E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Feature Papers"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2010)

Published Papers (9 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality
Forests 2013, 4(2), 279-295; doi:10.3390/f4020279
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the [...] Read more.
The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000). Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005). These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition
Forests 2010, 1(3), 154-176; doi:10.3390/f1030154
Received: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 17 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends [...] Read more.
Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Uncertainty in Forest Net Present Value Estimations
Forests 2010, 1(3), 177-193; doi:10.3390/f1030177
Received: 9 August 2010 / Revised: 31 August 2010 / Accepted: 10 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uncertainty related to inventory data, growth models and timber price fluctuation was investigated in the assessment of forest property net present value (NPV). The degree of uncertainty associated with inventory data was obtained from previous area-based airborne laser scanning (ALS) inventory studies. [...] Read more.
Uncertainty related to inventory data, growth models and timber price fluctuation was investigated in the assessment of forest property net present value (NPV). The degree of uncertainty associated with inventory data was obtained from previous area-based airborne laser scanning (ALS) inventory studies. The study was performed, applying the Monte Carlo simulation, using stand-level growth and yield projection models and three alternative rates of interest (3, 4 and 5%). Timber price fluctuation was portrayed with geometric mean-reverting (GMR) price models. The analysis was conducted for four alternative forest properties having varying compartment structures: (A) a property having an even development class distribution, (B) sapling stands, (C) young thinning stands, and (D) mature stands. Simulations resulted in predicted yield value (predicted NPV) distributions at both stand and property levels. Our results showed that ALS inventory errors were the most prominent source of uncertainty, leading to a 5.1–7.5% relative deviation of property-level NPV when an interest rate of 3% was applied. Interestingly, ALS inventory led to significant biases at the property level, ranging from 8.9% to 14.1% (3% interest rate). ALS inventory-based bias was the most significant in mature stand properties. Errors related to the growth predictions led to a relative standard deviation in NPV, varying from 1.5% to 4.1%. Growth model-related uncertainty was most significant in sapling stand properties. Timber price fluctuation caused the relative standard deviations ranged from 3.4% to 6.4% (3% interest rate). The combined relative variation caused by inventory errors, growth model errors and timber price fluctuation varied, depending on the property type and applied rates of interest, from 6.4% to 12.6%. By applying the methodology described here, one may take into account the effects of various uncertainty factors in the prediction of forest yield value and to supply the output results with levels of confidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle A Forest Management Process to Incorporate Multiple Objectives: a Framework for Systematic Public Input
Forests 2010, 1(3), 99-113; doi:10.3390/f1030099
Received: 6 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 30 July 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A multi-objective forest management process employing mathematical programming and the analytic hierarchy process has been developed for systematically incorporating public input. The process was tested as a “proof of concept” for four values and five stakeholders in Crown License 5 in New [...] Read more.
A multi-objective forest management process employing mathematical programming and the analytic hierarchy process has been developed for systematically incorporating public input. The process was tested as a “proof of concept” for four values and five stakeholders in Crown License 5 in New Brunswick. The impacts of tradeoffs among various weighting schemes were evaluated. Analyses of stakeholders’ expected satisfaction were conducted for each scenario. The forest management implications of different weighting methods are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Examining the Compatibility between Forestry Incentive Programs in the US and the Practice of Sustainable Forest Management
Forests 2010, 1(1), 49-64; doi:10.3390/f1010049
Received: 7 December 2009 / Revised: 12 March 2010 / Accepted: 16 March 2010 / Published: 23 March 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (62 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research explores the intersection between the various federal and state forestry incentive programs and the adoption of sustainable forestry practices on non-industrial private forest (NIPF) lands in the US. The qualitative research reported here draws upon a series of eight focus [...] Read more.
This research explores the intersection between the various federal and state forestry incentive programs and the adoption of sustainable forestry practices on non-industrial private forest (NIPF) lands in the US. The qualitative research reported here draws upon a series of eight focus groups of NIPF landowners (two each in Minnesota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina). Despite minor regional variations, the dominant theme that emerged is that these landowners’ purchase and management decisions are motivated by the “trilogy” of forest continuity, benefit to the owner, and doing the “right thing.” This trilogy is quite consistent with notions of sustainable forestry, but somewhat more at odds with the objectives of many financial incentive programs, as well as specific tactics such as third-party certification. A series of policy recommendations that emerge from this research is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Yield Implications of Site Preparation Treatments for Lodgepole Pine and White Spruce in Northern British Columbia
Forests 2010, 1(1), 25-48; doi:10.3390/f1010025
Received: 10 February 2010 / Accepted: 12 March 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the effects of site preparation treatments on growth of lodgepole pine and white spruce in north-eastern British Columbia, Canada. These treatments can provide yield gains of up to 10 percent for lodgepole pine and white spruce at 60 and 80 [...] Read more.
We evaluated the effects of site preparation treatments on growth of lodgepole pine and white spruce in north-eastern British Columbia, Canada. These treatments can provide yield gains of up to 10 percent for lodgepole pine and white spruce at 60 and 80 years, respectively (estimated using TASS). Stands of these two species are showing a Type 1 response. Using growth multipliers, based on measurements collected at ages 10 to 20 results in inflated estimates of potential yield responses while the age-shift method provides the most appropriate estimates of yield gains when measured during the first 20 years of growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle A Methodology for Modelling Canopy Structure: An Exploratory Analysis in the Tall Wet Eucalypt Forests of Southern Tasmania
Forests 2010, 1(1), 4-24; doi:10.3390/f1010004
Received: 4 November 2009 / Revised: 19 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 January 2010 / Published: 1 February 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A ground-based methodology is presented for spatially modelling forest canopy structure. Field measurements and allometric relationships are used to predict the profiles of free-growing tree crowns on the basis of stem diameter at breast height (dbh). These profiles are incorporated into three-dimensional [...] Read more.
A ground-based methodology is presented for spatially modelling forest canopy structure. Field measurements and allometric relationships are used to predict the profiles of free-growing tree crowns on the basis of stem diameter at breast height (dbh). These profiles are incorporated into three-dimensional canopy models using AutoCAD™ technical drawing software and field data describing the genus, dbh and relative positions of all trees greater than 10 cm dbh; critically, our models account for the effects of competition for light between neighbouring crowns. By horizontally partitioning the models, the presence of distinct strata and the dominant genera associated with each stratum can be identified. Our methodology is applicable to other forest ecosystems as a research tool for investigating changes in vertical structure, and for calibrating remote sensing technologies in order to map and monitor canopy structural variation across forested landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview A Synthesis of Sierran Forest Biomass Management Studies and Potential Effects on Water Quality
Forests 2010, 1(3), 131-153; doi:10.3390/f1030131
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 20 August 2010 / Accepted: 26 August 2010 / Published: 2 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and [...] Read more.
The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and current nutrient pools and the effects of biomass management in watersheds of the basin relative to their potential impacts on nutrient (N, P) related discharge water quality. An accumulating forest floor as a result of fire suppression has resulted in the build-up of large nutrient pools that now provide a “natural” source of long term nutrient availability to surface waters. As a consequence, stand and forest floor replacing wildfire may cause a large magnitude nutrient mobilization impact on runoff water quality. Hence, mechanical harvest and controlled burning have become popular management strategies. The most ecologically significant long-term effects of controlled fire appear to be the loss of C and N from the forest floor. Although the application of controlled fire may have some initial impact on overland/litter interflow nutrient loading, controlled burning in conjunction with mechanical harvest has the potential to improve runoff water quality by reducing N and P discharge and improving the overall health of forest ecosystems without the danger of a high intensity wildfire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEssay Old-growth Forests: Anatomy of a Wicked Problem
Forests 2011, 2(1), 343-356; doi:10.3390/f2010343
Received: 11 January 2011 / Revised: 12 February 2011 / Accepted: 18 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Old-growth forest is an often-used term that seems to be intuitively understood by ecologists and forest managers, and the wide-ranging discussion of its social and ecological values suggests it has currency among the general public as well. However, a decades-long discourse regarding [...] Read more.
Old-growth forest is an often-used term that seems to be intuitively understood by ecologists and forest managers, and the wide-ranging discussion of its social and ecological values suggests it has currency among the general public as well. However, a decades-long discourse regarding a generally acceptable definition of old-growth, in both conceptual and practical terms, has gone largely unresolved. This is partially because old-growth is simultaneously an ecological state, a value-laden social concept, and a polarizing political phenomenon, each facet of its identity influencing the others in complex ways. However, the public, scientific, and management discourse on old-growth has also suffered from simplifying tendencies which are at odds with old-growth’s inherently complex nature. Such complexity confounds simple or rationalistic management approaches, and the forest management arena has witnessed the collision of impassioned and contradictory opinions on the ‘right way’ to manage old-growth forests, ranging from strict preservationism to utilitarian indifference. What is clear is that management approaches that circumvent, trivialize, eliminate, or ignore old-growth’s inherent complexity may do so at the expense of the very characteristics from which old-growth derives its perceived value. We explore the paradoxes presented by the various approaches to old-growth description and definition and present some plausible paths forward for old-growth theory and management, with a particular focus on managed forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Forests Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
forests@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Forests
Back to Top