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Special Issue "Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecology and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Emanuele Lingua

Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry (TESAF), University of Padova Viale dell’Università 16, 35020, Legnaro(PD), Italy
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural disturbances have been shaping species composition and the spatial pattern of vegetation cover in forest ecosystems for millennia, being among the main drivers of stand dynamics and forest succession. However, many stands are of anthropogenic origin or have been deeply affected by forest management, and the impact of high severity disturbances can lead to undesirable successional pathways. Furthermore, in many regions, disturbance regimes have already undergone considerable changes, in particular through an increase in frequency, size, and severity, strictly related to climate and land use changes.

Emerging critical issues related to current and foreseen alterations in disturbance regimes call for a better understanding of both regeneration dynamics following intermediate or high severity events and the impact of post-disturbance management practices on forest recovery. This advance in knowledge will prove fundamental prior to choosing between the need to actively undertake forest restoration or a passive management approach.

We encourage studies from all fields, including experimental and multidisciplinary investigations, focusing on post-disturbance regeneration dynamics, and management interventions, to contribute to this Special Issue in order to promote knowledge on forest ecosystems affected by natural disturbances, and to implement sustainable forest management, aiming at increasing forest resilience and securing their fundamental ecosystem services and inherent biodiversity.

Prof. Dr. Emanuele Lingua
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Natural Disturbances
  • Succession
  • Forest restoration
  • Regeneration dynamics
  • Forest Management
  • Facilitation mechanisms
  • Deadwood management
  • Post-disturbance management
  • Resilience

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Tree Regeneration Spatial Patterns in Ponderosa Pine Forests Following Stand-Replacing Fire: Influence of Topography and Neighbors
Forests 2017, 8(10), 391; doi:10.3390/f8100391
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
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Abstract
Shifting fire regimes alter forest structure assembly in ponderosa pine forests and may produce structural heterogeneity following stand-replacing fire due, in part, to fine-scale variability in growing environments. We mapped tree regeneration in eighteen plots 11 to 15 years after stand-replacing fire in
[...] Read more.
Shifting fire regimes alter forest structure assembly in ponderosa pine forests and may produce structural heterogeneity following stand-replacing fire due, in part, to fine-scale variability in growing environments. We mapped tree regeneration in eighteen plots 11 to 15 years after stand-replacing fire in Colorado and South Dakota, USA. We used point pattern analyses to examine the spatial pattern of tree locations and heights as well as the influence of tree interactions and topography on tree patterns. In these sparse, early-seral forests, we found that all species were spatially aggregated, partly attributable to the influence of (1) aspect and slope on conifers; (2) topographic position on quaking aspen; and (3) interspecific attraction between ponderosa pine and other species. Specifically, tree interactions were related to finer-scale patterns whereas topographic effects influenced coarse-scale patterns. Spatial structures of heights revealed conspecific size hierarchies with taller trees in denser neighborhoods. Topography and heterospecific tree interactions had nominal effect on tree height spatial structure. Our results demonstrate how stand-replacing fires create heterogeneous forest structures and suggest that scale-dependent, and often facilitatory, rather than competitive, processes act on regenerating trees. These early-seral processes will establish potential pathways of stand development, affecting future forest dynamics and management options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Challenges for Uneven-Aged Silviculture in Restoration of Post-Disturbance Forests in Central Europe: A Synthesis
Forests 2017, 8(10), 378; doi:10.3390/f8100378
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
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Abstract
Forest managers are often required to restore forest stands following natural disturbances, a situation that may become more common and more challenging under global change. In parts of Central Europe, particularly in mountain regions dominated by mixed temperate forests, the use of relatively
[...] Read more.
Forest managers are often required to restore forest stands following natural disturbances, a situation that may become more common and more challenging under global change. In parts of Central Europe, particularly in mountain regions dominated by mixed temperate forests, the use of relatively low intensity, uneven-aged silviculture is a common management approach. Because this type of management is based on mimicking less intense disturbances, the restoration of more severe disturbance patches within forested landscapes has received little attention. The goal of this paper is to synthesize research on the restoration of forests damaged by disturbances in temperate forests of Slovenia and neighbouring regions of Central Europe, where uneven-aged silviculture is practiced. Research indicates that active management aimed at favouring mixed uneven-aged forest reduces the risk of disturbance and improves the resilience of stands. Salvage logging may have positive or negative effects on regeneration, much of which is due to the method applied and the quality of work. The most prominent factors that negatively affect restoration are: lack of advanced regeneration and decomposed woody debris, high altitude, steep slopes, dense ground vegetation, and overbrowsing. Planting or sowing should be applied in post-disturbance forests where many negative factors interact and where a high demand for sustainability of forest ecosystem services is present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Post-Fire Salvage Logging Imposes a New Disturbance that Retards Succession: The Case of Bryophyte Communities in a Macaronesian Laurel Forest
Forests 2017, 8(7), 252; doi:10.3390/f8070252
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Post-fire salvage logging (SL) is a common management action that involves the harvesting of burnt trees. As a consequence, a large amount of biological legacies in the form of logs and other coarse woody debris are removed from the post-fire habitat, creating a
[...] Read more.
Post-fire salvage logging (SL) is a common management action that involves the harvesting of burnt trees. As a consequence, a large amount of biological legacies in the form of logs and other coarse woody debris are removed from the post-fire habitat, creating a more simplified landscape. Therefore, SL could act as an additional disturbance over that produced by fire. In this study, we seek to determine the effect of SL on the regeneration of the bryophyte community of a laurel forest from the Canary Islands (Spain). We hypothesized that SL will act as an additional disturbance and, consequently, salvaged areas will have a higher difference in community composition with respect to a reference ecosystem (RE). Mosses and liverworts were sampled 22 months after the salvage operations in salvaged plots, non-salvaged, and in an RE represented by areas of the original forest. Species richness did not differ between salvage and non-salvaged treatments. However, multivariate analysis and species-indicator analysis showed that non-salvaged plots had a composition closer to that of the RE, with a higher proportion of closed-canopy, perennial, and long-lived species, as well as some epiphytes. By contrast, salvaged plots were dominated by early-successional terrestrial species and species preferring open habitats. We conclude that post-fire SL represents an additional disturbance that further delays succession, a result that is consistent with previous studies using other taxonomic groups. SL should therefore be avoided or, if implemented, the possibility of leaving part of the post-fire biological legacies in situ should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Fifty-Six Years of Forest Development Following the 1938 Hurricane in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, USA
Forests 2017, 8(7), 225; doi:10.3390/f8070225
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Forest development patterns following the 1938 hurricane were evaluated in 45 continuous forest inventory (CFI) plots monitored from 1955 to 2011 at the Caroline A. Fox Research and Demonstration Forest (Fox), in Hillsborough, New Hampshire. Long-term plot data provide a record of landscape-level
[...] Read more.
Forest development patterns following the 1938 hurricane were evaluated in 45 continuous forest inventory (CFI) plots monitored from 1955 to 2011 at the Caroline A. Fox Research and Demonstration Forest (Fox), in Hillsborough, New Hampshire. Long-term plot data provide a record of landscape-level changes in a managed forest setting. Changes in density, basal area, mortality, removal, and recruitment demonstrate the effects of forest management on growth and forest structure through time. Tree density peaked in 2001 at 716.1 trees/hectare, but the basal area continued to increase from 18.8 m2/ha in 1955 to 44.7 m2/ha 2011 despite forest management activities. Hemlock and red maple dominate stem recruitment. Tree mortality rates have increased from 0.26%/year 1955–1965 to 1.03%/year 2001–2011, while removal rates have dropped from 1.04%/year to 0.44%/year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Fire Severity and Regeneration Strategy Influence Shrub Patch Size and Structure Following Disturbance
Forests 2017, 8(7), 221; doi:10.3390/f8070221
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Climate change is increasing the frequency and extent of high-severity disturbance, with potential to alter vegetation community composition and structure in environments sensitive to tipping points between alternative states. Shrub species display a range of characteristics that promote resistance and resilience to disturbance,
[...] Read more.
Climate change is increasing the frequency and extent of high-severity disturbance, with potential to alter vegetation community composition and structure in environments sensitive to tipping points between alternative states. Shrub species display a range of characteristics that promote resistance and resilience to disturbance, and which yield differential post-disturbance outcomes. We investigated differences in shrub patch size and stem density in response to variations in fire severity, vegetation community, and post-disturbance reproductive strategies in Sky Island forested ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Patterns in shrub structure reflect the effects of fire severity as well as differences among species with alternate post-fire reproductive strategies. Increased fire severity correlates with larger patch sizes and greater stem densities; these patterns are observed across multiple fire events, indicating that disturbance legacies can persist for decades. High severity fire produces the largest shrub patches, and variance in shrub patch size increases with severity. High severity fire is likely to promote expansion of shrub species on the landscape, with implications for future community structure. Resprouting species have the greatest variability in patch structure, while seeding species show a strong response to disturbance: resprouting species dominate at low disturbance severities, and obligate seeders dominate high severity areas. Differential post-fire reproductive strategies are likely to generate distinct patterns of vegetation distribution following disturbance, with implications for community composition at various scales. Shrub species demonstrate flexible responses to wildfire disturbance severity that are reflected in shrub patch dynamics at small and intermediate scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Boreal Well Site Reclamation Practices on Long-Term Planted Spruce and Deciduous Tree Regeneration
Forests 2017, 8(6), 201; doi:10.3390/f8060201
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
Well site development associated with oil sands exploration is common in boreal mixedwood forests of northern Alberta, Canada, and necessitates reforestation to accommodate other land uses. Little is known about the impact of soil and debris handling strategies during well site construction on
[...] Read more.
Well site development associated with oil sands exploration is common in boreal mixedwood forests of northern Alberta, Canada, and necessitates reforestation to accommodate other land uses. Little is known about the impact of soil and debris handling strategies during well site construction on long-term forest regeneration. This study addresses the impact of soil disturbance intensity, debris treatment, soil storage, and planting on the reforestation of 33 well sites reclaimed prior to 2006. Data on the survival and growth of planted white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and the regeneration density of deciduous trees, including trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), are presented from 2014 to 2015. The survival of planted spruce increased from 81% to 88% at well sites with a high relative to low soil disturbance. The total tree densities were lower in most treatments (≤2.69 stems m−2) than those in clear cuts (5.17 stems m−2), with the exception of root salvage areas where clear cuts had greater balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) densities (2.05 stems m−2 vs. <0.71 stems m−2 on all other treatments). Aspen densities were up to five times greater at well sites with low disturbance when compared to those with high disturbance, and this was further aided by shallow mulch at low disturbance sites. Spruce growth did not respond to well site treatments. Aspen growth (diameter and height) remained similar between well site disturbance regimes; aspen exposed to high disturbance underperformed relative to low disturbance well sites and clear cut controls. With high disturbance, progressive soil piling led to increases in the density of aspen and birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall). Few long-term changes in soil were found due to well site development, with a greater soil pH in high disturbance sites compared to low disturbance sites. Overall, these results indicate that the nature of well site construction, including the extent of soil removal, soil piling, and debris treatment, may collectively alter forest re-establishment, with associated implications for forest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Drives Episodic Conifer Establishment after Fire in Dry Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA
Forests 2017, 8(5), 159; doi:10.3390/f8050159
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and
[...] Read more.
In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and aged over 400 post-fire juvenile ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees using an improved tree-ring based approach that yielded annually-resolved dates and then assessed relationships between climate variability and pulses of tree establishment. We found that tree establishment was largely concentrated in years of above-average moisture availability in the growing season, including higher amounts of precipitation and more positive values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Under continued climate change, drier conditions associated with warming temperatures may limit forest recovery after fire, which could result in lower stand densities or shifts to non-forested vegetation in some areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Salvage-Logging after Windstorm Leads to Structural and Functional Homogenization of Understory Layer and Delayed Spruce Tree Recovery in Tatra Mts., Slovakia
Forests 2017, 8(3), 88; doi:10.3390/f8030088
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Stand-replacing disturbance and post-disturbance salvage-logging influence forest succession in different ways; however, limited knowledge regarding how salvage-logging affects vegetation patterns compared to natural development of forest ecosystems is still lacking. In this study, we described the diversity pattern of understory vegetation and tree
[...] Read more.
Stand-replacing disturbance and post-disturbance salvage-logging influence forest succession in different ways; however, limited knowledge regarding how salvage-logging affects vegetation patterns compared to natural development of forest ecosystems is still lacking. In this study, we described the diversity pattern of understory vegetation and tree regeneration in mountain spruce forest of Tatra Mountains, northern Slovakia, where a high severity windstorm affecting over 10,000 ha occurred in 2004. The area was consequently subjected to salvage-logging. We asked how the species composition, vegetation diversity, and its spatial heterogeneity were modified by severe salvage-logging. Vascular plants, deadwood coverage, and tree species densities were monitored on non-intervention (NI; n = 108) and salvage-logged (SL; n = 95) experimental plots (spatially nested design, sample plot area 3.14 m2) six and seven years after disturbance, respectively. The NI sites were structurally more diverse with post-windstorms legacies such as deadwood and pit and mound topography being recorded. The NI plots contained more late-successional plant and moss species that are commonly found in the pre-disturbance forest. The NI plots were also more diverse in terms of alpha- and beta-diversity with abundant natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). The structure of SL site was more homogeneous and its species composition shifted towards being dominated by grasses, although the site accommodated a higher number of plant species due to newly established pioneer plant- and tree species. The retreat of late-successional species in favour of grasses can lead to structural and functional homogenization of habitat and to delayed succession towards establishment of spruce forest. We conclude that the removal of wind-disturbance legacies significantly diverts natural successional pathways. We recommend avoiding salvage-logging in protected areas since large-scale application of salvage-logging reduces beta-diversity of the landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Regeneration Dynamics of Coast Redwood, a Sprouting Conifer Species: A Review with Implications for Management and Restoration
Forests 2017, 8(5), 144; doi:10.3390/f8050144
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex. D. Don) Endl.) is unique among conifer species because of its longevity, the great sizes of individual trees, and its propensity to reproduce through sprouts. Timber harvesting in the native redwood range along the coast of
[...] Read more.
Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex. D. Don) Endl.) is unique among conifer species because of its longevity, the great sizes of individual trees, and its propensity to reproduce through sprouts. Timber harvesting in the native redwood range along the coast of the western United States has necessitated restoration aimed to promote old forest structures to increase the total amount of old forest, the connectivity between old forests, and to enhance the resiliency of these ecosystems. After disturbance or harvest, healthy redwood stumps sprout vigorously, often producing dozens of sprouts within two years of disturbance. These sprouts form highly aggregated spatial patterns because they are clustered around stumps that may number less than 50 ha−1. Thinning of sprouts can accelerate individual tree growth, providing an effective restoration strategy to accelerate formation of large trees and old forest structures or increase stand growth for timber production. However, management, including restoration activities, is a contentious issue throughout the native range of redwood because of the history of overexploitation of this resource and perceptions that overexploitation is continuing. This paper reviews the science of early stand dynamics in coast redwood and their implications for restoration and other silvicultural strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Regeneration Dynamics of Coast Redwood, a Sprouting Conifer Species: A Review with Implications for Restoration
Author: Kevin L. O'Hara 1
Affiliation: 1 Department of Silviculture, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA.
Abstract: Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is unique among conifer species because of its longevity, great sizes of individual trees, and its propensity to reproduce through sprouts. This sprouting capability includes sprouting from burned trees, cut stumps, down logs, and even severed branches or tree tops. Conversely, redwood is not effective at reproducing sexually. Resulting old forests have complex spatial patterns of clones intermixed with other unique individuals. After disturbance or harvest, healthy stumps sprout vigorously, often producing dozens of sprouts within two years of disturbance. These sprouts form highly aggregated spatial patterns because they are clustered around stumps that may number less than 50 ha-1. Growth and self-thinning of sprouts is rapid in full-sunlight. In partial shade, self-thinning may be rapid but growth may be slow. Entire sprout clumps may die in low quality light environments. Thinning of sprouts can accelerate individual tree growth, providing an effective restoration strategy to accelerate formation of large trees and old forest structures or increase stand growth for timber production. This paper reviews the science of early stand dynamics in coast redwood and their implications for restoration and other silvicultural strategies.

Title: Natural Succession and Heterogeneity Following High-Severity Fire in Ponderosa/Jeffrey-Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of California, USA
Author: Chad Hanson
Affiliation: Earth Island Institute, 2150 Allston Way, Suite #460, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
Abstract: Researchers and land managers are increasingly attempting to understand natural succession patterns following large high-severity fire patches within conifer forests to better understand ecological resilience. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of plot size on conclusions about the extent and degree of forest regeneration. I investigated this issue in three fire areas in mixed-conifer and Jeffrey pine forests in the mountains of southern California, U.S.A., recording the proportion of plots containing natural tree regeneration (both conifer and non-conifer), and the density of regenerating stems, at four radius distances from plot center points in large high-severity fire patches.

Title: Salvage-Logging after Windstorm Leads to Structural and Functional Homogenization of Understory Layer and Delayed Spruce Tree Recovery in Tatra Mts., Slovakia
Author: Miro Svoboda
Abstract: Stand-replacing disturbance and post-disturbance salvage-logging influence the forest succession in different ways, but in many forest ecosystems there is still limited knowledge how salvage-logging affects vegetation patterns compared to natural development. In this study we described the diversity pattern of understory vegetation and tree regeneration in mountain spruce forest of Tatra Mts., northern Slovakia, which was subject to high severity windstorm over 10 000 ha in 2004 and then subsequent salvage-logging. We asked how severe salvage-logging modified the species composition, vegetation diversity and its spatial heterogeneity. Vascular plants, deadwood coverage and tree species densities were recorded on non-intervention (NI; n=106) and salvage-logged (SL; n=93) study plots (spatially nested design, sample plot area 3.14 m2) 6 (7) years after disturbance. The non-intervention sites were structurally more diverse, with post-windstorms legacies such as dead wood and pits and mound topography. It contained more late-successional plant species and mosses from the pre-disturbance forest; was more diverse in terms of alpha- and beta-diversity and the spruce regeneration was more abundant there. The salvage logged site was more homogeneous and its composition shifted towards the dominance of graminoids, although the latter site accommodated higher number of plant species due to newly established pioneer plant- and tree species. The retreat of late-successional species in favor of graminoids can lead to structural and functional homogenization of habitat and delayed succession towards to spruce forest establishment. The machinery removing of wind-disturbance legacies significantly divert successional pathways. Large-scale application of salvage-logging would reduce beta-divesity of landscape and should be avoided in national parks.
Keywords: large-scale disturbance; salvage-logging; plant diversity; homogenization; successional pathway; deadwood

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