Special Issue "Carbon Sequestration"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Geochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Ian Power

Trent University, School of the Environment, Peterborough, ON K9J 0G2, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: CO2 mineralization; mineral-fluid interactions; natural analogues; environmental geoscience; aqueous geochemistry; geomicrobiology
Guest Editor
Dr. Anna Harrison

University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mineral-fluid interactions; CO2 sequestration; aqueous geochemistry; stable isotopes; reactive transport modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, despite increasing calls to reduce carbon emissions and avoid the most damaging impacts of climate change. Moreover, fossil fuels remain relatively inexpensive and will likely continue to be an important energy source for a growing world population for the foreseeable future. Given the monumental task of stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, we must explore all available options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions including “Carbon Sequestration”.

Carbon sequestration is an evolving area in geoscience with the potential for scientific breakthroughs, and one that will become increasingly important as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 rises. This Special Issue of Geoscience aims to advance the science of “Carbon Sequestration” towards enabling society to make informed decisions on the technical, environmental, economic, and social merits of carbon sequestration strategies. This special issue explores all aspects of carbon sequestration relating to the capture, transportation, storage, and conversion of CO2, as well as interdisciplinary studies involving policy or economics relating to carbon sequestration. Recognizing the diverse nature of carbon sequestration strategies and technologies, we invite contributions that discuss fundamental processes and emerging strategies, field, laboratory, and modelling studies including, but not limited to, geologic CO2 storage, mineral carbonation, carbon mineralization, enhanced weathering, biological approaches, use of industrial wastes, ocean-related approaches, and geoengineering strategies.

Dr. Ian Power
Dr. Anna Harrison
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • CO2 sequestration
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Carbon capture
  • Carbon storage
  • CO2 mineralization
  • CO2 utilization
  • Mineral carbonation
  • Geologic carbon sequestration.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Waste Concrete Valorization; Aggregates and Mineral Carbonation Feedstock Production
Geosciences 2018, 8(9), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8090342
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Concrete is a major constituent of our world. Its contributes to building society but is also an important contributor to the global CO2 emissions. The combination of waste concrete recycling and greenhouse gas abatement is obviously an interesting approach. Mineral carbonation is
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Concrete is a major constituent of our world. Its contributes to building society but is also an important contributor to the global CO2 emissions. The combination of waste concrete recycling and greenhouse gas abatement is obviously an interesting approach. Mineral carbonation is the methodology that allows the use of calcium oxide within the concrete and transform it into carbonates with the CO2. Following previous results, carbonation experiments were performed using concrete paste extracted from a waste concrete sample after aggregate separation. The latter was performed after crushing and attrition followed by sieving to obtain three fractions. The coarser one composed of aggregates, the second of sand and the last, a fine powder of waste concrete paste (MCF). The MCF is then used in carbonation experiments in an 18.7 L stirred reactor with a diluted source of CO2 following previously optimized conditions. Different S/L ratios were experimented. The results show that 110 kg of CO2 can be stored per ton of MCF obtained after separation. Using the mass balance obtained from the experiments, an economic evaluation was performed on both aggregate separation and carbonation. While the first step can be profitable, using the MCF as a material for industrial flue gas abatement is less evident, both on the applicability and the feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Sequestration)
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Open AccessCommunication How Characterization of Particle Size Distribution Pre- and Post-Reaction Provides Mechanistic Insights into Mineral Carbonation
Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070260
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
Mineral carbonation is the conversion of carbon dioxide, in gas form or dissolved in water, to solid carbonates. Materials characterization plays an important role in assessing the potential to use these carbonates in commercial applications, and also aids in understanding fundamental phenomena about
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Mineral carbonation is the conversion of carbon dioxide, in gas form or dissolved in water, to solid carbonates. Materials characterization plays an important role in assessing the potential to use these carbonates in commercial applications, and also aids in understanding fundamental phenomena about the reactions. This paper highlights findings of mechanistic nature made on topics related to mineral carbonation, and that were made possible by assessing particle size, particle size distribution, and other morphological characteristics. It is also shown how particle size data can be used to estimate the weathering rate of carbonated minerals. An extension of the carbonation weathering rate approach is presented, whereby using particle size distribution data it becomes possible to predict the particle size below which full carbonation is obtained, and above which partial carbonation occurs. The paper also overviews the most common techniques to determine the particle size distribution, as well as complementary and alternate techniques. In mineral carbonation research, most techniques have been used as ex situ methods, yet tools that can analyze powders during reaction (in situ and real-time) can provide even more insight into mineral carbonation mechanisms, so researchers are encouraged to adopt such advanced techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Sequestration)
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Open AccessArticle Membrane Separation of Ammonium Bisulfate from Ammonium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions for CO2 Mineralisation
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040123
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
The separation of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) from ammonium sulfate (AS) in aqueous solutions by monovalent ion selective membranes was studied. Optimised usage of these chemicals is both an important and challenging step towards a more efficient CO2 mineralisation process route developed at
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The separation of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) from ammonium sulfate (AS) in aqueous solutions by monovalent ion selective membranes was studied. Optimised usage of these chemicals is both an important and challenging step towards a more efficient CO2 mineralisation process route developed at Åbo Akademi University (ÅA). The membranes were placed in a three or five-compartment electrodialysis stack. Silver, stainless steel and platinum electrodes were tested, of which a combination of Pt (anode) and stainless steel (cathode) electrodes were found to be most suitable. Separation efficiencies close to 100% were reached based on ABS concentrations in the feed solution. The tests were performed with an initial voltage of either 10 V–20 V, but limitations in the electrical power supply equipment eventually resulted in a voltage drop as separation proceeded. Exergy calculations for energy efficiency assessment show that the input exergy (electrical power) is many times higher than the reversible mixing exergy, which indicates that design modifications must be made. Further work will focus on the possibilities to make the separation even more efficient and to develop the analysis methods, besides the use of another anode material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Sequestration)
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Open AccessArticle Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR
Geosciences 2018, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8030092
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting)
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Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting) are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA) and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Sequestration)
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