Special Issue "Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses"

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Sarvajeet Singh Gill

Stress Physiology & Molecular Biology Lab, Center for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India
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Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Narendra Tuteja

Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, E-2 Block, 4th Floor, Room # 404A, Sector 125, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh 201313, India
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Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Ritu Gill

Center for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India
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Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Juan Francisco Jimenez Bremont

Molecular Biology Division, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICYT), San Luis Potos, Mexico
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Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Anca Macovei

Department of Biology and Biotechnology ‘L. Spallanzani’, University of Pavia, Italy
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Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Naser A. Anjum

Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Portugal
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In order to thrive, plants require optimal environmental conditions. Changes in environmental variables, such as temperature, soil and air quality or light levels, are bound to affect species reproduction and survival. In particular, the predicted increase in temperature, alteration of rain patterns, and extreme weather events across the globe may further impact plant growth and agriculture productivity worldwide. The impact of detrimental environmental conditions on plant growth, productivity and nutrient value are important parameters that are constantly monitored and studied to implement the development of new-generation crops able to feed the world´s burgeoning population.

Though a great deal of research has been done in the field of crop genetics, only limited success in producing abiotic-stress-tolerant cultivars has been achieved thus far. Some of the reasons behind these hardships include the complexity of the traits, as well as the complexity of genetic regulatory networks. The ‘gene regulatory network’ concept refers to sets of interacting genes that contribute to control specific cell functions, crucial in plant development and response to environmental stresses. When considering genes linked to abiotic stress tolerance, several classes can be underlined, mainly (i) genes involved in transcriptional control and signaling cascades, (ii) genes with protective roles at the levels of membranes, (iii) genes involved in the transport of metabolites, etc. However, in addition to the so called ‘regulatory genes’, there are other factors that contribute to the complexity of the regulatory processes, among which the epigenetic modifications, posttranscriptional and posttranslational processing, protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions, are just some of them. In recent years, the study of large-scale gene regulatory networks was made possible due to the development of high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies. The use of high-throughput methods for the study of large numbers of genes, in parallel with the networks of gene regulation, can provide essential clues to their biological functions. In addition, the information on gene profiling can be further integrated with protein expression data to gain a more informative model on how all the parts of a biological system work together. Conclusive information about alterations in gene expression levels can be gained by analyzing the qualitative and quantitative changes of messenger RNAs, proteins and metabolites. Hence, within this complex context, deciphering genetic regulation and genetic regulatory networks in the frame of extreme environmental cues, to further develop plants with drought and temperature tolerance, water-use efficiency, or resistance to pathogens, is crucial from both the agricultural and economic points of view.

This Special Issue focuses on the latest discoveries in the field of genetic regulatory networks and their impact on plant abiotic stress biology. Studies on transgenic plants, aiming to unravel gene functions and regulatory networks are most encouraged. In addition to model species, information retrieved from economically-relevant species is essential to drive agricultural development towards sustainable practices to improve crop performance under adverse environmental conditions. Authors are invited to contribute with original research articles, research notes, as well as review articles with the common aim to illustrate and stimulate the efforts undertaken to decipher the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant resilience to environmental stresses. Contributions to be included in this Special Issue are expected to help potential readers grasp how plants may better cope with abiotic stress conditions.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants, especially modulation of gene networks under various abiotic stresses
  • Genetic engineering approaches and modern genome editing for abiotic stress tolerance
  • Modelling and analysis of regulatory gene networks involved in plant abiotic stress responses
  • Relevance of transcription factors and signaling cascades in abiotic stress response
  • Relevance of posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications in abiotic stress response
  • Chromatin remodeling, DNA damage, repair and signaling pathways in plants under abiotic stresses
  • Functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics approaches to study the regulatory aspects of plant abiotic stress responses
  • Epigenetics and the regulation plant’s abiotic stress response
  • Emerging model systems for genetic regulatory networks under abiotic stress response

Dr. Sarvajeet Singh Gill
Dr. Naser A. Anjum
Dr. Anca Macovei
Dr. Juan Francisco Jimenez Bremont
Dr. Ritu Gill
Dr. Narendra Tuteja
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication The Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase 1β (Tdp1β) Gene Discloses an Early Response to Abiotic Stresses
Genes 2017, 8(11), 305; doi:10.3390/genes8110305
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is involved in DNA repair pathways as it mends the topoisomerase I—DNA covalent complexes. In plants, a small Tdp1 gene family, composed by Tdp1α and Tdp1β genes, was identified, but the roles of these genes in abiotic stress responses
[...] Read more.
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is involved in DNA repair pathways as it mends the topoisomerase I—DNA covalent complexes. In plants, a small Tdp1 gene family, composed by Tdp1α and Tdp1β genes, was identified, but the roles of these genes in abiotic stress responses are not fully understood. To investigate their specific stress response patterns, the present study made use of bioinformatic and molecular tools to look into the Tdp1β gene function, so far described only in the plant kingdom, and compare it with Tdp1α gene coding for the canonical, highly conserved α isoform. The expression profiles of Tdp1α and Tdp1β genes were examined under abiotic stress conditions (cold, heat, high osmolarity, salt, and UV-B) in two model species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula. The two isoforms of topoisomerase I (TOP1α and TOP1β) were also taken into consideration in view of their known roles in DNA metabolism and cell proliferation. Data relative to gene expression in Arabidopsis were retrieved from the AtGenExpress microarray dataset, while quantitative Real-Time PCR was carried out to evaluate the stress response in M. truncatula cell cultures. These analyses revealed that Tdp1β gene expression was enhanced during the first hour of treatment, whereas Tdp1α enhanced expression succeeded at subsequent timepoints. In agreement with the gene-specific responses to abiotic stress conditions, the promoter regions of Tdp1α and Tdp1β genes are well equipped with stress-related cis-elements. An in-depth bioinformatic characterization of the HIRAN motif, a distinctive feature of the Tdp1β protein, showed its wide distribution in chromatin remodeling and DNA repair proteins. The reported data suggests that Tdp1β functions in the early response to abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Expression Profiling of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Genes Reveals Their Evolutionary and Functional Diversity in Different Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) Cultivars
Genes 2017, 8(10), 261; doi:10.3390/genes8100261
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is the only commercially cultivated plant for producing natural rubber, one of the most essential industrial raw materials. Knowledge of the evolutionary and functional characteristics of kinases in H. brasiliensis is limited because of the long growth
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Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is the only commercially cultivated plant for producing natural rubber, one of the most essential industrial raw materials. Knowledge of the evolutionary and functional characteristics of kinases in H. brasiliensis is limited because of the long growth period and lack of well annotated genome information. Here, we reported mitogen-activated protein kinases in H. brasiliensis (HbMPKs) by manually checking and correcting the rubber tree genome. Of the 20 identified HbMPKs, four members were validated by proteomic data. Protein motif and phylogenetic analyses classified these members into four known groups comprising Thr-Glu-Tyr (TEY) and Thr-Asp-Tyr (TDY) domains, respectively. Evolutionary and syntenic analyses suggested four duplication events: HbMPK3/HbMPK6, HbMPK8/HbMPK9/HbMPK15, HbMPK10/HbMPK12 and HbMPK11/HbMPK16/HbMPK19. Expression profiling of the identified HbMPKs in roots, stems, leaves and latex obtained from three cultivars with different latex yield ability revealed tissue- and variety-expression specificity of HbMPK paralogues. Gene expression patterns under osmotic, oxidative, salt and cold stresses, combined with cis-element distribution analyses, indicated different regulation patterns of HbMPK paralogues. Further, Ka/Ks and Tajima analyses suggested an accelerated evolutionary rate in paralogues HbMPK10/12. These results revealed HbMPKs have diverse functions in natural rubber biosynthesis, and highlighted the potential possibility of using MPKs to improve stress tolerance in future rubber tree breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle De Novo Assembly and Analysis of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Garetn.) Transcriptome Discloses Key Regulators Involved in Salt-Stress Response
Genes 2017, 8(10), 255; doi:10.3390/genes8100255
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
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Abstract
Soil salinization has been a tremendous obstacle for agriculture production. The regulatory networks underlying salinity adaption in model plants have been extensively explored. However, limited understanding of the salt response mechanisms has hindered the planting and production in Fagopyrum tataricum, an economic
[...] Read more.
Soil salinization has been a tremendous obstacle for agriculture production. The regulatory networks underlying salinity adaption in model plants have been extensively explored. However, limited understanding of the salt response mechanisms has hindered the planting and production in Fagopyrum tataricum, an economic and health-beneficial plant mainly distributing in southwest China. In this study, we performed physiological analysis and found that salt stress of 200 mM NaCl solution significantly affected the relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in tartary buckwheat seedlings. Further, we conducted transcriptome comparison between control and salt treatment to identify potential regulatory components involved in F. tataricum salt responses. A total of 53.15 million clean reads from control and salt-treated libraries were produced via an Illumina sequencing approach. Then we de novo assembled these reads into a transcriptome dataset containing 57,921 unigenes with N50 length of 1400 bp and total length of 44.5 Mb. A total of 36,688 unigenes could find matches in public databases. GO, KEGG and KOG classification suggested the enrichment of these unigenes in 56 sub-categories, 25 KOG, and 273 pathways, respectively. Comparison of the transcriptome expression patterns between control and salt treatment unveiled 455 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Further, we found the genes encoding for protein kinases, phosphatases, heat shock proteins (HSPs), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), abiotic-related transcription factors and circadian clock might be relevant to the salinity adaption of this species. Thus, this study offers an insight into salt tolerance mechanisms, and will serve as useful genetic information for tolerant elite breeding programs in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Textile Hemp vs. Salinity: Insights from a Targeted Gene Expression Analysis
Genes 2017, 8(10), 242; doi:10.3390/genes8100242
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture, because it compromises biomass production and plant productivity, by negatively affecting the vegetative growth and development of plants. Fiber crops like textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are important natural resources that provide, sustainably, both cellulosic
[...] Read more.
Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture, because it compromises biomass production and plant productivity, by negatively affecting the vegetative growth and development of plants. Fiber crops like textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are important natural resources that provide, sustainably, both cellulosic and woody fibers for industry. In this work, the response to salinity (200 mM NaCl) of a fiber variety of hemp (Santhica 27) was studied using quantitative real-time PCR. The responses of plantlets aged 15 days were analyzed by microscopy and by measuring the changes in expression of cell wall-related genes, as well as in the general response to exogenous constraints. The results presented here show that a different response is present in the hemp hypocotyls and leaves. In the leaves, genes coding for heat shock proteins were significantly upregulated, together with a phytohormone-related transcript (ethylene-responsive factor 1 ERF1) and genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis (cellulose synthase CesA4, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins FLA10 and FLA8). Moreover, a tendency towards upregulation was also observed in the leaves for genes involved in lignification (4CL, CAD, PAL); a finding that suggests growth arrest. In the hypocotyl, the genes involved in lignification did not show changes in expression, while a gene related to expansion (expansin EXPA8), as well as transcripts coding for calcium-dependent lipid-binding family proteins (CALB), were upregulated. Microscopic analyses on the hypocotyl cross sections revealed changes in the vascular tissues of salt-exposed plantlets, where the lumen of xylem vessels was reduced. The gene expression results show that a different response is present in the hemp hypocotyls and leaves. The data presented contribute to our understanding of the regulatory gene network in response to salinity in different tissues of an important fiber crop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Analysis of the Biosynthesis and Deactivation of Gibberellin-Dioxygenases Gene Family in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze
Genes 2017, 8(9), 235; doi:10.3390/genes8090235
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Gibberellins (GAs), a class of diterpenoid phytohormones, play a key role in regulating diverse processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Bioactive GA levels are rapidly regulated by Gibberellin-dioxygenases (GAox), which are involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of gibberellin. In this manuscript,
[...] Read more.
Gibberellins (GAs), a class of diterpenoid phytohormones, play a key role in regulating diverse processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Bioactive GA levels are rapidly regulated by Gibberellin-dioxygenases (GAox), which are involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of gibberellin. In this manuscript, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out to find all GAox in Camellia sinensis. For the first time in a tea plant, 14 CsGAox genes, containing two domains, DIOX_N (PF14226) and 2OG-FeII_Oxy, were identified (PF03171). These genes all belong to 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODD), including four CsGA20ox (EC: 1.14.11.12), three CsGA3ox (EC: 1.14.11.15), and seven CsGA2ox (EC: 1.14.11.13). According to the phylogenetic classification as in Arabidopsis, the CsGAox genes spanned five subgroups. Each CsGAox shows tissue-specific expression patterns, although these vary greatly. Some candidate genes, which may play an important role in response to external abiotic stresses, have been identified with regards to patterns, such as CsGA20ox2, CsGA3ox2, CsGA3ox3, CsGA2ox1, CsGA2ox2, and CsGA2ox4. The bioactive GA levels may be closely related to the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes. In addition, the candidate genes could be used as marker genes for abiotic stress resistance breeding in tea plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Salt-Stress Response Mechanisms Using de Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Salt-Tolerant and Sensitive Corchorus spp. Genotypes
Genes 2017, 8(9), 226; doi:10.3390/genes8090226
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
High salinity is a major environmental stressor for crops. To understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying salt tolerance, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive jute (Corchorus spp.) genotypes in leaf and root tissues under salt stress and control conditions.
[...] Read more.
High salinity is a major environmental stressor for crops. To understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying salt tolerance, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive jute (Corchorus spp.) genotypes in leaf and root tissues under salt stress and control conditions. In total, 68,961 unigenes were identified. Additionally, 11,100 unigenes (including 385 transcription factors (TFs)) exhibited significant differential expression in salt-tolerant or salt-sensitive genotypes. Numerous common and unique differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) between the two genotypes were discovered. Fewer DEGs were observed in salt-tolerant jute genotypes whether in root or leaf tissues. These DEGs were involved in various pathways, such as ABA signaling, amino acid metabolism, etc. Among the enriched pathways, plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075) and cysteine/methionine metabolism (ko00270) were the most notable. Eight common DEGs across both tissues and genotypes with similar expression profiles were part of the PYL-ABA-PP2C (pyrabactin resistant-like/regulatory components of ABA receptors-abscisic acid-protein phosphatase 2C). The methionine metabolism pathway was only enriched in salt-tolerant jute root tissue. Twenty-three DEGs were involved in methionine metabolism. Overall, numerous common and unique salt-stress response DEGs and pathways between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive jute have been discovered, which will provide valuable information regarding salt-stress response mechanisms and help improve salt-resistance molecular breeding in jute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Functional Characterization of Selected Universal Stress Protein from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmUSP) in Escherichia coli
Genes 2017, 8(9), 224; doi:10.3390/genes8090224
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
The multigene universal stress protein (USP) family is evolutionarily conserved. Members play indispensable roles in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. Although relatively well-characterized in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, this family has not been investigated in Salvia miltiorrhiza
[...] Read more.
The multigene universal stress protein (USP) family is evolutionarily conserved. Members play indispensable roles in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. Although relatively well-characterized in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, this family has not been investigated in Salvia miltiorrhiza, an important herbal plant for which yields can be limited by various abiotic stresses. Here, we identified 32 USP family members in the S. miltiorrhiza genome, and used phylogenetic analysis to sort these SmUSPs into four groups. Groups A and B belong to the ATP-binding class whereas Groups C and D are in the non-ATP-binding class. Motif analysis and multiple sequence alignment hinted that members of group A and B were able to bind ATP. Our qRT-PCR data from different tissues/organs and under salt and heat stresses provided an overall expression pattern for those genes. Three SmUSPs (SmUSP1, SmUSP8, and SmUSP27) were cloned from S. miltiorrhiza and functionally characterized in Escherichia coli. Compared with the control cells, those that expressed SmUSPs exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, heat, and a combination of the two. This suggested that the protein has a protective role in cells when exposed to single-stress and multiple-stress conditions. Our findings provide valuable information that helps improve our understanding of the evolutionary and functional conservation and diversity associated with the USP gene family in S. miltiorrhiza. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SAY09 Increases Cadmium Resistance in Plants by Activation of Auxin-Mediated Signaling Pathways
Genes 2017, 8(7), 173; doi:10.3390/genes8070173
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
Without physical contact with plants, certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to regulate nutrient acquisition and induce systemic immunity in plants. However, whether the PGPR-emitted VOCs can induce cadmium (Cd) tolerance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain
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Without physical contact with plants, certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to regulate nutrient acquisition and induce systemic immunity in plants. However, whether the PGPR-emitted VOCs can induce cadmium (Cd) tolerance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we probed the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain SAY09)-emitted VOCs on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under Cd stress. SAY09 exposure alleviates Cd toxicity in plants with increased auxin biosynthesis. RNA-Seq analyses revealed that SAY09 exposure provoked iron (Fe) uptake- and cell wall-associated pathways in the Cd-treated plants. However, SAY09 exposure failed to increase Cd resistance of plants after treatment with 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) or 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO). Under Cd stress, SAY09 exposure markedly promoted Fe absorption in plants with the increased hemicellulose 1 (HC1) content and Cd deposition in root cell wall, whereas these effects were almost abrogated by treatment with NPA or c-PTIO. Moreover, exogenous NPA remarkably repressed the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) in the SAY09-exposed roots under Cd stress. Taken together, the findings indicated that NO acted as downstream signals of SAY09-induced auxin to regulate Fe acquisition and augment Cd fixation in roots, thereby ameliorating Cd toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling of Stress-Related Genes in Easter Lily (Lilium formolongi)
Genes 2017, 8(7), 172; doi:10.3390/genes8070172
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Biotic and abiotic stresses are the major causes of crop loss in lily worldwide. In this study, we retrieved 12 defense-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the NCBI database and cloned, characterized, and established seven of these genes as stress-induced genes in Lilium
[...] Read more.
Biotic and abiotic stresses are the major causes of crop loss in lily worldwide. In this study, we retrieved 12 defense-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the NCBI database and cloned, characterized, and established seven of these genes as stress-induced genes in Lilium formolongi. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RACE-PCR), we successfully cloned seven full-length mRNA sequences from L. formolongi line Sinnapal lily. Based on the presence of highly conserved characteristic domains and phylogenetic analysis using reference protein sequences, we provided new nomenclature for the seven nucleotide and protein sequences and submitted them to GenBank. The real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) relative expression analysis of these seven genes, including LfHsp70-1, LfHsp70-2, LfHsp70-3, LfHsp90, LfUb, LfCyt-b5, and LfRab, demonstrated that they were differentially expressed in all organs examined, possibly indicating functional redundancy. We also investigated the qPCR relative expression levels under two biotic and four abiotic stress conditions. All seven genes were induced by Botrytis cinerea treatment, and all genes except LfHsp70-3 and LfHsp90 were induced by Botrytis elliptica treatment; these genes might be associated with disease tolerance mechanisms in L. formolongi. In addition, LfHsp70-1, LfHsp70-2, LfHsp70-3, LfHsp90, LfUb, and LfCyt-b5 were induced by heat treatment, LfHsp70-1, LfHsp70-2, LfHsp70-3, LfHsp90, and LfCyt-b5 were induced by cold treatment, and LfHsp70-1, LfHsp70-2, LfHsp70-3, LfHsp90, LfCy-b5, and LfRab were induced by drought and salt stress, indicating their likely association with tolerance to these stress conditions. The stress-induced candidate genes identified in this study provide a basis for further functional analysis and the development of stress-resistant L. formolongi cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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