E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation"

Quicklinks

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Sayed M. Hassan (Website)

Senior Research Scientist, Center for Applied Isotope Studies, and Director of the Laboratory for Environmental Analysis, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Phone: +1 (706) 227-7993
Fax: +1 (706) 542-6106
Interests: hyphenation of chromatography and mass spectrometry for trace analysis of organic pollutants and metal speciation; abiotic remediation of halogenated organic contaminants (VOC's, chlorinated solvents, pesticides, PCB's and others) in the environment using mixtures of zero-valent metals and metal sulfides; enhancing bioremediation of contaminated soils using metabolic substrates; artificial wetlands in bio-remediation studies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Soil pollution is the build-up in soils of toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health.  Trace elements are important pollutants; many of them are toxic even at low concentrations.  Primary sources are natural mineral deposits, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes and sewage.  Contamination also arise from the rupture of underground storage tanks, application of agrochemicals, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes.

In view of the countless bad impacts, developed and most developing countries have put a major legal framework and clean-up programs to deal with soil pollution. In countries that have little control on pollutant dumping, soil is contaminated with chemicals that damage the immune and endocrine systems causing cancer, multiple birth defects and gene mutation, in humans and in animals.

Principal strategies for soil remediation include excavation and disposal away from human or sensitive ecosystem.  Aeration and thermal remediation to volatize chemical contaminants out of the soil. Bioremediation as well as phytoremediation. Assessment and follow up of the remediation process is done through measurement of soil chemicals and application of computer models to study transport and fate of soil chemicals.

For this special issue on Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation, I’m eager to entertain papers that enhance the readers understanding of waste management, environmental remediation, analysis of environmental pollutants, degradation of agrochemicals, impact of soil amendments and strategies to convert waste into harmless soil amendments.

Sayed M. Hassan, Ph.D.
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • soil pollution,
  • soil remediation,
  • environmental modeling
  • phytoremediation
  • soil analysis

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3453-3467; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083453
Received: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two [...] Read more.
Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(6), 2181-2199; doi:10.3390/ijerph8062181
Received: 14 February 2011 / Revised: 7 June 2011 / Accepted: 9 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, [...] Read more.
High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a “critical point” may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the “critical point” where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(6), 1893-1913; doi:10.3390/ijerph8061893
Received: 30 March 2011 / Accepted: 4 May 2011 / Published: 1 June 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard [...] Read more.
Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)
Open AccessArticle Arsenic in Soils and Forages from Poultry Litter-Amended Pastures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1534-1546; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051534
Received: 1 March 2011 / Revised: 23 April 2011 / Accepted: 28 April 2011 / Published: 12 May 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In regions of concentrated poultry production, poultry litter (PL) that contains significant quantities of trace elements is commonly surface-applied to pastures at high levels over multiple years. This study examined the effect of long-term applications of PL on soil concentrations of arsenic [...] Read more.
In regions of concentrated poultry production, poultry litter (PL) that contains significant quantities of trace elements is commonly surface-applied to pastures at high levels over multiple years. This study examined the effect of long-term applications of PL on soil concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and the uptake of these elements by bermuda grass grown on Cecil (well-drained) and Sedgefield (somewhat poorly-drained) soils. The results showed that concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn in soils that had received surface-applied PL over a 14-year period were significantly greater than untreated soil at 0–2.5 and 2.5–7.5 cm depths. However, the levels were well below the USEPA loading limits established for municipal biosolids. Arsenic fractionation showed that concentrations of all As fractions were significantly greater in PL-amended soils compared to untreated soils at 0–2.5 and 2.5–7.5 cm depths. The residual fraction was the predominant form of As in all soils. The water-soluble and NaHCO3-associated As were only 2% of the total As. Significant differences were found in concentrations of these trace elements and phosphorus (P) in forage from PL-amended soils compared to that in untreated plots. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, and P were significantly greater in forage from Sedgefield amended soil compared to Cecil soil, but were in all cases below levels of environmental concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)
Open AccessArticle Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1491-1502; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051491
Received: 16 March 2011 / Revised: 3 May 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 11 May 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Application of poultry litter (PL) to soil may lead to nitrogen (N) losses through ammonia (NH3) volatilization and to potential contamination of surface runoff with PL-derived phosphorus (P). Amending litter with acidified biochar may minimize these problems by decreasing litter [...] Read more.
Application of poultry litter (PL) to soil may lead to nitrogen (N) losses through ammonia (NH3) volatilization and to potential contamination of surface runoff with PL-derived phosphorus (P). Amending litter with acidified biochar may minimize these problems by decreasing litter pH and by retaining litter-derived P, respectively. This study evaluated the effect of acidified biochars from pine chips (PC) and peanut hulls (PH) on NH3 losses and inorganic N and P released from surface-applied or incorporated PL. Poultry litter with or without acidified biochars was surface-applied or incorporated into the soil and incubated for 21 d. Volatilized NH3 was determined by trapping it in acid. Inorganic N and P were determined by leaching the soil with 0.01 M of CaCl2 during the study and by extracting it with 1 M KCl after incubation. Acidified biochars reduced NH3 losses by 58 to 63% with surface-applied PL, and by 56 to 60% with incorporated PL. Except for PH biochar, which caused a small increase in leached NH4+-N with incorporated PL, acidified biochars had no effect on leached or KCl-extractable inorganic N and P from surface-applied or incorporated PL. These results suggest that acidified biochars may decrease NH3 losses from PL but may not reduce the potential for P loss in surface runoff from soils receiving PL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)
Open AccessArticle Degradation of Glyphosate in Soil Photocatalyzed by Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 under Solar Light
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1258-1270; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041258
Received: 20 February 2011 / Revised: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared via a sol-gel method, and Fe3O4 particles were used as the core of the colloid. Diffraction peaks of Fe3O4 crystals are not [...] Read more.
In this study, Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared via a sol-gel method, and Fe3O4 particles were used as the core of the colloid. Diffraction peaks of Fe3O4 crystals are not found by XRD characterization, indicating that Fe3O4 particles are well encapsulated by SiO2. FTIR characterization shows that diffraction peaks of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds become obvious when the Fe3O4 loading is more than 0.5%. SEM characterization indicates that agglomeration occurs in the Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst, whereas photocatalysts modified by Fe3O4/SiO2 present excellent visible light absorption performance and photocatalytic activity, especially when the Fe3O4 loading is 0.5%. Photocatalytic degradation of glyphosate in soil by these photocatalysts under solar irradiation was investigated. Results show that 0.5% Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 has the best photocatalytic activity. The best moisture content of soil is 30%~50%. Degradation efficiency of glyphosate reaches 89% in 2 h when the dosage of photocatalyst is 0.4 g/100 g (soil), and it increased slowly when more photocatalyst was used. Soil thickness is a very important factor for the photocatalytic rate. The thinner the soil is, the better the glyphosate degradation is. Degradation of glyphosate is not obviously affected by sunlight intensity when the intensity is below 6 mW/cm2 or above 10 mW/cm2, but it is accelerated significantly when the sunlight intensity increases from 6 mW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)
Open AccessArticle Arsenic in Surface Soils Affected by Mining and Metallurgical Processing in K. Mitrovica Region, Kosovo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(11), 4050-4061; doi:10.3390/ijerph7114050
Received: 9 October 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The results of a study on the spatial distribution of arsenic in topsoil (0–5 cm) over the K. Mitrovica region, Kosovo, are reported. The investigated region (300 km2) was covered by a sampling grid of 1.4 km × 1.4 km. [...] Read more.
The results of a study on the spatial distribution of arsenic in topsoil (0–5 cm) over the K. Mitrovica region, Kosovo, are reported. The investigated region (300 km2) was covered by a sampling grid of 1.4 km × 1.4 km. In total, 159 soil samples were collected from 149 locations. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for the determination of arsenic levels. It was found that the average content of arsenic in the topsoil for the entire study area was 30 mg/kg (from 2.1 to 3,900 mg/kg) which exceeds the estimated European arsenic average in topsoil by a factor of 4.3. Contents of arsenic in the topsoil exceeded the optimum value recommended by the new Dutchlist (29 mg/kg As) in 124 km2. The action value (55 mg/kg As) was exceeded in 64 km2, with the average content of 105 mg/kg (from 55 to 3,900 mg/kg As). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Issues in Assessing Environmental Exposures to Manufactured Nanomaterials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(9), 3562-3578; doi:10.3390/ijerph8093562
Received: 2 April 2011 / Revised: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10−9 m to 10−7 m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by [...] Read more.
Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10−9 m to 10−7 m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by dimensions of 10−9 m to 10−6 m, they differ from both molecular species and bulk particulate matter in the sense that they are unlikely to exhibit significant settling under normal gravitational conditions and they are also likely to exhibit significantly diminished diffusivities (when compared to truly dissolved species) in environmental media. As air/water, air/soil, and water/soil intermedium transport is governed by diffusive processes in the absence of significant gravitational and inertial impaction processes in environmental systems, models of MN environmental intermedium transport behavior will likely require an emphasis on kinetic approaches. This review focuses on the likely environmental fate and transport of MNs in atmospheric and aquatic systems. Should significant atmospheric MNs emission occur, previous observations suggest that MNs may likely exhibit an atmospheric residence time of ten to twenty days. Moreover, while atmospheric MN aggregates in a size range of 10−7 m to 10−6 m will likely be most mobile, they are least likely to deposit in the human respiratory system. An examination of various procedures including the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal particle suspension stability in water indicates that more sophisticated approaches may be necessary in order to develop aquatic exposure models of acceptable uncertainty. In addition, concepts such as Critical Coagulation Concentrations and Critical Zeta Potentials may prove to be quite useful in environmental aquatic exposure assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top