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Special Issue "IJERPH: 10th Anniversary"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2014)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 2013 we are celebrating the 10th anniversary of the founding of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). Many great achievements have occurred in the field of Environmental Research and Public Health during this period, and we are pleased by the role that IJERPH has played in advancing it.
To help to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, we are going to organize a special issue of the journal that will include: Historical Perspectives on important topics that have occurred during this period of time, timely Reviews of currently important topics, and original research reports on any relevant topic within the scope of IJERPH. Article and Communication formats will be considered.
All researchers who have published in IJERPH within the last 10 years are being invited to contribute to this special issue. Anyone else who is interested in contributing is also most welcome to participate.

The submission deadline is January 31, 2014. Manuscript should be prepared following the IJERPH journal style (a template Word file is downloadable at http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph/instructions). The Instruction for Authors is at the website http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph/instructions. The reference guide is at http://www.mdpi.com/authors/references.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors before submitting a manuscript: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph/instructions/. Manuscripts should be submitted through the online manuscript submission and editorial system at http://susy.mdpi.com
You need to choose IJERPH as the journal title, and IJERPH: 10th Anniversary as the special issue title. Also, put a note in your Cover letter that your submission is intended for the 10th Anniversary special issue.

First-time users are required to register themselves before making submissions.

We expect that this issue will attract considerable attention.

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Using Sit-Stand Workstations to Decrease Sedentary Time in Office Workers: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 6653-6665; doi:10.3390/ijerph110706653
Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 25 June 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether installation of sit-stand desks (SSDs) could lead to decreased sitting time during the workday among sedentary office workers. Methods: A randomized cross-over trial was conducted from January to April, 2012 at a business
[...] Read more.
Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether installation of sit-stand desks (SSDs) could lead to decreased sitting time during the workday among sedentary office workers. Methods: A randomized cross-over trial was conducted from January to April, 2012 at a business in Minneapolis. 28 (nine men, 26 full-time) sedentary office workers took part in a 4 week intervention period which included the use of SSDs to gradually replace 50% of sitting time with standing during the workday. Physical activity was the primary outcome. Mood, energy level, fatigue, appetite, dietary intake, and productivity were explored as secondary outcomes. Results: The intervention reduced sitting time at work by 21% (95% CI 18%–25%) and sedentary time by 4.8 min/work-hr (95% CI 4.1–5.4 min/work-hr). For a 40 h work-week, this translates into replacement of 8 h of sitting time with standing and sedentary time being reduced by 3.2 h. Activity level during non-work hours did not change. The intervention also increased overall sense of well-being, energy, decreased fatigue, had no impact on productivity, and reduced appetite and dietary intake. The workstations were popular with the participants. Conclusion: The SSD intervention was successful in increasing work-time activity level, without changing activity level during non-work hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 4978-4990; doi:10.3390/ijerph110504978
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human
[...] Read more.
Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle A GIS Based Approach for Assessing the Association between Air Pollution and Asthma in New York State, USA
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 4845-4869; doi:10.3390/ijerph110504845
Received: 9 January 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies on asthma have shown that air pollution can lead to increased asthma prevalence. The aim of this study is to examine the association between air pollution (fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3))
[...] Read more.
Studies on asthma have shown that air pollution can lead to increased asthma prevalence. The aim of this study is to examine the association between air pollution (fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3)) and human health (asthma emergency department visit rate (AEVR) and asthma discharge rate (ADR)) among residents of New York, USA during the period 2005 to 2007. Annual rates of asthma were calculated from population estimates for 2005, 2006, and 2007 and number of asthma hospital discharge and emergency department visits. Population data for New York were taken from US Bureau of Census, and asthma data were obtained from New York State Department of Health, National Asthma Survey surveillance report. Data on the concentrations of PM2.5, SO2 and ground level ozone were obtained from various air quality monitoring stations distributed in different counties. Annual means of these concentrations were compared to annual variations in asthma prevalence by using Pearson correlation coefficient. We found different associations between the annual mean concentration of PM2.5, SO2 and surface ozone and the annual rates of asthma discharge and asthma emergency visit from 2005 to 2007. A positive correlation coefficient was observed between the annual mean concentration of PM2.5, and SO2 and the annual rates of asthma discharge and asthma emergency department visit from 2005 to 2007. However, the correlation coefficient between annual mean concentrations of ground ozone and the annual rates of asthma discharge and asthma emergency visit was found to be negative from 2005 to 2007. Our study suggests that the association between elevated concentrations of PM2.5 and SO2 and asthma prevalence among residents of New York State in USA is consistent enough to assume concretely a plausible and significant association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 4729-4744; doi:10.3390/ijerph110504729
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents
[...] Read more.
A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4427-4440; doi:10.3390/ijerph110404427
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus,
[...] Read more.
Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Comparing the Visual Analogue Scale and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Oral Clefts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4280-4291; doi:10.3390/ijerph110404280
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 16 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), in measuring overall health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children with oral clefts relative to the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQLTM) Generic Core Scales, one of the
[...] Read more.
Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), in measuring overall health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children with oral clefts relative to the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQLTM) Generic Core Scales, one of the most validated and commonly used methods to measure pediatric HRQoL. Methods: The study included a population-based sample of 307 children aged 5 to 10 years who were born in Iowa, New York, and Arkansas with non-syndromic oral clefts. Data on HRQoL were obtained using a VAS and PedsQLTM via self-administered interviews with the parents. We evaluated the correlations between the VAS and PedsQLTM total scores, and the correlations of each of these two scales with a series of child health and wellbeing indicators. Results: The VAS and PedsQLTM scores were well-correlated (r = 0.67). There were no prominent differences between the correlations of VAS and PedsQLTM with the selected indicators of child health and wellbeing; differences in correlations were less than 0.1. Differences in HRQoL by cleft type were more pronounced on the PedsQLTM. Conclusions: Our study finds the VAS to perform relatively well in measuring overall HRQoL among children with oral clefts. The VAS may be useful as a screening tool to identify children with oral clefts at risk of low HRQoL for referral into more comprehensive evaluations and for measuring average HRQoL across a sample of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Food Safety and Bioavailability Evaluations of Four Vegetables Grown in the Highly Arsenic-Contaminated Soils on the Guandu Plain of Northern Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4091-4107; doi:10.3390/ijerph110404091
Received: 26 February 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic contamination in a large area of agricultural fields on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan was confirmed in a survey conducted in 2006, but research concerning the relationship between bioavailable As concentrations in contaminated soils and crop production in Taiwan is not
[...] Read more.
Arsenic contamination in a large area of agricultural fields on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan was confirmed in a survey conducted in 2006, but research concerning the relationship between bioavailable As concentrations in contaminated soils and crop production in Taiwan is not available. Pot experiments were conducted to examine the growth and accumulation of As in four vegetable crops grown in As-contaminated soils and to assess As intake through consumption. The phytotoxic effects of As in soils were not shown in the pot experiments in which vegetable crops were grown in soils contaminated with different As levels in situ collected from Guandu Plain (120–460 mg/kg) or artificially spiked As-contaminated soils (50–170 mg/kg). Experimental results showed that the bioavailable As extracted with 0.5M NaHCO3 from soils can be used to estimate As concentrations in vegetables. The As concentrations in the vegetables were compared with data shown in the literature and As limits calculated from drinking water standards and the provisional tolerance weekly intake (PTWI) of inorganic As established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Although the As levels in the vegetables were not high and the bioavailability of As in the soils was quite low, long-term consumption may result in higher As intake in the human body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity, Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3956-3971; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403956
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim: This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. Methods: For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health
[...] Read more.
Aim: This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. Methods: For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Results: Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Ischemic Heart Disease Hospitalization among Older People in a Subtropical City — Hong Kong: Does Winter Have a Greater Impact than Summer?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3845-3858; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403845
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 25 March 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Globally, excess winter morbidity from ischemic heart disease (IHD) is reported. In subtropical regions, there is a need to quantify the difference in the adverse effect of cold winters compared with hot summers, particularly among the older people. Our objectives were to: (i)
[...] Read more.
Globally, excess winter morbidity from ischemic heart disease (IHD) is reported. In subtropical regions, there is a need to quantify the difference in the adverse effect of cold winters compared with hot summers, particularly among the older people. Our objectives were to: (i) compare the effect of winter on IHD hospitalizations with that of summer; (ii) examine temporal trends in the excess winter hospitalizations; and (iii) investigate the effect of age, gender, and meteorological factors on predicting such excess. Inpatient admissions due to IHD as principal cause during June 2000 to February 2009 in public hospitals of Hong Kong were extracted for the population aged ≥65. An Excess Hospitalization in Winter vs. Summer (EHWS) Index was used to contrast the adverse effect of weather on hospitalizations in winter vs. summer. Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate the trend and the predictors of such index. It was found that in a subtropical city, greater effect of winter on IHD hospitalizations than summer was observed, particularly among the oldest old (an index of 61.5% (95% CI: 49.5%–74.4%) for men aged ≥85 and 32.3% (95% CI: 25.5%–39.5%) for women aged ≥85). There was significant increasing trend in the index among those aged ≥85 but the age difference was less prominent among the women. Absolute level of coldness was not a significant factor, whereas the change in temperature was a significant factor, which implies that great fluctuation in temperature within a winter day had greater impact on occurrence of circulatory disease than an absolute temperature threshold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Regression Models for Log-Normal Data: Comparing Different Methods for Quantifying the Association between Abdominal Adiposity and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3521-3539; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403521
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared six methods for regression on log-normal heteroscedastic data with respect to the estimated associations with explanatory factors (bias and standard error) and the estimated expected outcome (bias and confidence interval). Method comparisons were based on results from a simulation study, and
[...] Read more.
We compared six methods for regression on log-normal heteroscedastic data with respect to the estimated associations with explanatory factors (bias and standard error) and the estimated expected outcome (bias and confidence interval). Method comparisons were based on results from a simulation study, and also the estimation of the association between abdominal adiposity and two biomarkers; C-Reactive Protein (CRP) (inflammation marker,) and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (marker of insulin resistance). Five of the methods provide unbiased estimates of the associations and the expected outcome; two of them provide confidence intervals with correct coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3443-3452; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303443
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories,
[...] Read more.
Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3132-3142; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303132
Received: 5 February 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis.
[...] Read more.
Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Effects of OEF/OIF-Related Physical and Emotional Co-Morbidities on Associative Learning: Concurrent Delay and Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3046-3073; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303046
Received: 20 November 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the performance of veterans and active duty personnel who served in Operation Enduring Freedom and/or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) on a basic associative learning task. Eighty-eight individuals participated in this study. All received a comprehensive clinical evaluation to determine the
[...] Read more.
This study examined the performance of veterans and active duty personnel who served in Operation Enduring Freedom and/or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) on a basic associative learning task. Eighty-eight individuals participated in this study. All received a comprehensive clinical evaluation to determine the presence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The eyeblink conditioning task was composed of randomly intermixed delay and trace conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) pairs (acquisition) followed by a series of CS only trials (extinction). Results revealed that those with a clinical diagnosis of PTSD or a diagnosis of PTSD with comorbid mTBI acquired delay and trace conditioned responses (CRs) to levels and at rates similar to a deployed control group, thus suggesting intact basic associative learning. Differential extinction impairment was observed in the two clinical groups. Acquisition of CRs for both delay and trace conditioning, as well as extinction of trace CRs, was associated with alcoholic behavior across all participants. These findings help characterize the learning and memory function of individuals with PTSD and mTBI from OEF/OIF and raise the alarming possibility that the use of alcohol in this group may lead to more significant cognitive dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2780-2792; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302780
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (<twice a day tooth brushing), 45.2% did not always wash their hands before meals, 26.5% after toileting and 59.8% washing their hands with soap (59.8%). In multivariate analysis, male gender, health risk behaviours and lack of protective factors were associated with sub-optimal tooth brushing, and lower socioeconomic status, health risk behaviours, psychological distress and lack of protective factors were found to be associated with sub-optimal hand washing hygiene behaviour. As a conclusion, the cross-national data on oral and hand hygiene behaviour from four Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2550-2568; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302550
Received: 8 January 2014 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and
[...] Read more.
Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Moderate Strength Cold Air Exposure on Blood Pressure and Biochemical Indicators among Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2472-2487; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302472
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of cold air on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated in an experimental study examining blood pressure and biochemical indicators. Zhangye, a city in Gansu Province, China, was selected as the experimental site. Health screening and blood tests were conducted, and
[...] Read more.
The effects of cold air on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated in an experimental study examining blood pressure and biochemical indicators. Zhangye, a city in Gansu Province, China, was selected as the experimental site. Health screening and blood tests were conducted, and finally, 30 cardiovascular disease patients and 40 healthy subjects were recruited. The experiment was performed during a cold event during 27–28 April 2013. Blood pressure, catecholamine, angiotensin II (ANG-II), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), muscle myoglobin (Mb) and endothefin-1 (ET-1) levels of the subjects were evaluated 1 day before, during the 2nd day of the cold exposure and 1 day after the cold air exposure. Our results suggest that cold air exposure increases blood pressure in cardiovascular disease patients and healthy subjects via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that is activated first and which augments ANG-II levels accelerating the release of the norepinephrine and stimulates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The combined effect of these factors leads to a rise in blood pressure. In addition, cold air exposure can cause significant metabolism and secretion of Mb, cTnI and ET-1 in subjects; taking the patient group as an example, ET-1 was 202.7 ng/L during the cold air exposure, increased 58 ng/L compared with before the cold air exposure, Mb and cTnI levels remained relatively high (2,219.5 ng/L and 613.2 ng/L, increased 642.1 ng/L and 306.5 ng/L compared with before the cold air exposure, respectively) 1-day after the cold exposure. This showed that cold air can cause damage to patients’ heart cells, and the damage cannot be rapidly repaired. Some of the responses related to the biochemical markers indicated that cold exposure increased cardiovascular strain and possible myocardial injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Unsuspected Exposure to Drugs of Abuse in Children from a Mediterranean City by Hair Testing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 2288-2298; doi:10.3390/ijerph110202288
Received: 9 January 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hair testing was used to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected exposure to drugs of abuse in a group of children presenting to an urban paediatric emergency department without suggestive signs or symptoms. Hair samples were obtained from 114 children between 24 months and
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Hair testing was used to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected exposure to drugs of abuse in a group of children presenting to an urban paediatric emergency department without suggestive signs or symptoms. Hair samples were obtained from 114 children between 24 months and 10 years of age attending the emergency room of Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain. Hair samples from the accompanying parent were also collected. The samples were analyzed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabinoids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Parental sociodemographics and possible drug of abuse history were recorded. Hair samples from twenty-three children (20.1%) were positive for cocaine (concentration range 0.15–3.81 ng/mg hair), those of thirteen children (11.4%) to cannabinoids (D9-THC concentration range 0.05–0.54 ng/mg hair), with four samples positive to codeine (0.1–0.25 ng/mg hair), one positive for 2.09 ng methadone per mg hair and one to 6-MAM (0.42 ng/mg hair) and morphine (0. 15 ng/mg hair) . In 69.5 and 69.2% of the positive cocaine and cannabinoids cases respectively, drugs was also found in the hair of accompanying parent. Parental sociodemographics were not associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. However, the behavioural patterns with potential harmful effects for the child’s health (e.g., tobacco smoking, cannabis, benzodiazepines and/or antidepressants use) were significantly higher in the parents of exposed children. In the light of the obtained results (28% overall children exposure to drugs of abuse) and in agreement with 2009 unsuspected 23% cocaine exposure in pre-school children from the same hospital, we support general hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Disinfection Protocols on Microbial and Biofilm Contamination of Dental Unit Waterlines in Community Dental Practices
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 2064-2076; doi:10.3390/ijerph110202064
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs.
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Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two underwent continuous disinfection with hydrogen peroxide/silver ions (0.02%) and stabilized chlorine dioxide (0.22%), respectively. After three months of applying the disinfection protocols, continuous disinfection systems were more effective than intermittent systems in reducing the microbial contamination of the water, allowing compliance with the CDC guidelines and the European Council regulatory thresholds for drinking water. P. aeruginosa, Legionella spp, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, S. aureus and β-haemolytic streptococci were also absent from units treated with continuous disinfection. The biofilm covering the DUWLs was more extensive, thicker and more friable in the intermittent disinfection dental units than in those with continuous disinfection. Overall, the findings showed that the products used for continuous disinfection of dental unit waterlines showed statistically better results than the intermittent treatment products under the study conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Investigating Environmental Determinants of Injury and Trauma in the Canadian North
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 1536-1548; doi:10.3390/ijerph110201536
Received: 20 November 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 18 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unintentional injury and trauma rates are disproportionately high in Inuit regions, and environmental changes are predicted to exacerbate injury rates. However, there is a major gap in our understanding of the risk factors contributing to land-based injury and trauma in the Arctic. We
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Unintentional injury and trauma rates are disproportionately high in Inuit regions, and environmental changes are predicted to exacerbate injury rates. However, there is a major gap in our understanding of the risk factors contributing to land-based injury and trauma in the Arctic. We investigated the role of environmental and other factors in search and rescue (SAR) incidents in a remote Inuit community in northern Canada using a collaborative mixed methods approach. We analyzed SAR records from 1995 to 2010 and conducted key consultant interviews in 2010 and 2011. Data showed an estimated annual SAR incidence rate of 19 individuals per 1,000. Weather and ice conditions were the most frequent contributing factor for cases. In contrast with other studies, intoxication was the least common factor associated with SAR incidents. The incidence rate was six times higher for males than females, while land-users aged 26–35 had the highest incidence rate among age groups. Thirty-four percent of individuals sustained physical health impacts. Results demonstrate that environmental conditions are critical factors contributing to physical health risk in Inuit communities, particularly related to travel on sea ice during winter. Age and gender are important risk factors. This knowledge is vital for informing management of land-based physical health risk given rapidly changing environmental conditions in the Arctic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Toll-Like Receptor 2-2 (TLR2-2) and TLR4 mRNA Expression in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity of Broilers Fed on Diets Supplemented with Nickel Chloride
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(1), 657-670; doi:10.3390/ijerph110100657
Received: 22 October 2013 / Revised: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Toll-like receptor (TLRs) are important innate immune receptors, and TLR2 and TLR4 play an important role in intestinal mucosal innate immunity. It has been found that nickel (Ni) can affect the immune system in broilers. The purpose of this study was to analyze
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Toll-like receptor (TLRs) are important innate immune receptors, and TLR2 and TLR4 play an important role in intestinal mucosal innate immunity. It has been found that nickel (Ni) can affect the immune system in broilers. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosal immunity system of broilers induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Results showed that the TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and the cecal tonsil were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than those in the control group. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg could reduce TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and cecal tonsil in broilers, implying that the innate immunity in intestinal mucosal immune system could be impaired by pathways involving injured surface epithelium cells or/and the inhibition of the TLR signal transduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(1), 583-599; doi:10.3390/ijerph110100583
Received: 25 October 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms
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Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05). The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle Subsurface Transport Behavior of Micro-Nano Bubbles and Potential Applications for Groundwater Remediation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(1), 473-486; doi:10.3390/ijerph110100473
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro-nano bubbles (MNBs) are tiny bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers and nanometers, showing great potential in environmental remediation. However, the application is only in the beginning stages and remains to be intensively studied. In order to explore the possible use
[...] Read more.
Micro-nano bubbles (MNBs) are tiny bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers and nanometers, showing great potential in environmental remediation. However, the application is only in the beginning stages and remains to be intensively studied. In order to explore the possible use of MNBs in groundwater contaminant removal, this study focuses on the transport of MNBs in porous media and dissolution processes. The bubble diameter distribution was obtained under different conditions by a laser particle analyzer. The permeability of MNB water through sand was compared with that of air-free water. Moreover, the mass transfer features of dissolved oxygen in water with MNBs were studied. The results show that the bubble diameter distribution is influenced by the surfactant concentration in the water. The existence of MNBs in pore water has no impact on the hydraulic conductivity of sand. Furthermore, the dissolved oxygen (DO) in water is greatly increased by the MNBs, which will predictably improve the aerobic bioremediation of groundwater. The results are meaningful and instructive in the further study of MNB research and applications in groundwater bioremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Splenocyte Apoptosis and Alterations of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA Expression, and Oxidative Stress Induced by Dietary Nickel Chloride in Broilers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(12), 7310-7326; doi:10.3390/ijerph10127310
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 7 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two hundred and forty avian broilers were equally divided into four groups, and raised with a corn-soybean basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 300, 600, 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Numbers or percentages of apoptotic splenocytes by flow cytometry
[...] Read more.
Two hundred and forty avian broilers were equally divided into four groups, and raised with a corn-soybean basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 300, 600, 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Numbers or percentages of apoptotic splenocytes by flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL were higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than those in the control group. Results measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that mRNA expression and contents were significantly higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in Bax and Caspase-3, and were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in Bcl-2 of the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups. Also, the SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities, and the ability to inhibit hydroxyl radical, and GSH contents were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and MDA contents were increased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in all groups. In conclusion, dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused apoptosis, altered Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA expression levels and contents, and induced oxidative stress in the spleen. Also, splenocyte apoptosis was closely related to the alternations of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA expression, and oxidative damage. The splenic immunity and blood filtration functions were impaired in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessArticle The Involvement of Girls and Boys with Bullying: An Analysis of Gender Differences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(12), 6820-6831; doi:10.3390/ijerph10126820
Received: 2 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 21 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This exploratory and cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of bullying in a group of students and analyze the data regarding the gender of those involved in the violence. A questionnaire adapted from Olweus was applied in seven elementary education schools in
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This exploratory and cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of bullying in a group of students and analyze the data regarding the gender of those involved in the violence. A questionnaire adapted from Olweus was applied in seven elementary education schools in Portugal. The sample consisted of 387 students between 7 and 14 years old. Data are presented in terms of descriptive statistics and differences between proportions were analyzed using chi-square tests. The gender analysis of victimization and aggression shows that boys and girls are both victims and aggressors, and there are significant differences in involvement in bullying between genders and the roles played. Boys are victims more often when considering different types of bullying, although significant differences were only found for physical aggression. Strategies that include gender roles are a priority for prevention and careful attention to this phenomenon in the school context. The questions addressed contribute to a broader understanding of the phenomenon, emphasizing the differential participation of boys and girls in bullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Understanding How Organized Youth Sport May Be Harming Individual Players within the Family Unit: A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10226-10268; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010226
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 1 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (740 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative
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Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little thus far has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of studies on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. A model is proposed to explain under which circumstances sport leads to positive versus negative outcomes, ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessReview Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(6), 5751-5782; doi:10.3390/ijerph110605751
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 5 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have
[...] Read more.
Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessReview Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 4745-4767; doi:10.3390/ijerph110504745
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 25 March 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus,
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Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessReview Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4449-4527; doi:10.3390/ijerph110404449
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of
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This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessReview Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4158-4200; doi:10.3390/ijerph110404158
Received: 5 February 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the
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Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessReview Contribution of Organically Grown Crops to Human Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3870-3893; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403870
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture,
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An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds), tocopherols (including vitamin E) and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessReview Potential for Improved Glycemic Control with Dietary Momordica charantia in Patients with Insulin Resistance and Pre-Diabetes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 2328-2345; doi:10.3390/ijerph110202328
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 2 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) is a widely used traditional remedy for hyperglycemia. While the medicinal properties of this plant have been studied extensively using in vitro and animal models, the clinical efficacy and safety in humans is largely unknown. This review discusses
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Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) is a widely used traditional remedy for hyperglycemia. While the medicinal properties of this plant have been studied extensively using in vitro and animal models, the clinical efficacy and safety in humans is largely unknown. This review discusses the benefits and limitations of bitter melon supplementation in the context of epidemic levels of insulin resistance and pre-diabetes throughout the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
Open AccessReview Tobacco Use and Smoking Cessation Practices among Physicians in Developing Countries: A Literature Review (1987–2010)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(1), 429-455; doi:10.3390/ijerph110100429
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 19 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physicians have a key role to play in combating tobacco use and reducing the tobacco induced harm to health. However, there is a paucity of information about tobacco-use and cessation among physicians in developing countries. To assess the need for and nature of
[...] Read more.
Physicians have a key role to play in combating tobacco use and reducing the tobacco induced harm to health. However, there is a paucity of information about tobacco-use and cessation among physicians in developing countries. To assess the need for and nature of smoking cessation services among physicians in developing countries, a detailed literature review of studies published in English, between 1987 and 2010 was carried out. The electronic databases Medline and Pub Med were searched for published studies. The findings show that there are regional variations in the current smoking prevalence, quitting intentions, and cessation services among physicians. Smoking prevalence (median) was highest in Central/Eastern Europe (37%), followed by Africa (29%), Central and South America (25%) and Asia (17.5%). There were significant gender differences in smoking prevalence across studies, with higher prevalence among males than females. Smoking at work or in front of patients was commonly practiced by physicians in some countries. Asking about smoking status or advising patients to quit smoking was not common practice among the physicians, especially among smoker physicians. Organized smoking cessation programs for physicians did not exist in all of these regions. This review suggests that while smoking of physicians varies across different developing regions; prevalence rates tend to be higher than among physicians in developed countries. Quitting rates were low among the physicians, and the delivery of advice on quitting smoking was not common across the studies. To promote tobacco control and increase cessation in populations, there is a need to build physicians’ capacity so that they can engage in tobacco use prevention and cessation activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)

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