reserve requirements. Large energy storage systems collocated with wind farms can improve dispatchability of the wind plant by storing energy during generation over-the-schedule and sourcing energy during generation under-the-schedule, essentially providing on-site reserves. Model predictive control (MPC) provides a natural framework for this application. By utilizing an accurate energy storage system model, control actions can be planned in the context of system power and state-of-charge limitations. MPC also enables the inclusion of predicted wind farm performance over a near-term horizon that allows control actions to be planned in anticipation of fast changes, such as wind ramps. This paper demonstrates that model-based predictive control can improve system performance compared with a standard non-predictive, non-model-based control approach. It is also demonstrated that secondary objectives, such as reducing the rate of change of the wind plant output (i.e., ramps), can be considered and successfully implemented within the MPC framework. Specifically, it is shown that scheduling error can be reduced by 81%, reserve requirements can be improved by up to 37%, and the number of ramp events can be reduced by 74%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Implications of Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence on the Near-Wake Structure of Wind Turbines
Energies 2014, 7(9), 5740-5763; doi:10.3390/en7095740
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Turbulence structure in the wake behind a full-scale horizontal-axis wind turbine under the influence of real-time atmospheric inflow conditions has been investigated using actuator-line-model based large-eddy-simulations. Precursor atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) simulations have been performed to obtain mean and turbulence states of the
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Turbulence structure in the wake behind a full-scale horizontal-axis wind turbine under the influence of real-time atmospheric inflow conditions has been investigated using actuator-line-model based large-eddy-simulations. Precursor atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) simulations have been performed to obtain mean and turbulence states of the atmosphere under stable stratification subjected to two different cooling rates. Wind turbine simulations have revealed that, in addition to wind shear and ABL turbulence, height-varying wind angle and low-level jets are ABL metrics that influence the structure of the turbine wake. Increasing stability results in shallower boundary layers with stronger wind shear, steeper vertical wind angle gradients, lower turbulence, and suppressed vertical motions. A turbulent mixing layer forms downstream of the wind turbines, the strength and size of which decreases with increasing stability. Height dependent wind angle and turbulence are the ABL metrics influencing the lateral wake expansion. Further, ABL metrics strongly impact the evolution of tip and root vortices formed behind the rotor. Two factors play an important role in wake meandering: tip vortex merging due to the mutual inductance form of instability and the corresponding instability of the turbulent mixing layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Model-Free Approach for Maximizing Power Production of Wind Farm Using Multi-Resolution Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation
Energies 2014, 7(9), 5624-5646; doi:10.3390/en7095624
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides a model-free approach based on the Multi-Resolution Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation (MR-SPSA) for maximizing power production of wind farms. The main advantage is that the method based on MR-SPSA can achieve fast controller tuning without any plant model by exploiting
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This paper provides a model-free approach based on the Multi-Resolution Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation (MR-SPSA) for maximizing power production of wind farms. The main advantage is that the method based on MR-SPSA can achieve fast controller tuning without any plant model by exploiting the information of the wind farm configuration such as turbines location and wind direction. In order to simulate the performance of the model-free scheme, a wind farm model with dynamic characterization of wake interaction between turbines is used and then the proposed method is applied to the Horns Rev wind farm. Simulation results illustrate that the method based on MR-SPSA achieves the maximum total power production with faster convergence compared with other existing model-free methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison Between Wind Power Prediction Models Based on Wavelet Decomposition with Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5251-5272; doi:10.3390/en7085251
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 14 August 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high penetration of wind energy into the electricity market requires a parallel development of efficient wind power forecasting models. Different hybrid forecasting methods were applied to wind power prediction, using historical data and numerical weather predictions (NWP). A comparative study was carried
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A high penetration of wind energy into the electricity market requires a parallel development of efficient wind power forecasting models. Different hybrid forecasting methods were applied to wind power prediction, using historical data and numerical weather predictions (NWP). A comparative study was carried out for the prediction of the power production of a wind farm located in complex terrain. The performances of Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) with Wavelet Decomposition (WD) were evaluated at different time horizons and compared to hybrid Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based methods. It is acknowledged that hybrid methods based on LS-SVM with WD mostly outperform other methods. A decomposition of the commonly known root mean square error was beneficial for a better understanding of the origin of the differences between prediction and measurement and to compare the accuracy of the different models. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out in order to underline the impact that each input had in the network training process for ANN. In the case of ANN with the WD technique, the sensitivity analysis was repeated on each component obtained by the decomposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Hybrid Model Representation of a TLP Including Flexible Topsides in Non-Linear Regular Waves
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5047-5064; doi:10.3390/en7085047
Received: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 6 August 2014
PDF Full-text (731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rising demand for renewable energy solutions is forcing the established industries to expand and continue evolving. For the wind energy sector, the vast resources in deep sea locations have encouraged research towards the installation of turbines in deeper waters. One of the
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The rising demand for renewable energy solutions is forcing the established industries to expand and continue evolving. For the wind energy sector, the vast resources in deep sea locations have encouraged research towards the installation of turbines in deeper waters. One of the most promising technologies able to solve this challenge is the floating wind turbine foundation. For the ultimate limit state, where higher order wave loads have a significant influence, a design tool that couples non-linear excitations with structural dynamics is required. To properly describe the behavior of such a structure, a numerical model is proposed and validated by physical test results. The model is applied to a case study of a tension leg platform with a flexible topside mimicking the tower and a lumped mass mimicking the rotor-nacelle assembly. The model is additionally compared to current commercial software, where the need for the coupled higher order dynamics proposed in this paper becomes evident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Experiencing Platform Pitching Motion
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5011-5026; doi:10.3390/en7085011
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to illustrate the unsteady aerodynamic effects of a floating offshore wind turbine experiencing the prescribed pitching motion of a supporting floating platform as a sine function. The three-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport
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The objective of this study is to illustrate the unsteady aerodynamic effects of a floating offshore wind turbine experiencing the prescribed pitching motion of a supporting floating platform as a sine function. The three-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model were applied. Moreover, an overset grid approach was used to model the rigid body motion of a wind turbine blade. The current simulation results are compared to various approaches from previous studies. The unsteady aerodynamic loads of the blade were demonstrated to change drastically with respect to the frequency and amplitude of platform motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Unit Commitment Considering Interruptible Load for Power System Operation with Wind Power
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4281-4299; doi:10.3390/en7074281
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 20 June 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high wind-power penetration level causes increased uncertainty in power system operation because of the variability and limited predictability of wind generation. This paper proposes a novel type of unit commitment (UC) considering spinning reserve and interruptible load (IL) as operating reserve facilities
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A high wind-power penetration level causes increased uncertainty in power system operation because of the variability and limited predictability of wind generation. This paper proposes a novel type of unit commitment (UC) considering spinning reserve and interruptible load (IL) as operating reserve facilities to increase system flexibility for reliable, economical operation. Two uncertainty sources, load and wind generation, were modeled via autoregressive moving averages (ARMA). The formulation of interruptible load was considered in the implementation of unit commitments. Lagrangian relaxation-dynamic programming (LR-DP) was used to solve the unit commitment problem efficiently. The expected energy not supplied (EENS) was regarded as a probabilistic reliability criterion. The effectiveness of the proposed unit commitment was evaluated using an IEEE 118-bus system. The simulation results clearly demonstrated that with demand-side participation, the operating cost was significantly reduced when handling the increased uncertainty due to wind power integration within the required reliability criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Refined Diebold-Mariano Test Methods for the Evaluation of Wind Power Forecasting Models
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4185-4198; doi:10.3390/en7074185
Received: 26 April 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 1 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The scientific evaluation methodology for the forecast accuracy of wind power forecasting models is an important issue in the domain of wind power forecasting. However, traditional forecast evaluation criteria, such as Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE), have limitations in
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The scientific evaluation methodology for the forecast accuracy of wind power forecasting models is an important issue in the domain of wind power forecasting. However, traditional forecast evaluation criteria, such as Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE), have limitations in application to some degree. In this paper, a modern evaluation criterion, the Diebold-Mariano (DM) test, is introduced. The DM test can discriminate the significant differences of forecasting accuracy between different models based on the scheme of quantitative analysis. Furthermore, the augmented DM test with rolling windows approach is proposed to give a more strict forecasting evaluation. By extending the loss function to an asymmetric structure, the asymmetric DM test is proposed. Case study indicates that the evaluation criteria based on DM test can relieve the influence of random sample disturbance. Moreover, the proposed augmented DM test can provide more evidence when the cost of changing models is expensive, and the proposed asymmetric DM test can add in the asymmetric factor, and provide practical evaluation of wind power forecasting models. It is concluded that the two refined DM tests can provide reference to the comprehensive evaluation for wind power forecasting models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4140-4156; doi:10.3390/en7074140
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 21 June 2014 / Accepted: 22 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC), the Direct Current (DC) chopper and the grid side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine generators (WTGs) to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT)
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This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC), the Direct Current (DC) chopper and the grid side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine generators (WTGs) to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) and high voltage ride through (HVRT) capability of the DFIG WTGs. The characteristics of DFIG WTGs under voltage sags and swells were studied focusing on the DFIG WTG stator flux and rotor voltages during the transient periods of grid voltage changes. The protection schemes of the rotor crowbar circuit and the DC chopper circuit were proposed considering the characteristics of the DFIG WTGs during voltage changes. The fast coordinated control of RSC and GSC were developed based on the characteristic analysis in order to realize efficient LVRT and HVRT of the DFIG WTGs. The proposed fast coordinated control schemes were verified by time domain simulations using Matlab-Simulink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Communication Network Architectures for Smart-Wind Power Farms
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3900-3921; doi:10.3390/en7063900
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Developments in the wind power industry have enabled a new generation of wind turbines with longer blades, taller towers, higher efficiency, and lower maintenance costs due to the maturity of related technologies. Nevertheless, wind turbines are still blind machines because the control center
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Developments in the wind power industry have enabled a new generation of wind turbines with longer blades, taller towers, higher efficiency, and lower maintenance costs due to the maturity of related technologies. Nevertheless, wind turbines are still blind machines because the control center is responsible for managing and controlling individual wind turbines that are turned on or off according to demand for electricity. In this paper, we propose a communication network architecture for smart-wind power farms (Smart-WPFs). The proposed architecture is designed for wind turbines to communicate directly and share sensing data in order to maximize power generation, WPF availability, and turbine efficiency. We also designed a sensor data frame structure to carry sensing data from different wind turbine parts such as the rotor, transformer, nacelle, etc. The data frame includes a logical node ID (LNID), sensor node ID (SNID), sensor type (ST), and sensor data based on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-25 standard. We present an analytical model that describes upstream traffic between the wind turbines and the control center. Using a queueing theory approach, the upstream traffic is evaluated in view of bandwidth utilization and average queuing delay. The performance of the proposed network architectures are evaluated by using analytical and simulation models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Pitch Based Wind Turbine Intelligent Speed Setpoint Adjustment Algorithms
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3793-3809; doi:10.3390/en7063793
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work is aimed at optimizing the wind turbine rotor speed setpoint algorithm. Several intelligent adjustment strategies have been investigated in order to improve a reward function that takes into account the power captured from the wind and the turbine speed error. After
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This work is aimed at optimizing the wind turbine rotor speed setpoint algorithm. Several intelligent adjustment strategies have been investigated in order to improve a reward function that takes into account the power captured from the wind and the turbine speed error. After different approaches including Reinforcement Learning, the best results were obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based wind turbine speed setpoint algorithm. A reward improvement of up to 10.67% has been achieved using PSO compared to a constant approach and 0.48% compared to a conventional approach. We conclude that the pitch angle is the most adequate input variable for the turbine speed setpoint algorithm compared to others such as rotor speed, or rotor angular acceleration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China
Energies 2014, 7(5), 3339-3354; doi:10.3390/en7053339
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 5 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 20 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from
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In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR) for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard deviation (SD) of 1.99 m/s and correlation coefficient of R = 0.67. The model wind directions, which are used as input for the SAR wind speed retrieval, show a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) but a large standard deviation (SD = 42.3°) compared to in situ observations. The Weibull probability density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from the concurrent 81 SAR and in situ samples agree well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Element Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine
Energies 2014, 7(5), 3256-3281; doi:10.3390/en7053256
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 11 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new class of diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) is presented. The new diffuser concept exploits aero-dynamic principles for the creation of high-lift airfoil configurations known from the aircraft industry. Combining this with our objective of obtaining a compact power-efficient design has enabled
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A new class of diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) is presented. The new diffuser concept exploits aero-dynamic principles for the creation of high-lift airfoil configurations known from the aircraft industry. Combining this with our objective of obtaining a compact power-efficient design has enabled creation of a family of DAWT designs with energy capture potentials which exceed the power efficiency based on the diffuser exit area by 50%. The paper presents the 1D momentum theory governing the DAWTs, and discusses upper limits for power extraction, similar to the Betz limit applicable for bare Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs). Inviscid axisymmetric panel code calculations are then used to drive the diffuser design towards higher power coefficients. Axisymmetric actuator disk Navier-Stokes calculations reveal the types of stall that inhibit the functionality of the ideal inviscid optimum, leading the design towards the new class of DAWTs. DAWT performance has been differently measured over time, creating confusion. Proper comparison with performance of existing DAWT designs is therefore emphasized. This involves reference to established literature results, and recalculation of earlier DAWT designs in an attempt to project all results onto a common metric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Condition Parameter Modeling for Anomaly Detection in Wind Turbines
Energies 2014, 7(5), 3104-3120; doi:10.3390/en7053104
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 5 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, used widely in wind farms to obtain operational and condition information about wind turbines (WTs), is of important significance for anomaly detection in wind turbines. The paper presents a novel model for
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Data collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, used widely in wind farms to obtain operational and condition information about wind turbines (WTs), is of important significance for anomaly detection in wind turbines. The paper presents a novel model for wind turbine anomaly detection mainly based on SCADA data and a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) for automatic selection of the condition parameters. The SCADA data sets are determined through analysis of the cumulative probability distribution of wind speed and the relationship between output power and wind speed. The automatic BPNN-based parameter selection is for reduction of redundant parameters for anomaly detection in wind turbines. Through investigation of cases of WT faults, the validity of the automatic parameter selection-based model for WT anomaly detection is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle An Optimal Reactive Power Control Strategy for a DFIG-Based Wind Farm to Damp the Sub-Synchronous Oscillation of a Power System
Energies 2014, 7(5), 3086-3103; doi:10.3390/en7053086
Received: 26 February 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
PDF Full-text (629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive compensation transmission system.
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This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator speed and the output reactive power of the wind farms was introduced to derive the analytical expression of the damping coefficient. The phase range to obtain positive damping was determined. Second, the PID phase compensation parameters of the auxiliary damping controller were optimized by a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimum damping in the entire subsynchronous frequency band. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary damping control were demonstrated on a modified version of the IEEE first benchmark model by time domain simulation analysis with the use of DigSILENT/PowerFactory. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this derived damping factor expression and the condition of the positive damping can effectively analyze their impact on the system sub-synchronous oscillations, the proposed wind farms reactive power additional damping control strategy can provide the optimal damping effect over the whole sub-synchronous frequency band, and the control effect is better than the active power additional damping control strategy based on the power system stabilizator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle An Approach to Determine the Weibull Parameters for Wind Energy Analysis: The Case of Galicia (Spain)
Energies 2014, 7(4), 2676-2700; doi:10.3390/en7042676
Received: 19 February 2014 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 21 March 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Weibull probability density function (PDF) has mostly been used to fit wind speed distributions for wind energy applications. The goodness of fit of the results depends on the estimation method that was used and the wind type of the analyzed area. In
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The Weibull probability density function (PDF) has mostly been used to fit wind speed distributions for wind energy applications. The goodness of fit of the results depends on the estimation method that was used and the wind type of the analyzed area. In this paper, a study on a particular area (Galicia) was performed to test the performance of several fitting methods. The goodness of fit was evaluated by well-known indicators that use the wind speed or the available wind power density. However, energy production must be a critical parameter in wind energy applications. Hence, a fitting method that accounts for the power density distribution is proposed. To highlight the usefulness of this method, indicators that use energy production values are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Failure Test and Finite Element Simulation of a Large Wind Turbine Composite Blade under Static Loading
Energies 2014, 7(4), 2274-2297; doi:10.3390/en7042274
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 27 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (4277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presented a failure analysis of a 52.3 m composite wind turbine blade under static loading. Complex failure characteristics exhibited at the transition region of the blade were thoroughly examined and typical failure modes were indentified. In order to predict multiple failure
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This study presented a failure analysis of a 52.3 m composite wind turbine blade under static loading. Complex failure characteristics exhibited at the transition region of the blade were thoroughly examined and typical failure modes were indentified. In order to predict multiple failure modes observed in the tests and gain more insights into the failure mechanisms of the blade, a Finite Element (FE) simulation was performed using a global-local modeling approach and Progressive Failure Analysis (PFA) techniques which took into account material failure and property degradation. Failure process and failure characteristics of the transition region were satisfactorily reproduced in the simulation, and it was found that accumulated delamination in spar cap and shear web failure at the transition region were the main reasons for the blade to collapse. Local buckling played an important role in the failure process by increasing local out-of-plane deformation, while the Brazier effect was found not to be responsible for the blade failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model
Energies 2014, 7(4), 1954-1985; doi:10.3390/en7041954
Received: 25 December 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (5743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind tunnel experiments were performed, where the development of the wake of a model wind turbine was measured using stereo Particle Image Velocimetry to observe the influence of platform pitch motion. The wakes of a classical bottom fixed turbine and a streamwise oscillating
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Wind tunnel experiments were performed, where the development of the wake of a model wind turbine was measured using stereo Particle Image Velocimetry to observe the influence of platform pitch motion. The wakes of a classical bottom fixed turbine and a streamwise oscillating turbine are compared. Results indicate that platform pitch creates an upward shift in all components of the flow and their fluctuations. The vertical flow created by the pitch motion as well as the reduced entrainment of kinetic energy from undisturbed flows above the turbine result in potentially higher loads and less available kinetic energy for a downwind turbine. Experimental results are compared with four wake models. The wake models employed are consistent with experimental results in describing the shapes and magnitudes of the streamwise velocity component of the wake for a fixed turbine. Inconsistencies between the model predictions and experimental results arise in the floating case particularly regarding the vertical displacement of the velocity components of the flow. Furthermore, it is found that the additional degrees of freedom of a floating wind turbine add to the complexity of the wake aerodynamics and improved wake models are needed, considering vertical flows and displacements due to pitch motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle H Fault Tolerant Control of WECS Based on the PWA Model
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1750-1769; doi:10.3390/en7031750
Received: 26 January 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main contribution of this paper is the development of H∞ fault tolerant control for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on the stochastic piecewise affine (PWA) model. In this paper the normal and fault stochastic PWA models for WECS including
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The main contribution of this paper is the development of H∞ fault tolerant control for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on the stochastic piecewise affine (PWA) model. In this paper the normal and fault stochastic PWA models for WECS including multiple working points at different wind speeds are established. A reliable piecewise linear quadratic regulator state feedback is designed for the fault tolerant actuator and sensor. A sufficient condition for the existence of the passive fault tolerant controller is derived based on some linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). It is shown that the H∞ fault tolerant controller of WECS can control the wind turbine exposed to multiple simultaneous sensor faults or actuator faults; that is, the reliability of wind turbines can be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Study on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control of the Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Power Systems
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1706-1720; doi:10.3390/en7031706
Received: 26 January 2014 / Revised: 23 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC) of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO) Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by
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This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC) of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO) Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by CEPSO, making it unnecessary to change the output power of different wind turbines, the designed in-repetition rate is reduced, and the system control efficiency is increased. The wind power system control is designed by simulation, in comparison with the traditional wind power control method, and the simulated dynamic response obtained by the SMESC algorithm proposed in this paper is better than the traditional hill-climbing search (HCS) and extremum seeking control (ESC) algorithms in the transient or steady states, validating the advantages and practicability of the method proposed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Structural Optimization Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades Using the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II and Finite Element Method
Energies 2014, 7(2), 988-1002; doi:10.3390/en7020988
Received: 26 December 2013 / Revised: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A multi-objective optimization method for the structural design of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blades is presented. The main goal is to minimize the weight and cost of the blade which uses glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) coupled with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)
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A multi-objective optimization method for the structural design of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blades is presented. The main goal is to minimize the weight and cost of the blade which uses glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) coupled with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials. The number and the location of layers in the spar cap, the width of the spar cap and the position of the shear webs are employed as the design variables, while the strain limit, blade/tower clearance limit and vibration limit are taken into account as the constraint conditions. The optimization of the design of a commercial 1.5 MW HAWT blade is carried out by combining FEM analysis and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm under ultimate (extreme) flap-wise load and edge-wise load conditions. The best solutions are described and the comparison of the obtained results with the original design is performed to prove the efficiency and applicability of the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes
Energies 2014, 7(2), 890-912; doi:10.3390/en7020890
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 5 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (4867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, large eddy simulation (LES) is combined with a turbine model to investigate the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Two methods are used to model the subgrid-scale (SGS) stresses: (a) the Smagorinsky model; and
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In this study, large eddy simulation (LES) is combined with a turbine model to investigate the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Two methods are used to model the subgrid-scale (SGS) stresses: (a) the Smagorinsky model; and (b) the modulated gradient model. To parameterize the effects of the VAWT on the flow, two VAWT models are developed: (a) the actuator swept-surface model (ASSM), in which the time-averaged turbine-induced forces are distributed on a surface swept by the turbine blades, i.e., the actuator swept surface; and (b) the actuator line model (ALM), in which the instantaneous blade forces are only spatially distributed on lines representing the blades, i.e., the actuator lines. This is the first time that LES has been applied and validated for the simulation of VAWT wakes by using either the ASSM or the ALM techniques. In both models, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces on the blades. The results are compared with flow measurements in the wake of a model straight-bladed VAWT, carried out in the Institute de Méchanique et Statistique de la Turbulence (IMST) water channel. Different combinations of SGS models with VAWT models are studied, and a fairly good overall agreement between simulation results and measurement data is observed. In general, the ALM is found to better capture the unsteady-periodic nature of the wake and shows a better agreement with the experimental data compared with the ASSM. The modulated gradient model is also found to be a more reliable SGS stress modeling technique, compared with the Smagorinsky model, and it yields reasonable predictions of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of a VAWT wake using its theoretically-determined model coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Wind Resource Assessment over 2D Continuous Rolling Hills Due to Tropical Cyclones in the Coastal Region of Southeastern China
Energies 2014, 7(2), 913-933; doi:10.3390/en7020913
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 15 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of tropical cyclones on the turbulent flow over 2D continuous rolling hills was numerically investigated based on a field test analysis of the coastal region of Southeast China. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was first developed and verified using previously
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The effect of tropical cyclones on the turbulent flow over 2D continuous rolling hills was numerically investigated based on a field test analysis of the coastal region of Southeast China. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was first developed and verified using previously published experimental results. Then two typical beneficial and destructive cyclone cases were studied above different locations of the hills. Results showed that the continuous hilly flow was much more drastic and variable than previously reported normal wind; the mean and turbulent magnitudes became the strongest around the hill top, with the maximum speed-up ratio, turbulence intensity and gust-speed ratio of 1.1, 0.32 and 1.6; the flow over lower hill was greatly affected by the nearby higher hills; the mean and fluctuating quantities were mostly smaller than the corresponding single hill case. These phenomena were considered to be related with the rather strong detachment and attachment of the cyclone flow around the two hills. In addition, the mean and fluctuating wind velocities were found to be underestimated by at least 20% if the widely accepted IEC standard equations were utilized, suggesting the necessity to supplement the field test analysis in the standard for more reasonable wind resource evaluation within the Southeast China coastal area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle An FMEA-Based Risk Assessment Approach for Wind Turbine Systems: A Comparative Study of Onshore and Offshore
Energies 2014, 7(2), 619-642; doi:10.3390/en7020619
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been extensively used by wind turbine assembly manufacturers for analyzing, evaluating and prioritizing potential/known failure modes. However, several limitations are associated with its practical implementation in wind farms. First, the Risk-Priority-Number (RPN) of a wind turbine
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Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been extensively used by wind turbine assembly manufacturers for analyzing, evaluating and prioritizing potential/known failure modes. However, several limitations are associated with its practical implementation in wind farms. First, the Risk-Priority-Number (RPN) of a wind turbine system is not informative enough for wind farm managers from the perspective of criticality; second, there are variety of wind turbines with different structures and hence, it is not correct to compare the RPN values of different wind turbines with each other for prioritization purposes; and lastly, some important economical aspects such as power production losses, and the costs of logistics and transportation are not taken into account in the RPN value. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we develop a mathematical tool for risk and failure mode analysis of wind turbine systems (both onshore and offshore) by integrating the aspects of traditional FMEA and some economic considerations. Then, a quantitative comparative study is carried out using the traditional and the proposed FMEA methodologies on two same type of onshore and offshore wind turbine systems. The results show that the both systems face many of the same risks, however there are some main differences worth considering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Low Voltage Ride-through in DFIG Wind Generators by Controlling the Rotor Current without Crowbars
Energies 2014, 7(2), 498-519; doi:10.3390/en7020498
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 23 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among all the different types of electric wind generators, those that are based on doubly fed induction generators, or DFIG technology, are the most vulnerable to grid faults such as voltage sags. This paper proposes a new control strategy for this type of
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Among all the different types of electric wind generators, those that are based on doubly fed induction generators, or DFIG technology, are the most vulnerable to grid faults such as voltage sags. This paper proposes a new control strategy for this type of wind generator, that allows these devices to withstand the effects of a voltage sag while following the new requirements imposed by grid operators. This new control strategy makes the use of complementary devices such as crowbars unnecessary, as it greatly reduces the value of currents originated by the fault. This ensures less costly designs for the rotor systems as well as a more economic sizing of the necessary power electronics. The strategy described here uses an electric generator model based on space-phasor theory that provides a direct control over the position of the rotor magnetic flux. Controlling the rotor magnetic flux has a direct influence on the rest of the electrical variables enabling the machine to evolve to a desired work point during the transient imposed by the grid disturbance. Simulation studies have been carried out, as well as test bench trials, in order to prove the viability and functionality of the proposed control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle A Static Voltage Security Region for Centralized Wind Power Integration—Part I: Concept and Method
Energies 2014, 7(1), 420-443; doi:10.3390/en7010420
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 4 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When large wind farms are centrally integrated in a power grid, cascading tripping faults induced by voltage issues are becoming a great challenge. This paper therefore proposes a concept of static voltage security region to guarantee that the voltage will remain within operation
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When large wind farms are centrally integrated in a power grid, cascading tripping faults induced by voltage issues are becoming a great challenge. This paper therefore proposes a concept of static voltage security region to guarantee that the voltage will remain within operation limits under both base conditions and N-1 contingencies. For large wind farms, significant computational effort is required to calculate the exact boundary of the proposed security region. To reduce this computational burden and facilitate the overall analysis, the characteristics of the security region are first analyzed, and its boundary components are shown to be strictly convex. Approximate security regions are then proposed, which are formed by a set of linear cutting planes based on special operating points known as near points and inner points. The security region encompassed by cutting planes is a good approximation to the actual security region. The proposed procedures are demonstrated on a modified nine-bus system with two wind farms. The simulation confirmed that the cutting plane technique can provide a very good approximation to the actual security region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Static Voltage Security Region for Centralized Wind Power Integration—Part II: Applications
Energies 2014, 7(1), 444-461; doi:10.3390/en7010444
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 12 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Part I of this work, a static voltage security region was introduced to guarantee the safety of wind farm reactive power outputs under both base conditions and N-1 contingency. In this paper, a mathematical representation of the approximate N-1 security region has
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In Part I of this work, a static voltage security region was introduced to guarantee the safety of wind farm reactive power outputs under both base conditions and N-1 contingency. In this paper, a mathematical representation of the approximate N-1 security region has further studied to provide better coordination among wind farms and help prevent cascading tripping following a single wind farm trip. Besides, the influence of active power on the security region is studied. The proposed methods are demonstrated for N-1 contingency cases in a nine-bus system. The simulations verify that the N-1 security region is a small subset of the security region under base conditions. They also illustrate the fact that if the system is simply operated below the reactive power limits, without coordination among the wind farms, the static voltage is likely to exceed its limit. A two-step optimal adjustment strategy is introduced to shift insecure operating points into the security region under N-1 contingency. Through extensive numerical studies, the effectiveness of the proposed technique is confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Slotted Blades Savonius Wind Turbine Analysis by CFD
Energies 2013, 6(12), 6335-6351; doi:10.3390/en6126335
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (42876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper a new bucket configuration for a Savonius wind generator is proposed. Numerical analyses are performed to estimate the performances of the proposed configuration by means of the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics® with respect to Savonius wind turbine with overlap
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In this paper a new bucket configuration for a Savonius wind generator is proposed. Numerical analyses are performed to estimate the performances of the proposed configuration by means of the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics® with respect to Savonius wind turbine with overlap only. Parametric analyses are performed, for a fixed overlap ratio, by varying the slot position; the results show that for slot positioned near the blade root, the Savonius rotor improves performances at low tip speed ratio, evidencing a better starting torque. This circumstance is confirmed by static analyses performed on the slotted blades in order to investigate the starting characteristic of the proposed Savonius wind generator configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems
Energies 2013, 6(12), 6352-6372; doi:10.3390/en6126352
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1740 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which
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This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the tie-line power variation to the mechanical power variation of a wind turbine, and the expression of the maximum magnitude of tie-line power oscillations are derived to identify the resonant condition and evaluate the potential risk. The effects of the parameters on the resonant magnitude of the tie-line power are also discussed. The frequency domain analysis reveals that TSWS can excite large tie-line power oscillations if the frequency of TSWS approaches the tie-line resonant frequency, especially in the case that the wind farm is integrated into a relatively small grid and the tie-line of the interconnected system is weak. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical analysis are validated through time domain simulations conducted in the two-area four-generator system and the Western Electric Coordinating Council 127 bus system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Review of Methodological Approaches for the Design and Optimization of Wind Farms
Energies 2014, 7(11), 6930-7016; doi:10.3390/en7116930
Received: 30 May 2014 / Revised: 13 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 29 October 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (1259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a review of the state of the art of the Wind Farm Design and Optimization (WFDO) problem. The WFDO problem refers to a set of advanced planning actions needed to extremize the performance of wind farms, which may be composed
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This article presents a review of the state of the art of the Wind Farm Design and Optimization (WFDO) problem. The WFDO problem refers to a set of advanced planning actions needed to extremize the performance of wind farms, which may be composed of a few individual Wind Turbines (WTs) up to thousands of WTs. The WFDO problem has been investigated in different scenarios, with substantial differences in main objectives, modelling assumptions, constraints, and numerical solution methods. The aim of this paper is: (1) to present an exhaustive survey of the literature covering the full span of the subject, an analysis of the state-of-the-art models describing the performance of wind farms as well as its extensions, and the numerical approaches used to solve the problem; (2) to provide an overview of the available knowledge and recent progress in the application of such strategies to real onshore and offshore wind farms; and (3) to propose a comprehensive agenda for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessReview Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring: State-of-the-Art Review, New Trends, and Future Challenges
Energies 2014, 7(4), 2595-2630; doi:10.3390/en7042595
Received: 14 February 2014 / Revised: 23 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (943 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the demand for wind energy continues to grow at exponential rates, reducing operation and maintenance (OM) costs and improving reliability have become top priorities in wind turbine (WT) maintenance strategies. In addition to the development of more highly evolved WT designs intended
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As the demand for wind energy continues to grow at exponential rates, reducing operation and maintenance (OM) costs and improving reliability have become top priorities in wind turbine (WT) maintenance strategies. In addition to the development of more highly evolved WT designs intended to improve availability, the application of reliable and cost-effective condition-monitoring (CM) techniques offers an efficient approach to achieve this goal. This paper provides a general review and classification of wind turbine condition monitoring (WTCM) methods and techniques with a focus on trends and future challenges. After highlighting the relevant CM, diagnosis, and maintenance analysis, this work outlines the relationship between these concepts and related theories, and examines new trends and future challenges in the WTCM industry. Interesting insights from this research are used to point out strengths and weaknesses in today’s WTCM industry and define research priorities needed for the industry to meet the challenges in wind industry technological evolution and market growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)

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