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Special Issue "Advances in Thermodynamics"

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A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Thermodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Ismo T. Koponen

Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, Gustaf Hällströmin Katu 2, FI - 00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Phone: +358-9-19150652
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Interests: statistical physics; networks; kinetic models; learning and education; philosophy of science
Managing Editor
Dr. Shu-Kun Lin

MDPI AG, St. Alban-Anlage 66, CH-4052 Basel, Switzerland
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Interests: Gibbs paradox; entropy; symmetry; similarity; diversity; information theory; thermodynamics; process irreversibility or spontaneity; stability; nature of the chemical processes; molecular recognition; open access journals

Special Issue Information

Entropy is a key concept in thermodynamics. We decide to expand Entropy journal to cover thermodynamics in general also. All papers on thermodynamics, thermal physics, thermochemistry, heat transfer are invited for consideration and publication in this special issue. In future, a section "Thermodynamics" will be set up.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Amines in the Earth’s Atmosphere: A Density Functional Theory Study of the Thermochemistry of Pre-Nucleation Clusters
Entropy 2011, 13(2), 554-569; doi:10.3390/e13020554
Received: 1 January 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 27 January 2011 / Published: 21 February 2011
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (2153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The impact of organic species which are present in the Earth’s atmosphere on the burst of new particles is critically important for the understanding of the molecular nature of atmospheric nucleation phenomena. Amines have recently been proposedas possible stabilizers of binary pre-nucleation
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The impact of organic species which are present in the Earth’s atmosphere on the burst of new particles is critically important for the understanding of the molecular nature of atmospheric nucleation phenomena. Amines have recently been proposed as possible stabilizers of binary pre-nucleation clusters. In order to advance the understanding of atmospheric nucleation phenomena, a quantum-chemical study of hydrogen-bonded complexes of binary sulfuric acid-water clusters with methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamines representing common atmospheric organic species, vegetation products and laboratory impurities has been carried out. The thermochemical stability of the sulfuric acid-amines-water complexes was found to be higher than that of the sulfuric acid-ammonia-water complexes, in qualitative agreement with the previous studies. However, the enhancement in stability due to amines appears to not be large enough to overcome the difference in typical atmospheric concentrations of ammonia and amines. Further research is needed in order to address the existing uncertainties and to reach a final conclusion about the importance of amines for the atmospheric nucleation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Stability and Bifurcation in Nonlinear Mechanics with Dissipation
Entropy 2011, 13(2), 332-366; doi:10.3390/e13020332
Received: 12 January 2011 / Revised: 25 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (227 KB)
Abstract
The analysis of stability and bifurcation is studied in nonlinear mechanics with dissipative mechanisms: plasticity, damage, fracture. The description is based on introduction of a set of internal variables. This framework allows a systematic description of the material behaviour via two potentials: the
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The analysis of stability and bifurcation is studied in nonlinear mechanics with dissipative mechanisms: plasticity, damage, fracture. The description is based on introduction of a set of internal variables. This framework allows a systematic description of the material behaviour via two potentials: the free energy and the potential of dissipation. In the framework of standard generalized materials the internal state evolution is governed by a variational inequality which depends on the mechanism of dissipation. This inequality is obtained through energetic considerations in an unified description based upon energy and driving forces associated to the dissipative process. This formulation provides criterion for existence and uniqueness of the system evolution. Examples are presented for plasticity, fracture and for damaged materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)
Open AccessArticle Lagrange Equations Coupled to a Thermal Equation: Mechanics as Consequence of Thermodynamics
Entropy 2011, 13(2), 367-378; doi:10.3390/e13020367
Received: 23 December 2010 / Revised: 19 January 2011 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following the analytic approach to thermodynamics developed by Stückelberg, we study the evolution equations of a closed thermodynamic system consisting of point particles in a fluid. We obtain a system of coupled differential equations describing the mechanical and the thermal evolution of the
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Following the analytic approach to thermodynamics developed by Stückelberg, we study the evolution equations of a closed thermodynamic system consisting of point particles in a fluid. We obtain a system of coupled differential equations describing the mechanical and the thermal evolution of the system. The coupling between these evolution equations is due to the action of a viscous friction term. Finally, we apply our coupled evolution equations to study the thermodynamics of an isolated system consisting of identical point particles interacting through a harmonic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)
Open AccessArticle Spin-Currents and Spin-Pumping Forces for Spintronics
Entropy 2011, 13(2), 316-331; doi:10.3390/e13020316
Received: 9 December 2010 / Revised: 24 December 2010 / Accepted: 28 December 2010 / Published: 28 January 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A general definition of the Spintronics concept of spin-pumping is proposed as generalized forces conjugated to the spin degrees of freedom in the framework of the theory of mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that at least three different kinds of spin-pumping forces
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A general definition of the Spintronics concept of spin-pumping is proposed as generalized forces conjugated to the spin degrees of freedom in the framework of the theory of mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that at least three different kinds of spin-pumping forces and associated spin-currents can be defined in the most simple spintronics system: the Ferromagnetic/Non-Ferromagnetic metal interface. Furthermore, the generalized force associated with the ferromagnetic collective variable is also introduced on an equal footing to describe the coexistence of the spin of the conduction electrons (paramagnetic spins attached to s-band electrons) and the ferromagnetic-order parameter. The dynamical coupling between these two kinds of magnetic degrees of freedom is presented and interpreted in terms of spin-transfer effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)
Open AccessArticle Reconsideration of Criteria and Modeling in Order to Optimize the Efficiency of Irreversible Thermomechanical Heat Engines
Entropy 2010, 12(12), 2470-2484; doi:10.3390/e12122470
Received: 29 October 2010 / Revised: 13 December 2010 / Accepted: 16 December 2010 / Published: 21 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to precise and complete one recently proposed in the literature and relative to a general criterion to maximize the first law efficiency of irreversible heat engines. It is shown that the previous proposal seems to be a
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The purpose of this work is to precise and complete one recently proposed in the literature and relative to a general criterion to maximize the first law efficiency of irreversible heat engines. It is shown that the previous proposal seems to be a particular case. A new proposal has been developed for a Carnot irreversible thermomechanical heat engine at steady state associated to two infinite heat reservoirs (hot source, and cold sink): this constitutes the studied system. The presence of heat leak is accounted for, with the most simple form, as is done generally in the literature. Irreversibility is modeled through , created internal entropy rate in the converter (engine), and , total created entropy rate in the system. Heat transfer laws are represented as general functions of temperatures. These concepts are particularized to the most common heat transfer law (linear one). Consequences of the proposal are examined; some new analytical results are proposed for efficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)
Open AccessArticle Burning Speed and Entropy Production Calculation of a Transient Expanding Spherical Laminar Flame Using a Thermodynamic Model
Entropy 2010, 12(12), 2485-2496; doi:10.3390/e12122485
Received: 20 November 2010 / Revised: 7 December 2010 / Accepted: 15 December 2010 / Published: 21 December 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A thermodynamic model has been developed to calculate burning speed and entropy production of transient expending spherical laminar flame in an enclosed vessel. The model also predicts the particle trajectories of both unburned and burned gases in the vessel. The input to this
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A thermodynamic model has been developed to calculate burning speed and entropy production of transient expending spherical laminar flame in an enclosed vessel. The model also predicts the particle trajectories of both unburned and burned gases in the vessel. The input to this model is the dynamic pressure rise due to combustion process. The unburned gases are divided into three regions: The core unburned gases which are compressed isentropically, the vessel walls and electrodes boundary layer gases, and gases in the preheat zone of the flames. The burned gases are in many shells having the same pressure but different temperatures. The model also includes radiation losses from the burned gases to vessel walls. Entropy production due to irreversibility has been calculated by applying entropy balance to the gas mixtures. Burning speed of premixed n-decane air mixture has been reported for temperatures and pressures along an isentrope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)
Open AccessArticle All in Action
Entropy 2010, 12(11), 2333-2358; doi:10.3390/e12112333
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 26 October 2010 / Accepted: 26 October 2010 / Published: 19 November 2010
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to
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The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to Planck’s constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span an energy landscape, the Universe, which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing energy density differences in least time. During evolution densely-curled actions unfold step-by-step when opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The energy landscape will process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to its dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature in terms of actions does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. Instead a plethora of particles and a diaspora of forces are perceived merely as diverse manifestations of a natural selection for various mechanisms and ways to decrease free energy in the least time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle A Statistical Thermodynamical Interpretation of Metabolism
Entropy 2010, 12(8), 1921-1935; doi:10.3390/e12081921
Received: 14 June 2010 / Accepted: 2 August 2010 / Published: 17 August 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The metabolic network of a cell can be decomposed into discrete elementary modes that contribute, each with a certain probability, to the overall flux through the metabolism. These modes are cell function supporting, fundamental pathways that represent permissible ‘quantum’ states of the metabolism.
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The metabolic network of a cell can be decomposed into discrete elementary modes that contribute, each with a certain probability, to the overall flux through the metabolism. These modes are cell function supporting, fundamental pathways that represent permissible ‘quantum’ states of the metabolism. For the case that cellular regulatory mechanisms for pathway fluxes evolved in an unbiased way, we demonstrate theoretically that the usage probabilities of individual elementary modes are distributed according to Boltzmann’s distribution law such that the rate of entropy production is maximized. Such distribution can be observed experimentally in highly evolved metabolic networks. Therefore, cell function has a natural tendency to operate at a maximum rate of entropy generation using preferentially efficient pathways with small reaction entropies. Ultimately, evolution of metabolic networks appears to be driven by forces that can be quantified by the distance of the current metabolic state from the state of maximum entropy generation that represents the unbiased, most probable selection of fundamental pathway choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)

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Open AccessCommentary A Comment on Nadytko et al., “Amines in the Earth’s Atmosphere: A Density Functional Theory Study of the Thermochemistry of Pre-Nucleation Clusters”. Entropy 2011, 13, 554–569
Entropy 2011, 13(4), 915-923; doi:10.3390/e13040915
Received: 24 February 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 19 April 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (86 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nadykto, Yu, Jakovleva, Herb and Xu have recently reported a DFT study on the structure and formation thermodynamics of sulfuric acid-base-water clusters, with ammonia and a handful of amines as bases [1]. This study partially overlaps with our previous work [2], and a
[...] Read more.
Nadykto, Yu, Jakovleva, Herb and Xu have recently reported a DFT study on the structure and formation thermodynamics of sulfuric acid-base-water clusters, with ammonia and a handful of amines as bases [1]. This study partially overlaps with our previous work [2], and a significant part of the discussion in their manuscript concerns differences between their results and ours. This comment is intended to address some issues related to that discussion. Specifically, it is shown that the errors related to basis-set effects in our calculations are very likely much smaller than claimed by Nadykto et al. [1]. Composite calculations including e.g., higher-level electron correlation also agree better with our results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermodynamics)

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